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Bruckner Symphony 8 Analysis Essay

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Symphony No. 8 (Bruckner)

Symphony No. 8 (Bruckner)

Infobox Bruckner Symphony
title = Symphony No. 8 in C minor

dedication = Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria
composed = 1884 - 1887
1889 - 1890
composition_ended = March 1890
first_performance = Hans Richter. Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. 18 December 1892
first_published = March 1892
other_editions = ed. Robert Haas, 1939 ("Original Version")
ed. Leopold Nowak, 1955 (1890 version)
ed. Leopold Nowak, 1972 (1887 version)
first_recording = Eugen Jochum. Hamburg State Philharmonic Orchestra, 1949

Anton Bruckner 's Symphony No. 8 in C minor is the last Symphony the composer completed. It exists in two major versions of 1887 and 1890. It was premiered under conductor Hans Richter in 1892 in Vienna. It is dedicated to the Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria .

This symphony is sometimes nicknamed "The Apocalyptic". [cite book
first=Percy A
title=The Oxford Companion to Music
location=London, New York
publisher=Oxford University Press

Composition and publication

Bruckner began work on the Eighth Symphony in July 1884. Korstvedt, p. 11 ] Working mainly during the summer vacations from his duties at the University of Vienna and the Vienna Conservatory. the composer had all four movements completed in draft form by August 1885. The orchestration of the work took Bruckner until April 1887 to complete: during this stage of composition the order of the inner movements was reversed, leaving the scherzo second and the Adagio as the third movement.

In September 1887 Bruckner had the score copied and sent to conductor Hermann Levi. Levi was one of Bruckner's closest collaborators, having given a performance of the Seventh Symphony in Munich that was "the greatest triumph Bruckner had yet experienced". Korstvedt, pp. 15-16 ] He had also arranged for Bruckner's career to be supported in other ways, including financial assistance from the nobility, and an honorary doctorate from the University of Vienna. However the conductor wrote back to Bruckner that cquote|I find it impossible to perform the Eighth in its current form. I just can't make it my own! As much as the themes are magnificent and direct, their working-out seems to me dubious; indeed, I consider the orchestration quite impossible. Don't lose your courage, take another look at your work, talk it over with your friends, with Schalk. maybe a reworking can achieve something". [Korstvedt, p. 18 ]

By January 1888 Bruckner had come to agree with Levi that the symphony would benefit from further work. Korstvedt, p. 19 ] He began work on the revision in March 1889 and completed the new version of the symphony in March 1890. Once the revision was completed, the composer wrote to Emperor Franz Josef I for permission to dedicate the symphony to him. Korstvedt, p. 20 ] The Emperor accepted Bruckner's request, and also offered to help pay for the work's publication. Korstvedt, p. 21 ] Bruckner had some trouble finding a publisher for the work, but in late 1890 the Haslinger-Schlesinger-Lienau company agreed to undertake the publication. Bruckner's associates Josef Schalk and Max von Oberleithner assisted with the publication process: Schalk prepared the musical text to be sent to the printer while Oberleithner corrected the proofs and also provided financial support. [Korstvedt pp. 88, 22 ] The symphony was eventually published in March 1892: it was the only one of Bruckner's symphonies to be published before its first performance. [Korstvedt, pp. 21-22 ]

Premiere and reception

By the time the 1890 revision was complete Hermann Levi was no longer conducting concerts in Munich: as a result he recommended that his protege Felix Weingartner. Kapellmeister of Mannheim. lead the first performance of the Symphony. The premiere was twice scheduled to occur under the young conductor's direction during 1891, but each time Weingartner substituted another work at the last minute. [Korstvedt, p. 23 ] Eventually the conductor told Bruckner that he was unable to undertake the performance because he was about to take up a new position at the Berlin Opera. However, Weingartner admitted, in a letter to Levi, that the real reason that he was unable to perform the symphony was because the work was too difficult and he did not have enough rehearsal time: in particular the Wagner tuba players in his orchestra did not have enough experience to cope with their parts. [Korstvedt, p. 24 ]

After a possible Munich performance by Levi was canceled because of a feared outbreak of cholera. Bruckner focused his efforts on securing a Vienna premiere for the symphony. At last Hans Richter. subscription conductor of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. agreed to conduct the work. The first performance took place on 18 December 1892. Although some of the more conservative members of the audience left at the end of each movement, many of Bruckner's supporters were also present, including Hugo Wolf and Johann Strauss.

