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303 Km Project Management Coursework

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1)List and briefly describe the three project quality management processes

1)List and briefly describe the three project quality management processes. Quality Planning: Identify which quality standards are relevant to project. Presentation on theme: "1)List and briefly describe the three project quality management processes. Quality Planning: Identify which quality standards are relevant to project."— Presentation transcript:

1 1)List and briefly describe the three project quality management processes. Quality Planning: Identify which quality standards are relevant to project & how to satisfy. Quality Assurance: periodically evaluate overall project performance to ensure it will satisfy quality standards. Quality Control: monitoring project results to ensure they comply with standards & Identify ways to improve overall quality.

2 2) What are the three main outcomes of quality control? Briefly describe each. Acceptance Decisions: determine if products or services produced as part of project will be accepted or rejected. Rework: is action taken to bring rejected items into compliance with product requirements. Process Adjustments: correct or prevent further quality problems based on quality control measurements.

3 3) What are the five phases in the DMAIC process? Briefly describe each one. Define: define the problem/opportunity, process, & customer requirements. Measure: Define measures, then collect, compile, & display data. Analyze: Scrutinize process details to find improvement opportunities. Improve: Generate solutions & ideas for improving the problem. Control: Track & verify the stability of the improvements & predictability of the solution.

4 4) Describe the relationship between Six Sigma and Statistics. What statistical concepts are involved in the Six Sigma philosophy? The term sigma means standard deviation, which measures how much variation exists in a distribution of data. Standard and normal distribution

5 5) What are the five major cost categories related to quality? Briefly describe each category. Prevention cost: cost of planning & executing a project so it is error free or in acceptable error range. Appraisal cost: cost of evaluating processes & their outputs to ensure that a project is error free or within acceptable error range. Internal Failure Cost: A cost incurred to correct an identified defect before the customer receives the product. External Failure Cost: A cost that relates to all errors not detected & not corrected before delivery to customer. Measurement & Test Equipment Costs: The capital cost of equipment used to perform prevention & appraisal activities.

6 6) List and briefly describe the four processes involved in Human resource management. Human Resource Planning: Involves identifying & documenting project roles, responsibilities, & reporting relationships. Acquiring the Project Team: involves getting the needed personnel assigned to & working on the project. Developing the Project Team: Involves building individual & group skills to enhance project performance. Managing the Project Team: Involves tracking team member performance, motivating team members, providing feedback, resolving issues & conflicts, & coordinating changes to enhance project performance

7 7) Describe Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. How does it relate to information technology projects? Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs states that peoples behaviors are guided or motivated by a sequence of needs. Bottom 4 needs – physiological, safety, social, & esteem – are deficiency needs & self-actualization is a growth need. Most people working on an IT project will probably have their basic physiological & safety needs met.

8 8) What are the five main types of power? Briefly describe each type. Coercive: involves using punishment, threats, or other negative approaches to get people to do things they dont want to do. Legitimate: getting people to do things based on a position of authority. Expert: involves using personal knowledge & expertise to get people to change their behavior. Reward: using incentives to induce people to do things. Referent: based on an individuals personal charisma.

9 9) What is a staff management plan? Describes when & how people will be added to & taken off the project team.

10 10) What are the five stages of the Tuckman model? Briefly describe each stage. Forming: involves introduction of team members. Storming: team members have different opinions as to how team should operate. Norming: achieved when team members have developed a common working method, & cooperation & collaboration replace the conflict of previous stage. Performing: when emphasis is on reaching team goals, rather than team processes. Adjourning: the breakup of the team after they complete the work.

11 11) What are four main processes in project communications management? Briefly describe each process. Communications Planning: determining the information & communications needs of the stakeholders. Information Distribution: making needed information available to project stakeholders in a timely manner. Performance Reporting: collecting & disseminating performance information. Managing Stakeholders: managing communications to satisfy the needs & expectations of stakeholders & to resolve issues.

12 12) Describe the concepts of informal methods for distributing information. How do they compare to formal methods for distributing information?

13 13) How do you determine the number of communications channels? How does the number of people involved in a project affect this value? How can project managers control this value? The number of communications channels can be calculated as: Number of communications channels=n(n-1)/2 where n is the number of people involved. The more people the more channels. Project managers should try to limit the size of teams to avoid making communications too complex.

