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Humans have been communicating since four million years. On the other hand, the birth of culture is estimated to have taken place about 35,000 years ago. Today, both culture and communication have evolved considerably and have become interdependent of one another, to the point that communication is considered to be a product of culture. Thus, our own culture has a deep impact on our thoughts and behaviors. Since each culture has its distinct aspects, intercultural communication can be the cause of conflict and disorder. There are three main issues, which are at the top of the problem of intercultural communication: language as a barrier, cultural diversity and ethnocentrism. I will analyze these three notions in situations in which intercultural communication is frequent such as: the workplace, the classroom, and vacation trips. The way people communicate varies widely between, and even within, cultures. One aspect of communication style is language usage. Language has always been perceived as a link between people but it can also constitute a barrier. Across cultures, some words and phrases are used in different ways. For example, even in countries that share the English language, the meaning of "yes  varies from "maybe, I'll consider it  to "definitely so,  with many shades in between. Furthermore, communication between cultures, which do not share the same language, is considerably more difficult. Each culture has its distinct syntax, expressions and structure, which cause confusion in intercultural communication. For example, in Asian cultures the word "no  is rarely used so that "yea  can mean "no  or "perhaps . Therefore, an American traveling to Japan might be considered impolite if he ignores this rule. Furthermore, individuals who are not comfortable with a certain language may not be taken seriously. Such is the case in the classroom, wh

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Communications Theory Essay, Research Paper

Communications is that what binds the world. Even though it is easy to give a simple answer when asked what communications exactly is, it is difficult to explain it so that it is understood clearly. There is a lot you need to consider with it. There are different areas concerning communications and very diverse functions in this area. Through this research report we will have a glimpse in the world of communications and with it more knowledge and understanding about it.

Table of content

Introduction Page 1

Table of content Page 2

The fields of communications

Corporate Communication Page 3

Marketing Communication Page 5

Mass Communication Page 7

Public Relations Page 9

Visual Communications Page 10

Resource List Page 12

Corporate communication exists of different fields, which together have the purpose to make an image and identity of a company and its product. Corporate communication is a management instrument that combines all forms of direct communication and gears them for one another. Reputation is very important. The first goal of corporate communication is to improve the reputation of a company. A corporate reputation is a cognitive representation of a company’s ability to meet the expectations of its stakeholders.

A company benefits from a favourable reputation by becoming the first choice of customers, investors, suppliers and employees. A corporate reputation creates shareholder value, because it contributes in and of itself to the company’s competitive position. A company benefits from its reputation, because:

It improves cash flows and profitability;

It acts like a barrier that impedes rivalry;

It provides a company an enhanced license to operate; and

It raises a protective shield against downturns and crisis.

A company which is specialised in corporate communication is for example: The Corporate Communication Centre. C.C.C. is a joint initiative of the Erasmus University (Rotterdam, The Netherlands) and the business community. The centre tries to co-ordinate all the

communication activities within a company and gives advice on communication policies and the organisation of communication methods. C.C.C. also offers training in corporate communication, executive courses and in-company courses.

Companies as Shell, Unilever, Compaq Computers and Ernst & Young have a good reputation. They are multinational enterprises. They need a good reputation to be the number one in their field. Especially Shell, because its product (fuel, gasoline) is bad for the environment. But by introducing Shell “Pura”, which is better for the environment, Shell is different from other gas stations. This is an example of corporate communication.

Corporate communication is found in all sectors of society. Think of hospitals, travel organisations, commercial services industries, industrial companies, universities, air companies, telecom companies and so on. Every company needs a specific image to be successful in their field.

A professional magazine like Focus is a very important magazine. Each year, chief executives of the US’s largest companies anxiously wait for the publication of Focus Magazine’s survey of America’s Most Admired Companies, the leading arbiter of corporate reputations.

To be working in the field of corporate communication you will need skills as:

Basic communication skills (presenting, organising, researching);

Strategic issues management (stakeholder theory, strategic issues, strategic management);

Strategic information technology planning (improving the effectiveness/competitiveness);

Strategic external communication (communication campaigns);

Economical psychology (explaining the behaviour of external stakeholders);

Public affairs: European Political Environment;

Investor relations (trust between a firm and its stakeholders);

Corporate branding: (a distinguishment of a company to its rivals with its customers); and

Professions in the field of corporate communication are for example: Communications consultant, Marketer. A company hires you to improve their reputation. You can work in a lot of different companies. Think of a hospital, a university or Shell.