The well known critic Eduard Hanslick left after the slow movement. His review described the symphony as "interesting in detail, but strange as a whole, indeed repellent. The peculiarity of this work consists, to put it briefly, in importing Wagner's dramatic style into the symphony." Korstvedt, p. 4 ] (Korstvedt points out that this was less negative than Hanslick's reviews of Bruckner's earlier symphonies). There were also many positive reviews from Bruckner's admirers. One anonymous writer described the symphony as "the crown of music in our time". [Korstvedt, p. 5 ] Hugo Wolf wrote to a friend that the symphony was "the work of a giant" that "surpasses the other symphonies of the master in intellectual scope, awesomeness, and greatness". [Korstvedt, p. 6 ]

The symphony was slow to enter the orchestral repertoire. Only two further performances occurred during Bruckner's lifetime. Korstvedt, p. 26 ] The American premiere did not take place until 1909, while the symphony had to wait until 1929 for its first London performance. [cite book
title=Bruckner's Symphonies: Analysis, Reception and Cultural Politics
publisher=Cambridge University Press

The symphony has four movements. The total duration varies by performance and the edition of the score used, but is typically around 80 minutes.

The symphony begins in a tonally ambiguous manner with a theme rhythmically reminiscent of the main theme of the first movement of Beethoven 's Symphony No. 9 in D minor. A more song-like second subject group uses the Bruckner rhythm. The third subject group, which is strikingly dissonant, forms a smooth transition to the development. In structure, the opening movement is therefore a typically Brucknerian three-subject sonata form, though handled with more panache than in his previous works. The development was substantially refined in 1890. In both versions, this section of the movement is most notable for its massive, augmented three-part statement of the main theme, impressively given on full orchestra in combination with the Bruckner rhythm of the second subject group.In the recapitulation, the third theme leads to a great climax for the entire orchestra, in which the bare rhythm of the main theme is dominant. This suddenly breaks off, leaving just the trumpets and three of the horns hammering out the rhythm, timpani thundering beneath. When the strings and woodwinds rejoin, it is in a very dejected mood. At this juncture the two versions differ significantly. In the 1887 version, this solemn passage leads to what many consider an unconvincingly premature victory-coda, which sounds the main theme in C major. For the 1890 version, the triumphant ending was cut, and the despondent passage extended by a few bars to form a pianissimo coda in itself (thus becoming the only instance of a first movement ending softly in Bruckner's symphonic oeuvre). This quiet, sombre ending is for low winds and low strings in a thoroughly bleak C minor. and there is no doubt from contemporary letters of Bruckner that it represented death in some way.

It has been suggested by some scholars that the coda was inspired by the climax of the Dutchman's monologue in Wagner's "Der fliegende Hollander ", with the words, "Ihr Welten endet euren Lauf, ewige Vernichtung, nimm mich auf!". [cite book
title=The second golden age of the Viennese symphony: Brahms, Bruckner, Dvořák, Mahler, and selected contemporaries
first=A. Peter
publisher=Indiana University Press
location=Bloomington, IN

The main part of the Scherzo is fundamentally the same in both versions, though somewhat more repetitive in the first version. The orchestration and dynamics are more refined in the second version, helping to give the movement a rich and original sound. The Trios, however, are quite different: the 1890 version was rewritten as an adumbration of the ensuing Adagio movement, featuring the harps, and the tempo was slowed down. In both versions, this Scherzo is Bruckner's largest, lasting around 14 or 15 minutes in most performances.

The main difference between versions is at the climax, for which in the 1887 version Bruckner managed to insert six cymbal clashes. He must have thought that excessive, as he pared it down to two in the 1890 version. The key of this climax was also altered from C major in 1887 to E-flat major in 1890. The coda of this movement is recalled in the Adagio of the Ninth Symphony .

This Adagio differs from those in other symphonies by the composer in that the second thematic group is not presented in a more flowing tempo. The two themes are, first, a recollection of the slow movement of Schubert's Wanderer Fantasie for Pianoforte and an answering descending passage, both over throbbing, richly scored strings; and, secondly, a tonally unstable passage radiant with ecstasy. The structure and scale of the Adagio as it develops these themes is grander than any of Bruckner's previous slow movements.