14 14) What is performance reporting? What are some methods used for performance reporting? Performance Reporting: keeps stakeholders informed about how resources are being used to achieve project objectives. Status Reports: describe where the project stands at a specific point in time. Progress Reports: Describe what the project team has accomplished during a certain period. Forecasts: predict future project status & progress based on past information & trends.

15 15) List and briefly describe Blake and Mouton's five basic modes for handling conflicts. Which mode(s) are most commonly used by project managers? Confrontation: Directly face a conflict using a problem solving approach. Compromise: use a give & take approach to resolving conflicts. Smoothing: de-emphasize or avoid areas of differences & emphasizes areas of agreement. Forcing: can be viewed as the win-lose approach to conflict resolution. Withdrawal: retreat or withdraw from an actual or potential conflict. Confrontation is most commonly used by PMs.

16 16) List and briefly describe the six major processes involved in risk management. Risk Management Planning: deciding how to approach & plan risk management activities for project. Risk Identification: determine which risks are likely to affect a project & document characteristics of each. Qualitative Risk Analysis: prioritize risks based on their probability & impact. Quantitative Risk Analysis: numerically estimate the effects of risks on project objectives. Risk Response Planning: taking steps to enhance opportunities & reduce threats to meeting project objectives. Risk Monitoring & Control: monitor identified & residual risks, identify new risks, carry out risk response plans, & evaluate effectiveness of risk strategies for the life of the project.

18 18) Describe Decision Trees and Expected Monetary Value. Decision Tree: a diagramming analysis technique used to help select the best course of action when future outcomes are uncertain. Expected Monetary Value: is the product of a risk event probability & the risk events monetary value.

19 19) What are the basic steps in performing a Monte Carlo analysis? Monte Carlo analysis basic steps: Access range of variables being considered. Determine the probability distribution of each variable. For each variable select a random value based on the probability distribution for the occurrence of the variable. Run a deterministic analysis or one pass through the model using the combination of values selected for each variable. Repeat steps 3 & 4 many times to obtain the probability distribution of the models results.

20 20) What are the four basic response strategies for negative risks? Describe each strategy. Risk Avoidance: eliminating a specific threat. Risk Acceptance: Accepting the consequences should a risk occur. Risk Transference: shifting the consequence of a risk & responsibility for its management to a 3rd party. Risk Mitigation: reducing the impact of a risk event by reducing the probability of its occurrence.

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MGMT 303 Entire Course Principles of Management - College Essays

MGMT 303 Entire Course Principles of Management MGMT 303 Entire Course Principles of Management

MGMT 303 Entire Course Principles of Management
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MGMT 303 Week 1 DQ 1 Who Is a Manager
MGMT 303 Week 1 DQ 2 Managerial Ethics
MGMT 303 Week 1 Quiz
MGMT 303 Week 2 Assignment
MGMT 303 Week 2 DQ 1 Business Decisions
MGMT 303 Week 2 DQ 2 Performing a SWOT Analysis
MGMT 303 Week 2 Quiz
MGMT 303 Week 3 Assigment; Google SWOT Analysis
MGMT 303 Week 3 DQ 1 Multiculturalism and Diversity
MGMT 303 Week 3 DQ 2 New Business Ventures
MGMT 303 Week 3 The McDonald s Corp. SWOT Analysis (Paper 1)
MGMT 303 Week 3 The McDonald s Corp. SWOT Analysis (Paper 2)
MGMT 303 Week 4 DQ 1 Job Specialization
MGMT 303 Week 4 DQ 2 Resistance to Change
MGMT 303 Week 4 Midterm Exam
MGMT 303 Week 4 Quiz
MGMT 303 Week 5 Assignment; Case Study
MGMT 303 Week 5 DQ 1 Human Resource Management
MGMT 303 Week 5 DQ 2 Motivation and Performance
MGMT 303 Week 5 Quiz
MGMT 303 Week 6 Case Study Employee Motivation
MGMT 303 Week 6 Case Study Motivating Employees
MGMT 303 Week 6 DQ 1 Leadership Behaviors
MGMT 303 Week 6 DQ 2 Communications
MGMT 303 Week 7 DQ 1 Functions of Control
MGMT 303 Week 7 DQ 2 Useful Information
MGMT 303 Week 7 Quiz
MGMT 303 Week 8 Final Exam (Version 1)
MGMT 303 Week 8 Final Exam (Version 2)
MGMT 303 Week 8 Final Exam (Version 3)