You can do research for companies, like the C.C.C.

You can work as a teacher of corporate communication.

Marketing communication is the act of communicating with the target group concerning a new innovation or a service in a convincing manner. It also determines that all constraints (cultural diversity, media limitations, legal problems, and so forth) are controlled so the right message is communicated to and received by prospective consumers.

Marketing communications involves advertising, sales promotion, personal selling, and public relations, the mutually reinforcing elements of the promotional mix.

Once a product or service is developed to meet target markets needs and is properly distributed, indented customers must be informed of the product or service value and availability through advertising and promotion the ingredients in the marketing communication.

Consumers respond in terms of their culture, lifestyle, feelings, value systems, attitudes, beliefs and perceptions. Because marketing communication or specifically advertising’s function is to interpret or translate the need/want satisfying qualities of products or services in terms of consumer needs, wants, desire and aspirations, the emotional appeals, symbols, persuasive approaches, and other characteristics of an advertisement must coincide with cultural norms if it is to be effective.

Marketing communication is very essential because it determine that all constraints (legal and cultural diversity, media limitations and so forth) are controlled so the right message is communicated and received by prospective consumers.

Communication may fail for a variety of reasons: a message may not go through because of media inadequacy; the message may be received by prospective audience but may not be understood because of different cultural interpretations; or the message may reach the intended audience and may be understood but have no effect because the marketer did not correctly assess the needs and wants of the target market.

The marketing communicator understands the communication process and uses it effectively to achieve the advertising and promotional goals and objectives of the company.

Below is the communication process of the marketing communicator

Encoding message channel

Information source Receiver

In the communication process, each of the seven identifiable segments can ultimately affect the accuracy of the process as illustrated, the process consist of:

1. Encoding, information from the company to the target group.

2. Decoding, the message from the source converted into effective symbolism for transmission to a receiver.

3. A message channel the sales force or advertising media that coveys the encoded message to the intended receiver.

4. Decoding, the interpretation by the receiver of the symbolism transmitted from the information source

5. Receiver, consumer action by those who receive the message and are the target for the thought transmitted.

6. Feedback, information about the effectiveness of the information which flows from the receiver (the intended target) back to the information source (the marketing communicator) for evaluation of the effectiveness of the process.

7. Noise, uncontrollable and unpredictable influences such as competitive activities and confusion detracting from the process affecting any of the six steps.

Mass Communication is used to reach and involve almost everyone in a society in a short time. This is why the media used for this type of communication are so typical. Although Mass Communication has changed a lot over the years we still, mostly, use the same media people used over 20 years ago. Except for computers and the Internet which are completely new as media, the only thing that has changed is the improvement. Like black/white television screens that are now full-color screens, LP’s are no longer brought everybody wants CD’s nowadays. A lot of different Communication media are used for Mass Communication, such as newspapers, magazines, film, radio, television, recorded music and the Internet.

Skills needed to function within this field are:

- Dealing with legal and ethical issues

Of course this list contains too much skills for one profession, it is just so you will get an idea of what can be done and what is needed in Mass Communication. Only the last skill, dealing with legal and ethical issues, is used in each profession. Because the goal is to reach as many people as possible, it is important to consider that one thing can make one person smile but will seriously offend another. And Mass Communication, in this case Mass Media, is not supposed to offend people in any way. And in every profession, not only Communication, we need to think about the law. We cannot just do as we please.

Mass Communication is found in almost every sector of society. In the Industrial sector it can be found in companies like NUON, for the Commercial Service Industries: KPN Telecom, Non- commercial Service Industries: Schools and several Foundations such as UNICEF. These are all just examples. Of course a very large part of companies, organizations, foundations etc. use Mass Communication. Agriculture is one of the few sectors Mass Communication isn’t found in.

Since Mass Communication is a very broad field, many professions exist in it. These professions can be very different from each other. For instance, a news anchor needs other skills than a photographer. Because there are to many professions that can be done in this field, we will show you the categories. Within these categories a lot of professions can be practiced.

Communication is a very important nowadays and there are unions and professional associations that are active in this sector, such as:

- The Media Institute

promotes ethics, standards and freedom of speech in the media.