The Adagio is the most controversial of all the movements in terms of different versions. For example, Robert Haas inserted one quiet, solemn passage in his edition of the 1890 score which restored a cut between two loud passages (before the main climax of the movement), whereas in the Leopold Nowak edition these two loud passages are joined. This difference greatly affects the impression given to the listener for this section of the movement as it heads towards the great E-flat major climax. The 1890 Adagio, in both the edition of Robert Haas and that of Leopold Nowak. remains shorter than the 1887 original.

Beginning belligerently (by Bruckner's standards), this movement reaches a triumphant conclusion using themes (or at least rhythmic impressions of these) from all four movements. The form of this movement is complex, derived from a three-subject sonata structure but, like the opening movement of Bruckner's Seventh symphony. highly individualised. The scale and complexity of this movement are both on a different level from that in the opening of the Seventh Symphony, however, not least in that this movement must synthesise the entire symphony (as it reworks old ideas and new ones into a coherent whole), and forms what must be a satisfactory conclusion for the whole work.

The opening theme is a powerful chorale. originally given over a march, in which the rhythmic thundering of the timpani recalls certain passages in the opening movement. The second subject, a song-theme, is remarkable in that it recollects not only its counterpart in the first movement but also the Adagio. The third subject is a march-theme, which is a direct reworking of the introduction to the third subject group of the opening movement. In the recapitulation, this third theme is presented as a fugue which leads to the solemn coda and the splendid, bright finish to the symphony.

The development presents these three themes and other elements in ways which recollect earlier parts of the symphony, both episodically and in simultaneously parallel combinations. The thematic treatment is subtle and counterpoint is frequently used in the presentation of themes. It therefore seems natural that such a synthesis concludes by contrapuntally combining all the main themes of the symphony: the coda begins in a solemn C minor in which the opening theme of the Finale reaches a powerful climax. This is answered quietly by the woodwind giving out the same theme, then more optimistically by the full orchestra, from which, in a flurry of trumpets and timpani, the Scherzo theme heralds a remarkably succinct combination of all the themes in C major. For all its grandeur, the ending is remarkably concise, and the perorations are more terse than those of, say, Bruckner's own Symphony No. 5 in B flat major .

Two complete autograph manuscripts of the symphony exist, dating from 1887 and 1890 respectively. In addition to the completed scores, many sketches exist from all phases of work on this symphony than for most of Bruckner's works. For example, thanks to the sketches, we can see the evolution of the opening theme. Part scores show that the tonal ambiguity of the symphony's opening was not how Bruckner originally envisaged the main theme: the rhythm was to fit an arpeggiated contour in C minor. The final opening is much less defined and hovers in more of a B flat major region, though it suggests several keys.

This was Bruckner's first version of the symphony, but was not published until 1972 in an edition edited by Leopold Nowak. [cite book
coauthors=Leopold Nowak
title=Symphony no. 8/1, C minor, 1887 version
location=London, New York
] It has some significant differences from the more familiar later versions, including a loud ending to the first movement and a different tonality for the climax of the slow movement. It is also notably longer than the 1890 version, and has a different instrumentation (the most significant consistent difference being that the 1890 version has triple rather than double woodwind throughout the first three movements). The double woodwind of the 1887 version gives a somewhat more austere character to the overall sound of the work.

Some scholars support this version of the symphony. Bryan Gilliam, for example, argues that the later version (from 1890) is shorter and smoother, and is hence a dubious concession to the Brahms-loving bourgeoisie of the time. [Gilliam, Bryan. "The Two Versions of Bruckner's Eighth Symphony." 19th Century Music 16, no. 1 (1992): 59–69. ] It has been recorded by Dennis Russell Davies. Vladimir Fedoseyev. Eliahu Inbal and Georg Tintner .

A fair copy of an intermediate version of the Adagio with an estimated date of 1888 exists in the Austrian National Library. It has been recorded by Akira Naito with the Tokyo New City Orchestra. A MIDI version is also available cite web
title=Bruckner Symphony Versions

Some scholars such as Deryck Cooke and Robert Haas have suggested that the 1890 revision was the product of Bruckner's insecurity and pressure from his colleagues such as Josef Schalk: Cooke even referred to it as the "Bruckner-Schalk revision". Korstvedt, p. 69 ] Against this Leopold Nowak has pointed out that there is no evidence of any handwriting other than Bruckner's own in the 1890 manuscript. According to the testimony of Bruckner's friends and associates the composer was extremely resistant to outside interference.