MGMT 303 Principles of Management All Quizzes, Week 1, 2, 3, 5, 7

Week 1
1. (TCO 1) Rajiv just completed a project in which he restructured sales territories, met with sales representatives to help them set goals, scheduled motivational meetings, and started a program of quarterly performance review for the sales force. His goals are to reduce waste and provide improved customer service. Rajiv is engaged in
2. (TCO 1) The purpose of planning and decision making is to
3. (TCO 1) Nicole is learning to fly an Army helicopter. She is drawing mainly on her ____ skills.
4. (TCO 2) A(n).

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Procurement Notices - Output- And Performance-based Road Management And Maintenance Contract (pbc) Of Nh6 From Km193 - Km303

Projects & Operations

The World Bank's projects and operations are designed to support low-income and middle-income countries' poverty reduction strategies. Countries develop strategies around a range of reforms and investments likely to improve people's lives from universal education to passable roads, from quality health care to improved governance and inclusive economic growth. In parallel, the Bank strives to align its assistance with the country's priorities and harmonize its aid program with other agencies to boost aid effectiveness.

Alert

INVITATION FOR BIDS
The Socialist Republic of Vietnam

Vietnam Road AssetManagement Project (VRAMP)

Component B - Road AssetMaintenance

Package RAP/CP15-16-17: Output- and Performance-Based RoadManagement and Maintenance Contract (PBC) of NH6 from Km193 -:- Km303:

Lot RAP/CP15: PBCMaintenance of NH6 from Km193 -:- Km233

Lot RAP/CP16: PBCMaintenance of NH6 from Km233 -:- Km268

Lot RAP/CP17: PBCMaintenance of NH6 from Km268 -:- Km303

Credit No.IDA 5331-VN

The Socialist Republic of Vietnam has received a credit from the International Development Association (IDA) toward the cost of the Vietnam Road Assets ManagementProject. and it intends to apply part of the proceeds of this credit to payments under the ContractRAP/CP15-16-17. The Directoratefor Road of Vietnam, Project Management Unit No.3 now invites sealed bids from eligible bidders for Output- andPerformance-Based Road Management and Maintenance Contract (PBC) of NH6 from Km193 -:- Km303with following major qualificationrequirements and main features:

LotRAP/CP15: PBC Maintenance of NH6 from Km193 -:- Km233:

- Construction cash flow. USD 3,600,000 (three million six hundred thousand USdollars;

- Minimum average annual construction turnover: USD 23,000,000 (twenty three million USdollars) completed within lastthree (3) years. In case of Joint-Venture, a bidder member if in charge of only Maintenance Servicesshall meet the requirement for having the minimum average annual turnover of Maintenance Services orMaintenance and ManagementWorks at the value not less than USD 2,000,000;

- Experience under construction contracts in therole of prime contractor, JV member,sub-contractor, or management contractor for at least the last seven (7) years, starting 1st January2009;

- Participation as contractor, sub-contractor, management contractor within the lastseven (7) years, with a minimum number of similar contracts that have been completed or substantially completed and that aresimilar to the proposed Works and Services as follow:

(i) at least two (02) similar contracts, of which one (01) contract for similarrehabilitation/restoration works with value not less than US$ 8,000,000 (eight million US dollar), and one (01) similar contractfor maintenance services or maintenance and management contract for a national highway continuously performed for a period of three (03) years with value not less than US$850,000 (eight hundred and fifty thousand US dollars);

(ii) at least three (03) similar contracts, of which two (02) contracts for similarrehabilitation / restoration works with the sub-total value not less than US$ 9,000,000 (nine million US dollar), but at least oneof them should not less than US$ 5,400,000 (five million,four hundred thousand US dollars) and another one (01) contract forsimilar maintenance services or maintenance and management contract fora national highway continuously performed for a period ofthree (03) years with value not less than US$ 850,000 (eight hundred and fifty thousand US dollar);

- Experience under construction of strengthening base course with coldrecycling method or the Bidders may propose specialized sub-contractor for construction of this work provided that the specializedsub-contractor must meet following requirements: having at least one contract including item for strengthening base course carriedout by cold recycling method, and 01 available pavement recycling machine.