- The Communication Research Center

for research and problems related to Mass Communication

- Association for education in journalism and Mass Communications

Besides the unions and the associations, the professional journals and magazines are also focusing on this professional field. Some of them are online. A few of these journals and magazines are:

- Media History Monographs: quarterly online journal

- CED: the Premier Magazine of Broadband Communication

Public relations is the discipline which looks after the reputation of a company. In this field you have to perform image building or impression management. Through research, measurement and evaluation you can determine the publics concerns and expectations of the company. When you know what that is then a suitable plan can be made to full fill the expectations of the public. Sometimes the problem can arise that the wanted identity is much more positive then the actual corporate identity. That is why the message and the communications carriers must be tuned to each other so that a more efficient identity will arise.

Public relations activities contain the following:

- Writing and editing

- Research and evaluation

As a pr-professional you must have:

- Sensitivity to other people

- Organizing and planning ability

Public Relations can be found in different kinds of fields. This is because it does not matter in which field a company operates; it still needs to communicate its activities towards the public and/or stockholders. Also internal PR can be essential for a company. The company needs to motivate their own working force in making them aware that they work for a good company so that they will work hard and proud.

Functions in this area can be:

Head PR, communications advisor, press liaison

Companies that operate in the different sectors are:

Industrial – DAF, Shell, Philips

Agricultural – Livestock holders

Commercial services – Bijenkorf, V&D, Albert Heijn

Non- commercial services – hospitals, universities, colleges, Salvation Army

Sometimes a company does not have its own department that handles public relations, this is when they attract an outside company that is specialised public relations.

A few companies who are specialised in public relations are:

The Blake Agency – premier public relations

Anderson & Associates – public relations Inc.

The McRae Agency

When we think of visual communication, we think about the communication we can see. Visual communication is the organisation of visual information for printed material to exhibit, advertisement, packaging, multimedia and interactive design. It is a career field which uses electronic and interactive media, such as; websites on the Internet, (video) film, and television, as well as traditional mediums; presenting information and ideas by means of type and image to communicate ideas, such as; posters, books, newspapers, art and photography.

To deliver good work as a visual communicator you have to be very creative. To succeed as a visual communicator you must have it in you, to put yourself into other people. If you cannot do this, you are not able to reach people, you want to reach them because you do not know what they want, need, think, etc. You cannot do the same thing twice in this field; you always have to come up with something different and refreshing. So you should always be in for a change and never stand still. A visual communicator also has to have a critical mind and the ability to solve problems. Knowledge how to transform information in a visual form is very important, as well as the ability to do that designing by using computers and other aids.

We think that visual communication is very important for the field of communication. With visual communication you can reach a large audience as well as a small audience. You can also make it very clear for which group, for example the advertisements, are meant. People always like to be approached in a personal way. With visual communication they get this kind of approach very often. With this approach they can identify themselves with the product or service a company is offering.

We think that the most important media (which is used on the field of visual communication) is nowadays the Internet. People can find really everything on it. There are lots of advertisements and things like little video clips and music to make a product or service more attractive and at the same time it chooses their target group, so people of this group will react on it. Also the television is still very important for this field. Almost everybody watches television everyday, so they feel that everything they see on it is very close and familiar to them, they get even more involved if they see something, which really affects them. Further we have got newspapers, billboards, displays etc. that also play a part in the field of visual communication.

You can find visual communication in lots of sectors of society (if not all of them). Nowadays almost everybody is presenting himself or herself to the world. If we only look at the Internet, we will already discover pages of scouts, house agents, assistance organizations, pencil manufacturers, libraries, super markets etc. So everybody tries to present themselves and the easiest way is by using visual communication, because with this kind of communication everybody has got a great opportunity to express themselves and attract the right people.

Visual communication is used by a lot of companies. They use it to communicate; present people information. There do exist a lot of communication professionals in this field. For example: Web designers, Graphic designers, Photographers, Filmmakers, Advertisement makers, Text Writers and Artists. Thanks to the technical revolution there are a lot more visual communication professionals now. The success of the Internet made a lot of companies realize that this would be a new medium of visual communication and this medium would reach millions of people. So there is a large demand for visual communicators who are specialized on ‘The Web’. Such as: Web designers, Digital image-makers etc.