The scoring of the 1890 version is fuller and more grandiloquent than the 1887 version, with subtler textures and harmonies in the woodwind in particular, allowed for by the increased size of this section of the orchestra. It was published in 1955 in an edition edited by Leopold Nowak. [Bruckner, Anton. Symphony No. 8/2, c minor, 1890 version. Edited by Leopold Nowak. (New York: Eulenberg, 1992) ] "'

This was the first publication of the symphony, and was also the version used at the first performance. [cite book
title=VIII. Symphonie
location=Berlin, Vienna
] It contains some relatively minor changes from the 1890 manuscript, the most notable being a six-measure cut and a two-bar repeated passage in the Finale. The alterations were made by Joseph Schalk and Max von Oberleithner, almost certainly without Bruckner's direct involvement, but were probably approved by the composer before publication. Korstvedt writes that "while the 1892 edition may not be "pure Bruckner" — whatever that might be — to all appearances Bruckner authorized it, and for that reason it needs to be taken seriously.". [ Korstvedt [ p. 91 ] ] This edition is available in complete recordings by Wilhelm Furtwängler. Hans Knappertsbusch. Josef Krips. William Steinberg. George Szell. Bruno Walter and Takeo Noguchi. Serge Koussevitzky also used this edition in his severely cut broadcast performance of 1947; this performance, which has been preserved on disc, amounts to a wholly new "edition".

Robert Haas published his edition of the Eighth Symphony in 1939. [cite book
coauthors=Robert Haas
title=Symphony no. 8 in C minor
publisher=Belwin Mills
location=Melville, NY
] Haas mainly based his work on the 1890 autograph but also included some passages from the 1887 version that were changed or omitted in the 1890 score.

Haas argued that Levi’s comments were a crippling blow to Bruckner’s artistic confidence, even leading him to "entertain suicidal notions", although Haas had no evidence for this. [Korstvedt, [ p. 68 ] ] This led, Haas maintained, to Bruckner’s three-year effort to revise the Eighth Symphony and many of his earlier works. This line of thought supports Haas’ editorial methods. Haas took what he admired from Bruckner's different versions and rolled them into his own version. He justified the rejection of various features of Bruckner’s 1890 revision on biographical grounds: they are the ideas of a Bruckner who mistrusted his own judgment, and therefore non-Brucknerian.

The most significant omissions that Bruckner made (and therefore of Haas's restorations) are in the Adagio and Finale of the work. In addition, Haas inserted eight measures into the finale that he appears to have composed himself by combining the harmonies of the 1887 manuscript with material Bruckner penciled into the margin of the 1890 score, discarding five measures of Bruckner's own music in the process. There were no footnotes or other indication in Haas's edition that these changes had been made. This has been described as "exceed [ing] reasonable limits of scholarly responsibility". [Korstvedt, [ p. 105 ] ] Despite its dubious scholarship Haas's edition has proved enduringly popular: conductors such as Herbert von Karajan. Bernard Haitink and Günter Wand continued to use it even after the Nowak/1890 edition was published, while noted Bruckner conductor Georg Tintner has written that the Haas edition is "the best" version of the symphony and referred to Haas himself as "brilliant". [cite album-notes
title=Bruckner: Complete Symphonies
] On the other hand, Eugen Jochum used Haas's edition for his first recording, made in 1949, before Nowak published his edition, and Nowak's for his subsequent recordings, while Wilhelm Furtwängler, despite having given the premiere of the Haas score, reverted to the 1892 edition in his final years.

The controversy over the Haas edition centers on the fact that its musical text was a fabrication of the editor and was never approved by Bruckner himself. In particular Leopold Nowak, who succeeded Haas as principal editor of the Bruckner complete works, argued that there is little evidence for the psychological breakdown that Haas claimed Bruckner suffered upon Levi's rejection of the work. Bruckner’s letters at the time suggest that he was frustrated by Levi’s judgment (dismissing Levi as having a “hard time grasping things”) and psychologically healthy. Bruckner’s revisions, according to this view, are the result of his artistic perfectionism. Nowak therefore rejected Haas's approach by sticking closely to Bruckner's autograph scores. Since its publication Nowak's edition of the 1890 version has become more popular than Haas's, although Haas's is still often performed.