- The total length of road is 40km. The Works and Services include three main parts as(1) Initial Rehabilitation/Restoration Works in which major work is pavement overlay, the volume of asphalt concrete is around29,000 cubic metre; and (2) Maintenance Service that are to be evaluated on the basis of performance criteria, the basis forpayment of these services is a monthly lump sum rate per km which is subject to reduction in the case of non-compliance; and (3)Emergency Works that are paid on the basis of dayworks rates. The time for completion of Initial Rehabilitation/Restoration Worksis 10 monthsand that of the entire contract is 48 months.

LotRAP/CP16: PBC Maintenance of NH6 from Km233 -:- Km268:

- Construction cash flow. USD 3,000,000 (three million USdollar);

- Minimum average annual construction turnover: USD 22,000,000 (twenty two million USDollars) completed within last three (3) years. In case of Joint-Venture, a bidder member if in chargeof only Maintenance Servicesshall meet the requirement for having the minimum average annual turnover of MaintenanceServices or Maintenance and Management Works at the value not less than USD2,000,000;

- Experience under construction contracts in therole of prime contractor, JV member,sub-contractor, or management contractor for at least the last seven (7) years, starting 1st January2009;

- Participation as contractor, sub-contractor, management contractor within the lastseven (7) years, with a minimum number of similar contracts that have been completed or substantially completed and that aresimilar to the proposed Works and Services as follow:

(i) at least two (02) similar contracts, of which one (01) contract for similarrehabilitation / restoration works with value not less than US$ 6,600,000 (six million six hundred thousand USdollar), and one (01)similar contract for maintenance services or maintenance and management contract for a national highway continuously performed fora period of three (03) years with value not less than US$ 700,000 (seven hundred thousand US dollar);

(ii) at least three (03) similar contracts, of which two (02) contracts for similarrehabilitation/ restoration works with the sub-total value not less than US$ 7,400,000 (seven million, four hundred thousand USdollar), but at least one of them should not less than US$ 4,400,000 (four million four hundred thousand US dollar) and another one(01) contract for similar maintenance services or maintenance and management contract for a national highway continuously performedfor a period of three (03) years with value not less than US$ 700,000 (sevenhundred thousand US dollar);

- Experience under construction of strengthening base course with coldrecycling method or the Bidders may propose specialized sub-contractor for construction of this work provided that the specializedsub-contractor must meet following requirements: having at least one contract including item strengthening base course carried outby cold recycling method, and 01 available pavement recycling machine.

- The total length of road is 35km. The Works and Services include three main parts as(1) Initial Rehabilitation/Restoration Works in which major work is pavement overlay, the volume of asphalt concrete is around23,000 cubic metre; and (2) Maintenance Service that are to be evaluated on the basis of performance criteria, the basis forpayment of these services is a monthly lump sum rate per km which is subject to reduction in the case of non-compliance; and (3)Emergency Works that are paid on the basis of dayworks rates. The time for completion of Initial Rehabilitation/Restoration Worksis 10 monthsand that of the entire contract is 48 months.

LotRAP/CP17: PBC of Maintenance NH6 from Km268 -:- Km303:

- Construction cash flow. USD 5,200,000 (five million and two hundred thousand USdollars);

- Minimum average annual construction turnover: USD 33,000,000 (thirty three million USDollars) completed within lastthree (3) years. In case of Joint-Venture, a bidder member if in charge of only Maintenance Servicesshall meet the requirement for having the minimum average annual turnover of Maintenance Services orMaintenance and Management Works at the value not less than USD2,000,000;

- Experience under construction contracts in therole of prime contractor, JV member,sub-contractor, or management contractor for at least the last seven (7) years, starting 1st January2009;

- Participation as contractor, sub-contractor, management contractor within the lastseven (7) years, with a minimum number of similar contracts that have been completed or substantially completed and that aresimilar to the proposed Works and Services as follow:

(i) at least two (02) similar contracts, of which one (01) contract for similar rehabilitation/restoration workswith value not less than US$ 11,800,000 (eleven million eight hundred thousand US dollar), and one (01) similar contract formaintenanceservices or maintenance and management contract for a national highway continuously performed for a period of three (03)years with value not less than US$ 730,000 (seven hundred and thirty thousand US dollar);

(ii) at least three (03) similar contracts, of which two (02) contracts for similarrehabilitation/ restoration works with the sub-total value not less than US$ 13,000,000 (thirteen million US dollar), but at leastone of them should not less than US$ 7,800,000 (seven million, eight hundred thousand US dollar) and another one (01) contract forsimilar maintenance services or maintenance and management contract for a national highway continuously performed for a period ofthree (03) years with value not less than US$ 730,000 (seven hundred and thirty thousand US dollar);

- Experience under construction of strengthening base course with coldrecycling method or the Bidders may propose specialized sub-contractor for construction of this work provided that the specializedsub-contractor must meet following requirements: having at least one contract including item strengthening base course carried outby cold recycling method, and 01 available pavement recycling machine.