Almost every company uses visual communication. A known company that operates in this sector is for example: Benneton. This is a clothing company that became famous with their shocking billboards without text with a photo of for example a man dying because he has A.I.D.S. These billboards shocked the world and everybody was talking about it. By using a photo, the company was communicating with people. The company was expressing their thoughts and ideas; it wanted that the rest of the world would take notice of this decease. The communication was successful, because it caused a response by the public. That was an example of traditional visual communication by using a photo; there are also a lot of known companies using new visual communications by using the Internet. For example, an Internet provider like World Online, uses a website to communicate with their target group. The website has to look good so it will attract people. If the website looks good it will give people the idea it is a professional and reliable organisation.

On the Internet we found a couple of international organisations which were specialised on visual communication. For example; The International Visual Communication Organisation

It is an organisation that keeps track of all the changes in the field and regularly holds meeting to inform all the visual communication specialists.

There is also a professional journal that is called Visual Communications Quarterly.

It is co-sponsored by the Viscom division (also a visual communication organisation) and the National Press Photographers.

The Media Institute

The Communication Research Center

Communications Theory Essay Research Paper Communications is

Communications Theory Essay Research Paper Communications is

Communications Theory Essay, Research Paper

Communications is that what binds the world. Even though it is easy to give a simple answer when asked what communications exactly is, it is difficult to explain it so that it is understood clearly. There is a lot you need to consider with it. There are different areas concerning communications and very diverse functions in this area. Through this research report we will have a glimpse in the world of communications and with it more knowledge and understanding about it.

Table of content

Introduction Page 1

Table of content Page 2

The fields of communications

Corporate Communication Page 3

Marketing Communication Page 5

Mass Communication Page 7

Public Relations Page 9

Visual Communications Page 10

Resource List Page 12

Corporate communication exists of different fields, which together have the purpose to make an image and identity of a company and its product. Corporate communication is a management instrument that combines all forms of direct communication and gears them for one another. Reputation is very important. The first goal of corporate communication is to improve the reputation of a company. A corporate reputation is a cognitive representation of a company’s ability to meet the expectations of its stakeholders.

A company benefits from a favourable reputation by becoming the first choice of customers, investors, suppliers and employees. A corporate reputation creates shareholder value, because it contributes in and of itself to the company’s competitive position. A company benefits from its reputation, because:

It improves cash flows and profitability;

It acts like a barrier that impedes rivalry;

It provides a company an enhanced license to operate; and

It raises a protective shield against downturns and crisis.

A company which is specialised in corporate communication is for example: The Corporate Communication Centre. C.C.C. is a joint initiative of the Erasmus University (Rotterdam, The Netherlands) and the business community. The centre tries to co-ordinate all the

communication activities within a company and gives advice on communication policies and the organisation of communication methods. C.C.C. also offers training in corporate communication, executive courses and in-company courses.

Companies as Shell, Unilever, Compaq Computers and Ernst & Young have a good reputation. They are multinational enterprises. They need a good reputation to be the number one in their field. Especially Shell, because its product (fuel, gasoline) is bad for the environment. But by introducing Shell “Pura”, which is better for the environment, Shell is different from other gas stations. This is an example of corporate communication.

Corporate communication is found in all sectors of society. Think of hospitals, travel organisations, commercial services industries, industrial companies, universities, air companies, telecom companies and so on. Every company needs a specific image to be successful in their field.

A professional magazine like Focus is a very important magazine. Each year, chief executives of the US’s largest companies anxiously wait for the publication of Focus Magazine’s survey of America’s Most Admired Companies, the leading arbiter of corporate reputations.

To be working in the field of corporate communication you will need skills as:

Basic communication skills (presenting, organising, researching);

Strategic issues management (stakeholder theory, strategic issues, strategic management);

Strategic information technology planning (improving the effectiveness/competitiveness);

Strategic external communication (communication campaigns);

Economical psychology (explaining the behaviour of external stakeholders);

Public affairs: European Political Environment;

Investor relations (trust between a firm and its stakeholders);

Corporate branding: (a distinguishment of a company to its rivals with its customers); and

Professions in the field of corporate communication are for example: Communications consultant, Marketer. A company hires you to improve their reputation. You can work in a lot of different companies. Think of a hospital, a university or Shell.

You can do research for companies, like the C.C.C.

You can work as a teacher of corporate communication.

Marketing communication is the act of communicating with the target group concerning a new innovation or a service in a convincing manner. It also determines that all constraints (cultural diversity, media limitations, legal problems, and so forth) are controlled so the right message is communicated to and received by prospective consumers.

Marketing communications involves advertising, sales promotion, personal selling, and public relations, the mutually reinforcing elements of the promotional mix.