The 1887 version requires an instrumentation of three each flute s (the third doubling as piccolo ), oboe s, clarinet s, bassoon s (the third doubling as contrabassoon - the triple woodwinds, however only enter in the Finale), with eight horn s, three trumpet s, three trombone s, a quartet of Wagner tuba s, which double as Horns 5-8 in the Finale, and a single contrabass tuba, along with timpani. cymbal s, triangle. three harp s and strings. The 1890 version deletes the piccolo part, and extends the triple woodwinds on all four movements. In addition, the 1890 score calls for eight horns, four of which double as Wagner tubas at various points in the symphony for all movements. This was, in total, the largest orchestra Bruckner ever used (since the Ninth Symphony, which uses an otherwise identical orchestra, does not require harps and percussion other than timpani).

In an 1891 letter to conductor Felix Weingartner. Bruckner gave extramusical associations to several parts of the symphony: [Korstvedt, [ p. 51 ] ] In the first movement. the trumpet and horn passage based on the rhythm of the [main] theme in the "Todesverkündigung" [the annunciation of death]. which gradually grows stronger, and finally emerges very strongly. At the end: surrender.

Scherzo. Main theme -- named "deutscher Michel". ["Deutscher Michel" ("German Michael") is "a rather old-fashioned personification of Germany, with a slightly pejorative connotation, referring to the qualities of being guileless and honest". cite book
first=Fritz Karl Michael
title=Underground Humour in Nazi Germany, 1933-1945
] In the second part, the fellow wants to sleep, and in his dreamy state cannot find his tune: finally, he plaintively turns back.

Finale. At the time our Emperor received the visit of the Czars at Olmütz ; [According to Korstvedt p. 52, Bruckner was mistaken about the location of this meeting, which took place between Franz Joseph I of Austria. Tsar Alexander III of Russia. and Kaiser Wilhelm I of Germany at Skierniewice in September 1884. ] thus, strings: the Cossacks; brass: military music; trumpets: fanfares, as the Majesties meet. In closing, all themes. thus as "deutscher Michel" arrives home from his journey, everything is already gloriously brilliant. In the Finale there is also the death march and then (brass) transfiguration.

Bruckner's associates report other comments that the composer is said to have made about the symphony. The coda to the first movement is "how it is when one is on his deathbed, and opposite hangs a clock, which, while his life comes to an end, beats on ever steadily: tick, tock, tick, tock" [Korstvedt, p. 52 ] while in the slow movement "I have gazed too deeply into a maiden's eyes". [citation
contribution=Programme symphpony and absolute music
title=The Cambridge Companion to Bruckner
publisher=Cambridge University Press

In an unsigned programme note at the 1892 first performance Joseph Schalk elaborated Bruckner's program, adding references to Greek mythology ( Aeschylus 's Prometheus. Zeus or Kronos. etc.) mixed with a few Christian references such as the Archangel Michael .

The first commercial recording of part of the symphony was made by Otto Klemperer with the Berlin State Opera Orchestra in 1924 for Polydor. It included only the slow movement, in the 1892 edition.

The oldest performance of the complete work surviving on record is a concert by Bruno Walter with the New York Philharmonic from 1941. It also used the 1892 edition.

Wilhelm Furtwängler. in a live performance with the Vienna Philharmonic in 1944 used a modified Haas edition.

On September 29. 1944. the Preussische Staatskapelle Berlin. conducted by Herbert von Karajan. recorded the finale of Bruckner's eighth symphony in experimental stereophonic sound. This was one of the earliest stereo recordings made in Europe. In its interpretation it also differed from other recordings of the period: "Recordings from the 1940s. typically present this passage [the reprise of the third subject group in the finale] as a grand accelerando-rallentando, with a tempo increase of as much as 20 percent," while Karajan's recording "is a notable exception." [Korstvedt, p. 98 - 99 ]

The first commercial recording of the complete symphony was made by Eugen Jochum with the Hamburg State Philharmonic Orchestra in 1949 for Deutsche Grammophon. Jochum later recorded it in studio with the Berlin Philharmonic in 1964 for Deutsche Grammophon, and in 1976 with the Dresden Staatskapelle for EMI using the Nowak 1890 edition both times. Karl Böhm. in a studio recording with the Vienna Philharmonic in 1976 for Deutsche Grammophon used the Nowak 1890 edition, but with one Haas passage in the finale.