- The total length of road is 35km. The Works and Services include three main parts as(1) Initial Rehabilitation/Restoration Works in which major work is pavement overlay, the volume of asphalt concrete is around45,000 cubic metre; and (2) Maintenance Services that are to be evaluated on the basis of performance criteria, the basis forpayment of these services is a monthly lump sum rate per km which is subject to reduction in the case of non-compliance; and (3)Emergency Works that are paid on the basis of dayworks rates. The time for completion of Initial Rehabilitation/Restoration Worksis 10 months and that of the entire contract is 48 months.

Bidders who choose to bid for more than one (1) lot shall meet the aggregate requirements for allthe lots they bid for regarding each of the qualification criteria.

Margin of preference will not be applicable for domestic bidders.

Bidding will be conducted through the International Competitive Bidding procedures specified in theWorld Bank's Guidelines: Procurement of Goods, Works, and Non-Consulting Services under IBRD Loans and IDA Credits& Grantsby World Bank Borrowers, January 2011, and is open to all bidders from eligible source countries as defined in theguidelines.

Bidders may bid for one orboth contracts (lots), as further defined in the Bidding Documents.Bidders wishing to offer discounts in case they are awarded more than one contract will be allowed to do so, provided thosediscounts are included in the Letter of Bid.

Interested eligible bidders may obtain further information from and inspect the bidding documents atthe Project Management Unit No.3 at the address below from 8:00AMto 5:00PM as from April 14, 2016. A complete set of biddingdocuments in English may be purchased by interested bidders on the submission of a written application as from April 14, 2016 tothe address below and upon payment of a nonrefundable fee of 200 USD or in 4,200,000 VND per copy. The method of payment willbe in cash or direct deposit to specified account number 21110000755778 at Bank for Investmentand Development of Vietnam JSC, HanoiBranch, SWIFT code: BIDVVNVX. The applicable charges for any airmail delivery to overseas destinations, and surface mail or courierfor local deliveries of the bidding documents will be paid by the bidder.

Bids must be delivered to the address below before 9:00AM, June 8, 2016. All bids must beaccompanied by a bid security of USD 175,000 for Lot RAP/CP15, USD 165.000 for Lot RAP/CP16, and USD 240,000 for LotRAP/CP17. Late bids willbe rejected. Bids will be opened in the presence of bidders' representatives who chooseto attend at the address below at 9:00AM, June 8, 2016.

Project Management Unit No.3(PMU3)

Attention: Mr Nguyen Xuan Truong - Director
Hamlet 23,Southside of Thanh Tri Bridge, Linh Nam ward, Hoang Mai district, Hanoi, Vietnam

Facsimile number: 84-4-36436572

Electronicmail address: info@pmu3.com.vn

MGMT 303 (Principles of Management) Course Checkpoints

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A short course in project management

A short course in project management

Carl Chatfield is a certified Project Management Professional (PMP) with extensive knowledge of Microsoft Office Project as well as specific usability issues.

Timothy Johnson has previously worked as an Office Project support professional for several years. Tim possesses in-depth technical knowledge about the software.

Carl and Timothy are the authors of Microsoft Project 2000 Step by Step. Microsoft Project Version 2002 Step by Step and Microsoft Office Project 2003 Step by Step. all from Microsoft Press.

To learn more about other books on the 2007 Microsoft Office system, visit Microsoft Press .

In this article

In our new book, Microsoft Office Project 2007 Step by Step. we provide advice on how best to use Microsoft Office Project 2007 while following sound project management practices. This article focuses on the basics of project management, regardless of any software tools you may use to help you manage projects. While project management is a broad, complex subject, in this article we focus on the “project triangle” model. In this model, you consider projects in terms of time, cost, and scope.