Once a product or service is developed to meet target markets needs and is properly distributed, indented customers must be informed of the product or service value and availability through advertising and promotion the ingredients in the marketing communication.

Consumers respond in terms of their culture, lifestyle, feelings, value systems, attitudes, beliefs and perceptions. Because marketing communication or specifically advertising’s function is to interpret or translate the need/want satisfying qualities of products or services in terms of consumer needs, wants, desire and aspirations, the emotional appeals, symbols, persuasive approaches, and other characteristics of an advertisement must coincide with cultural norms if it is to be effective.

Marketing communication is very essential because it determine that all constraints (legal and cultural diversity, media limitations and so forth) are controlled so the right message is communicated and received by prospective consumers.

Communication may fail for a variety of reasons: a message may not go through because of media inadequacy; the message may be received by prospective audience but may not be understood because of different cultural interpretations; or the message may reach the intended audience and may be understood but have no effect because the marketer did not correctly assess the needs and wants of the target market.

The marketing communicator understands the communication process and uses it effectively to achieve the advertising and promotional goals and objectives of the company.

Below is the communication process of the marketing communicator

Encoding message channel

Information source Receiver

In the communication process, each of the seven identifiable segments can ultimately affect the accuracy of the process as illustrated, the process consist of:

1. Encoding, information from the company to the target group.

2. Decoding, the message from the source converted into effective symbolism for transmission to a receiver.

3. A message channel the sales force or advertising media that coveys the encoded message to the intended receiver.

4. Decoding, the interpretation by the receiver of the symbolism transmitted from the information source

5. Receiver, consumer action by those who receive the message and are the target for the thought transmitted.

6. Feedback, information about the effectiveness of the information which flows from the receiver (the intended target) back to the information source (the marketing communicator) for evaluation of the effectiveness of the process.

7. Noise, uncontrollable and unpredictable influences such as competitive activities and confusion detracting from the process affecting any of the six steps.

Mass Communication is used to reach and involve almost everyone in a society in a short time. This is why the media used for this type of communication are so typical. Although Mass Communication has changed a lot over the years we still, mostly, use the same media people used over 20 years ago. Except for computers and the Internet which are completely new as media, the only thing that has changed is the improvement. Like black/white television screens that are now full-color screens, LP’s are no longer brought everybody wants CD’s nowadays. A lot of different Communication media are used for Mass Communication, such as newspapers, magazines, film, radio, television, recorded music and the Internet.

Skills needed to function within this field are:

- Dealing with legal and ethical issues

Of course this list contains too much skills for one profession, it is just so you will get an idea of what can be done and what is needed in Mass Communication. Only the last skill, dealing with legal and ethical issues, is used in each profession. Because the goal is to reach as many people as possible, it is important to consider that one thing can make one person smile but will seriously offend another. And Mass Communication, in this case Mass Media, is not supposed to offend people in any way. And in every profession, not only Communication, we need to think about the law. We cannot just do as we please.

Mass Communication is found in almost every sector of society. In the Industrial sector it can be found in companies like NUON, for the Commercial Service Industries: KPN Telecom, Non- commercial Service Industries: Schools and several Foundations such as UNICEF. These are all just examples. Of course a very large part of companies, organizations, foundations etc. use Mass Communication. Agriculture is one of the few sectors Mass Communication isn’t found in.

Since Mass Communication is a very broad field, many professions

exist in it. These professions can be very different from each other. For instance, a news anchor needs other skills than a photographer. Because there are to many professions that can be done in this field, we will show you the categories. Within these categories a lot of professions can be practiced.

Communication is a very important nowadays and there are unions and professional associations that are active in this sector, such as:

- The Media Institute

promotes ethics, standards and freedom of speech in the media.

- The Communication Research Center

for research and problems related to Mass Communication

- Association for education in journalism and Mass Communications

Besides the unions and the associations, the professional journals and magazines are also focusing on this professional field. Some of them are online. A few of these journals and magazines are:

- Media History Monographs: quarterly online journal

- CED: the Premier Magazine of Broadband Communication

Public relations is the discipline which looks after the reputation of a company. In this field you have to perform image building or impression management. Through research, measurement and evaluation you can determine the publics concerns and expectations of the company. When you know what that is then a suitable plan can be made to full fill the expectations of the public. Sometimes the problem can arise that the wanted identity is much more positive then the actual corporate identity. That is why the message and the communications carriers must be tuned to each other so that a more efficient identity will arise.