In the last two decades of the 20th century, recordings tended to "set a broader basic tempo. abstain from dramatic tempo fluctuations — especially increases — and place great store by fullness of tone, precise ensemble, and textural clarity." [Kortsvedt, p. 101 ]

In St. Florian in 1996, Pierre Boulez conducted a live performance with the Vienna Philharmonic. using the Haas edition, which is now available on Deutsche Grammophon.

All versions considered, this work lasts about 80 minutes, with the faster performances fitting on one standard 12 cm compact disk. Herbert von Karajan and the aforementioned Günter Wand each recorded the Haas hybrid version more than once. After Eliahu Inbal recorded the 1887 version for the first time, other conductors have followed, such as Georg Tintner on the Naxos Records label. Takashi Asahina preferred the Haas score too, but with a Japanese orchestra he did record a disc that compared snippets from the Haas and Nowak editions.

This work has also been recorded on DVD Video. Herbert von Karajan 's 1988 recording conducting the Vienna Philharmonic for Deutsche Grammophon was released by Sony Classical on DVD. In fact, the Vienna Philharmonic has been videotaped playing this symphony more than once; in 1996, to commemorate the centennial of Bruckner's death, they played it with Pierre Boulez. and this was released on DVD in 2005. World Philharmonic Orchestra chose to perform this symphony for their inaugural concert conducted by Carlo Maria Giulini. Another DVD is with Zubin Mehta conducting the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra .

* cite book
first=Benjamin M.
title=Bruckner: Symphony No. 8
location = Cambridge, UK; New York
publisher=Cambridge University Press

* [ Complete discography ]
* [ Another discography with reviews in French ]
* [ Bruckner symphony versions ]
* [ Program note, from the San Francisco Symphony ]

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Anton Bruckner first wrote his E-flat major symphony in November of 1874. He revised this symphony in 1880, just before its first performance in Vienna on February 20, 1881. After another extensive revision, the piece was first published in September of 1889 by Albert J. Gutmann's publishing company.

The first movement of Bruckner's 4th is in sonata form. The exposition is from the beginning of the piece to m. 192. The development section is from m. 193 to m. 364. Finally, the recapitulation is from m. 365 to the end of the piece, which includes a coda from m. 533 to the end.

The exposition can be split into 2 subjects and a closing section. In the opening subject the strings outline an E-flat major triad while what appears to be one of the main themes of the piece is played by the French horn. This statement of the theme lasts from m. 3 to m. 18. This statement is then expanded and repeated from m. 19 to m. 50 to make up the second half of the first part of the opening subject. The restatement of the theme begins with an E-flat major but moves through C minor and A major. This suggests that the method of expansion may be a circle of 3rds progression. The second half of the opening subject is marked by both the first rehearsal letter (A) and the sudden change in volume of the piece. This is due not only to the dynamic markings, but to the fact that it is a sudden tutti section of the piece. This section, which is mainly further variations of the opening theme carried through other tonal areas, also begins in E-flat major and lasts from m. 51 to m. 74.

The second subject of the exposition begins on m. 75 and can be split up into 3 sections with a sort of coda section at the end. The first section (a) of the second subject lasts from m. 75 to m. 82. The beginning of this new section can be detected by the rehearsal letter (B) and by the introduction of a new theme which is heard in the string section. The ton

Essays Related to Bruckner Symphony No. 4, 1st movement

Symphony Review - Bruckner s 8th Symphony

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Bruckner's 8th Symphony

With a sense of mystery, highly acclaimed New York Philharmonic conductor Lorin Maazel opened Bruckner’s 8th symphony with a tremolo on the strings and then repeats this tremolando in forte while the brass gloriously brought in the first major theme. Amidst the bright colors and amazing acoustics at Disney Hall, the audience sat in eager anticipation; many of the present members were experienced with Bruckner’s pieces and Wagnerian style. Sitting next to me, David Barry of the LA Philharmonic Board of Directors gave me an introduction to the history of Disney Hall, the LA Philharmonic musicians, and Anton Bruckner. He quickly detailed several prominent musicians’ profiles, including that of the only timpanist at the concert, and then, he went on to describe the special quartet of Wagner tubas and the unique appearance of the harp amidst the largest orchestra required in all of Bruckner’s symphonies. Given that this was my first exposure to anything related to Wagner, I was given insight into Wagner’s influence on Bruckner’s romantic style.