Understand what defines a project

Succeeding as a project manager requires that you complete your projects on time, finish within budget, and make sure your customers are happy with what you deliver. That sounds simple enough, but how many projects have you heard of (or worked on) that were completed late, cost too much, or didn’t meet the needs of their customers?

A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (3rd edition, published by the Project Management Institute, 2004) — referred to as the PMBOK and pronounced “pimbok” — defines a project as “a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service.” Let’s walk through this definition to clarify what a project is and is not.

First, a project is temporary. A project’s duration might be just one week or it might go on for years, but every project has an end date. You might not know that end date when the project begins, but it’s out there somewhere in the future. Projects are not the same as ongoing operations, although the two have a great deal in common. Ongoing operations. as the name suggests, go on indefinitely; you don’t establish an end date. Examples include most activities of accounting and human resources departments. People who run ongoing operations might also manage projects; for example, a manager of a human resources department for a large organization might plan a college recruiting fair. Yet, projects are distinguished from ongoing operations by an expected end date, such as the date of the recruiting fair.

Next, a project is an endeavor. Resources. such as people and equipment, need to do work. The endeavor is undertaken by a team or an organization, and therefore projects have a sense of being intentional, planned events. Successful projects do not happen spontaneously; some amount of preparation and planning happens first.

Finally, every project creates a unique product or service. This is the deliverable for the project and the reason that the project was undertaken. A refinery that produces gasoline does not produce a unique product. The whole idea, in this case, is to produce a standardized commodity; you typically don’t want to buy gas from one station that is significantly different from gas at another station. On the other hand, commercial airplanes are unique products. Although all Boeing 777 airplanes might look the same to most of us, each is, in fact, highly customized for the needs of its purchaser.

By now, you may realize that much of the work that goes on in the world is project work. If you schedule, track, or manage any of this work, then congratulations are in order: you are already doing some project management work!

Project management has been a recognized profession since about the 1950s, but project management work in some form has been occurring for as long as people have been doing complex work. When the Great Pyramids at Giza in Egypt were built, somebody somewhere was tracking resources, schedules, and specifications in some fashion.

The project triangle: view projects in terms of time, cost, and scope

You can visualize project work in many ways, but our favorite method is what is sometimes called the project triangle or triangle of triple constraints.

This theme has many variations, but the basic concept is that every project has some element of a time constraint, has some type of budget, and requires some amount of work to complete. (In other words, it has a defined scope.) The term constraint has a specific meaning in Project 2007, but here we’re using the more general meaning of a limiting factor. Let’s consider these constraints one at a time.

Time

Have you ever worked on a project that had a deadline? (Maybe we should ask whether you’ve ever worked on a project that did not have a deadline.) Limited time is the one constraint of any project with which we are all probably most familiar. If you’re working on a project right now, ask your team members to name the date of the project deadline. They might not know the project budget or the scope of work in great detail, but chances are they all know the project deadline.

The following are examples of time constraints:

You are building a house and must finish the roof before the rainy season arrives.

You are assembling a large display booth for a trade show that starts in two months.

You are developing a new inventory-tracking system that must be tested and running by the start of the next fiscal year.

Since we were children, we have been trained to understand time. We carry wristwatches, paper and electronic organizers, and other tools to help us manage time. For many projects that create a product or event, time is the most important constraint to manage.

Cost

You might think of cost simply in monetary terms, but project cost has a broader meaning: costs include all of the resources required to carry out the project. Costs include the people and equipment that do the work, the materials they use, and all of the other events and issues that require money or someone’s attention in a project.

The following are examples of cost constraints:

You have signed a fixed-price contract to deliver an inventory-tracking software system to a client. If your costs exceed the agreed-upon price, your customer might be sympathetic but probably won’t be willing to renegotiate the contract.

The president of your organization has directed you to carry out a customer research project using only the staff and equipment in your department.

You have received a $5,000 grant to create a public art installation. You have no other funds.

For virtually all projects, cost is ultimately a limiting constraint; few projects could go over budget without eventually requiring corrective action.

Scope

You should consider two aspects of scope. product scope and project scope. Every successful project produces a unique product: a tangible item or service. Customers usually have some expectations about the features and functions of products they consider purchasing. Product scope describes the intended quality, features, and functions of the product — often in minute detail. Documents that outline this information are sometimes called product specifications. A service or event usually has some expected features as well. We all have expectations about what we’ll do or see at a party, concert, or sporting event.