Public relations activities contain the following:

- Writing and editing

Mass Communication Theory

Mass Communication Theory

Mass Communication Theory


Abstract
My research paper deals with the role of mass media. I will analyze the modification of traditional sources and introduction of new ones. I’ll try to show the importance of mass media on the example of recent events in Virginia. People get to know about recent incidents in amazingly short period of time. All media sources are highly beneficial in this way. But on the other hand people get lost in wide variety of modern and traditional means of communication. Magazines, newspapers, TV, Internet resources contain great amounts of information. All of them regularly inform people of political, scientific and cultural affairs. It is important to analyze the meaning of new mass media from theoretical and historical perspective.


The 16th of April will go down in US history for the most violent massacre in the higher institution. Mass Media will undoubtedly rivet attention to this tragic event for a long time to pass. Its aim is to analyze the massacre from several points. Firstly it gives general information and then investigates circumstances and finds out reasons. The criminal opened fire in the dormitory and killed two fellows early in the morning. Later he killed at least 32 people and committed suicide. After the murderer has killed 2 people in the dormitory, he entered the classroom with 20 people in it. The professor was shot first. Then he began to shoot at students. Some of them hid under the desks, others tried to jump out of the window. Journalists also take into account evidences of witnesses. Thus, students admitted the killer looked like a normal Asian guy. He didn’t say a word but just entered the classroom and opened fire. Only four students safely survived. Others were either killed or wounded. Students say the most dreadful thing was his thoughtful concentrated face, which looked both angry and frightened.
Nowadays technological development helps to spread news faster than it was before. Detailed information is provided by newspapers, journals, TV-programs and Internet. Mass media provides evidences of students, police officers, parents and government. According to police evidences, the murderer locked entrance doors before his violent assault. When police finally managed to get into the faculty building the criminal was already dead. Police tries to clear out intentions of the murderer. A range of mass media reported that this man came to the USA from South Korea last year. It is suspected that he wasn’t even the University student. The main drawback of mass media is uncertainty. Although it spreads information very fast, there appear different versions of the same event. One of them for example is that there were two different people who shot in the dormitory and in the classroom. It is noted that the murderer was described differently. Although local police officers admitted there were apparently two of them, American mass media sources assure that the murderer was one person. Students blame administration for not taking measures before the real massacre began. The Technological University has approximately 26,000 students. Victims of this incident were sent to hospitals. Students and professors were evacuated and classes were cancelled for unknown period of time. Local authorities declared state of emergency. Having analyzed various sources of mass media, I must admit that most of them emphasize the similarity of bloody shootings in the USA. The majority of them occur at schools and other educational institutions. But this one is the most violent and tragic murder ever known.
In our fast-moving world it is especially important to get recent information in time, to analyze causes, consequences and future perspectives. Comparative analysis is also important. With the appearance of new mass media sources people are able to know about incidents in any corner of the world, get photos and video reports by means of Internet. Free trade of fire arms allows buying weapons without strict checking. At the same time it influences the number of crimes. We should take into account such factors as urbanization, statistics of local crimes, alcohol and drug consumption, etc. It turned out that available weapons increase the chances to be killed. In states with the highest concentration of legal fire arms, the number of violent crimes is 60% higher than in other states. It is easier to buy weapons here. From different kinds of mass media we get to know that in European countries the situation is often quite similar. In Swiss for example it is allowed to have a gun. On the contrary in Luxemburg it is prohibited. However Swiss has lower rate of crimes than Luxemburg, although according to political, economic and ethnic characteristics, the countries are almost identical.
Americans now painfully react to any suspicious accidents being afraid of other attacks. The whole world is horrified by the bloodiest massacre in a public place ever known in the US history. Neither police nor journalists are able to find out the reasons for such violence. Some people see the connection with other similar murders. Most young criminals acted in accordance with violent video games. This time the criminal’s computer will surely shed light on his intentions and motifs. Such aggression was presumably caused by bloody computer games, violence TV programs and films, obscure music and many other things which influence people’s psyche. It is actually another side of mass media sources, lack of norms and limits. Mass media has a considerable impact on people’s mind, his interests, social status and behavior (Altschul, 1984). The role of mass media is always enormous when dealing with crimes and murders. It not only informs general public about events, but may be helpful in other ways too. Virginia students who were locked down in the faculty building searched in the World Wide Web for circumstances of what was happening. People got used to fast and efficient work of mass media and treat it as a way to get detailed information.
Speaking about the role of mass media, I can’t help saying about its historical development. Nowadays people see the fast development of new means of communication and media sources. But innovations tend to replace old stereotyped mass media. For example at the top of its popularity TV displaced radio, while in recent years more and more people prefer Internet to any other mass media sources. With the increasing popularity of music, new kinds of sound recordings are being invented. Traditional cassettes were gradually replaced by discs, which are more beneficial and convenient. Today’s society prefers sources which carry more facts, statistics, and illustrations, historic and present analyses. Nowadays World Wide Web becomes the most efficient and fast way of receiving information of any kind. In the course of time printed newspapers were replaced by electronic ones. Internet becomes especially valuable because it provides great amount of data and at the same time gives links to other sources related to the topic. New mass media has more benefits than old one. It gives an opportunity to consider certain events from different points of view and future perspectives. Unlike traditional newspapers, for example, electronic ones provide wider range of information which helps to understand the subject deeper. In the course of time ritual role of media also modifies. Traditionally mass media was intended to provide people with facts about events in other parts of the world. The development of new media sources had both positive and negative effect on traditional understanding. On the one hand information now is supplied with illustrative and video materials which make it more detailed and justified. On the other hand great variety of media sources often confuses readers. People should distinguish approved sources which provide truthful facts. Nowadays freedom of press and lack of censorship allows people to publish whatever they want. Although printed newspaper editions originally were in great favor among Americans. And they didn’t loose popularity. Nowadays people buy magazines for leisure. Well-designed newspapers replaced black and white publications and are used not only for advertising.
In spite of increasing popularity of Internet, TV and magazines remain important mass media sources which are widely spread in all countries. People actually tend to spend more time watching TV than reading newspapers. I must admit that all media sources have one common peculiarity. All of them nowadays are supplied with advertisements. Quality and profitability of newspapers for example depend on advertising.
On the whole changes in mass media variety also influence the theoretic aspects. Nowadays the role of mass media is wider than it used to be. Although its traditional informative function remained, today people also read newspapers and magazines or browse the Internet for pleasure. New mass media modified its role for people. I consider these changes beneficial for modern society.
Analyzing traditional and new media sources I’d like to say that all of them are closely related with each other and are of equal importance. That’s why I think that new mass media won’t eliminate traditional ones completely. World Wide Web as a new kind of mass media combines elements of different traditional sources. Efficiency of electronic versions is seen in fast transmission of information, which can’t be compared with traditional ways (Hoenisch, 2003). One can read and electronic magazine before it is published. It is especially valuable in modern world. Sometimes editors publish texts which exist only in electronic variant. But it’s important to mention that there are two kinds of electronic newspapers. One of them is just a form of the printed edition. Another one is an original electronic edition, created and developed in Internet. Only this version should be considered a new kind of mass media.
World Wide Web can lessen the popularity of other mass media due to convenience and variety of information; but it is unlikely to replace printed magazines and newspapers for several reasons. Firstly despite increasing prosperity of people’s life not everybody can afford connecting to Internet at home. Some people think that electronic resources can even replace printed books. Although one may find and order any publication through Internet, it’s not always convenient. By means of Internet people can participate in on-line conferences, share ideas and even get education. Internet is an absolutely competent medium source, but its main drawback is frequent lack of proficiency. More and more people complain about non-professional journalists. It becomes hard to tell truth from lies. In this way Internet appears to be not so reliable.
In conclusion I’d like to say that more and more kinds of mass media enrich the marketplace. All of them have positive and negative sides. The main advantage is that people become more informed about events which take place in different corners of the world. Introduction of new mass media challenged the theory of mass communications. The traditional theory works out norms for mass media role and future perspectives. In recent years mass media acquired a range of features accepted by different social classes differently. That’s why new variety of medium brought certain difficulties. In this way the theory of mass media should be revised and improved in accordance with new requirements. The problems of free communication, copyright and reliability of information have to be solved.

References
Hoenisch, Steve. Publications on Media theory and criticism, 2003. http://www.criticism.com/md/
Bush, Brendan. Reuters: International edition. 33 killed in Virginia massacre, Apr. 2007.
Randle, Quint. Mass Media issues. A historical overview of the effects of new Mass Media introductions on magazine, 2001.
Altschull, J. The Role of the News Media in Human Affairs: New York, 1984.

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