Project scope. on the other hand, describes the work required to deliver a product or service with the intended product scope. Project scope is usually measured in tasks and phases.

The following are examples of scope constraints:

Your organization won a contract to develop an automotive product that has exact requirements — for example, physical dimensions measured to 0.01 mm. This is a product scope constraint that will influence project scope plans.

You are constructing a building on a lot that has a height restriction of 50 feet.

You can use only internal services to develop part of your product, and those services follow a product development methodology that is different from what you had planned.

Product scope and project scope are closely related. The project manager who manages project scope well must also understand product scope or must know how to communicate with those who do.

Time, cost, and scope: manage project constraints

Project management gets most interesting when you must balance the time, cost, and scope constraints of your projects. The project triangle illustrates the process of balancing constraints because the three sides of the triangle are connected, and changing one side of a triangle affects at least one other side.

The following are examples of constraint balance:

If the duration (time) of your project schedule decreases, you might need to increase budget (cost) because you must hire more resources to do the same work in less time. If you cannot increase the budget, you might need to reduce the scope because the resources you have cannot complete all of the planned work in less time.

If you must decrease a project’s duration, make sure that overall project quality is not unintentionally lowered. For example, testing and quality control often occur last in a software development project; if project duration is decreased late in the project, those tasks might be the ones to suffer with cutbacks. You must weigh the benefits of decreasing the project duration against the potential downside of a deliverable with poorer quality.

If the budget (cost) of your project decreases, you might need more time because you cannot pay for as many resources or for resources of the same efficiency. If you cannot increase the time, you might need to reduce project scope because fewer resources cannot complete all of the planned work in the time remaining.

If you must decrease a project’s budget, you could look at the grades of material resources for which you had budgeted. For example, did you plan to shoot a film in 35 mm when cheaper digital video would do? A lower-grade material is not necessarily a lower-quality material. As long as the grade of material is appropriate for its intended use, it might still be of high quality. As another example, fast food and gourmet are two grades of restaurant food, but you may find high-quality and low-quality examples of each.

You should also look at the costs of the human and equipment resources you have planned to use. Can you hire less experienced people for less money to carry out simpler tasks? Reducing project costs can lead to a poorer-quality deliverable, however. As a project manager, you must consider (or, more likely, communicate to the decision makers) the benefits versus the risks of reducing costs.

If your project scope increases, you might need more time or resources (cost) to complete the additional work. When project scope increases after the project has started, it’s called scope creep. Changing project scope midway through a project is not necessarily a bad thing; for example, the environment in which your project deliverable will operate may have changed or become clearer since beginning the project. Changing project scope is a bad thing only if the project manager doesn’t recognize and plan for the new requirements — that is, when other constraints (cost, time) are not correspondingly examined and, if necessary, adjusted.

Time, cost, and scope are the three essential elements of any project. To succeed as a project manager, you should know quite a bit about how all three of these constraints apply to your projects.

Here is our final word about the project triangle model. Like all simple models of complex subjects, this model is a useful learning tool but not always a reflection of the real world. If real projects always performed as the project triangle suggests they should, you might see projects delivered late but at planned cost or with expected scope. Or, projects might be completed on time and with expected scope but at higher cost. In other words, you’d expect to see at least one element of the project triangle come in as planned. But the sad truth is that many projects, even with rigorous project management oversight, are delivered late, over budget, and with far less than expected scope of functionality. You’ve probably participated in a few such projects yourself. As you well know, project management is just plain difficult. Success in project management requires a rare mix of skills and knowledge about schedule practices and tools, as well as skill in the domain or industry in which a project is executed.

Manage your projects with Project 2007

The best project management tool in the world can never replace your good judgment. However, the right tool can and should help you accomplish the following:

Track all of the information you gather about the work, duration, and resource requirements for your project.

Visualize your project plan in standard, well-defined formats.

Schedule tasks and resources consistently and effectively.

Exchange project information with stakeholders over networks and the Internet using standard file formats.

Communicate with resources and other stakeholders while leaving ultimate control in the hands of the project manager.

Armed with the information about project management contained in this article and the rich functionality of Project 2007 discussed in our book, you are off to a great start with Project 2007.