The Wagnerian characteristics of the symp.

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2. User-Submitted Material
You agree not to submit any unlawful, abusive, defamatory, harassing, obscene, or otherwise objectionable Material of any kind, including but not limited to Material that would constitute a criminal offense, violate the rights of others, or violate the laws or regulations of the United States or other jurisdiction. You agree not to submit any Material that infringes on any intellectual property rights of another, including but not limited to copyright and trademark. You agree not to submit any Material that you have reason to believe is false, misleading, or fraudulent, or contains private information about an identifiable person without that person.s written permission. You remain solely responsible for, and agree to indemnify and hold harmless the Company, its agents, affiliates, representatives, licensors, and licensees, against any claim arising from any Material you submit as well as Material submitted by a third party using your computer or IP address.

Any Material you submit to the Web Site is and will be treated as non-confidential and non-proprietary. The Company has no obligation of any kind with respect to submitted Material. The Company reserves the right, but has no obligation, to remove, edit, or reject any Material it deems inappropriate. You agree that modification of the Material by the Company or its agents does not transfer ownership of said Material.

You warrant that the Material submitted is original, has not been previously licensed or submitted to another Web Site or entity, and that you own the proprietary rights to said Material, including copyright, trademark, and patent rights as applicable, or the express written authority of the owner(s) of said rights to use and license the Material. You retain all patent, trademark, and copyright to any Material submitted. You further warrant that you have all rights, power, and authority necessary to claim and grant the license conveyed herein to the submitted Material. By submitting Material to the Web Site, you agree to grant the Company, its agents, affiliates, representatives, licensors, and licensees, a worldwide, irrevocable, nonexclusive, perpetual, royalty-free right (including moral rights) and license to copy, modify, translate, publish, disclose, transfer, assign, sell, and distribute said Material in any form now known or hereafter developed, for any purpose without limitation, and without any obligation of notice, attribution, or compensation to you or another.

3. Company's Liability
The Material on the Web Site contains inaccuracies and typographical errors. The Company makes no representations or guarantees about the accuracy, reliability, completeness, or timeliness of the Material or about the results obtained from using the Web Site or the Material. You expressly agree that any use of the Web Site, the Material, and the results obtained from using the Web Site or Material is entirely at your own risk. We reserve the right to make periodic changes to the Web Site, and these changes may be made at any time without notice. Most of the Material on the Web Site is provided and maintained by third parties. This third party Material may not be screened by the Company prior to its inclusion on the Web Site. You expressly agree that the Company is not liable or responsible for any defamatory, offensive, or illegal conduct of other subscribers or third parties.

The Company does not warrant that the Web Site will operate error-free or that the Web Site or its server is free of computer viruses or other harmful goods. If your use of the Web Site or its Material results in a need to repair or replace equipment or data, you are solely responsible for those costs.

The Web Site and its Material are provided on an as-is and as-available basis without warranty express or implied. The Company, its agents, affiliates, representatives, licensors, licensees, suppliers, and any third parties mentioned at this site, to the fullest extent permitted by law, disclaim all warranties, including the warranty of non-infringement of proprietary or third party rights, and the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose. The Company and its suppliers make no warranties as to the accuracy, reliability, completeness, or timeliness of the material, services, text, graphics and links.

No information, whether oral or written, provided by the Company or through the Web Site shall create any warranty not expressly stated in the Terms.

4. Disclaimer

5. Links to Other Web Sites
The Web Site contains links to third party Web sites maintained by others. These links are provided solely as a convenience to you and not as an endorsement by the Company of the contents on such third-party Web sites. The Company is not responsible for the content of linked third-party sites and does not make any representations on the content or accuracy of materials on such third-party Web sites. The Company has no control over such sites, and you agree that the Company is not responsible for the availability of such external sites. The Company does not endorse and is not responsible or liable for any Material on or available from external sites. You agree that the Company is not responsible or liable, whether directly or indirectly, for any damage or loss caused or alleged to be caused by or in connection with use of any external site. If you decide to access linked third-party Web sites, you do so at your own risk.

6. Limitation of Liability
Your use of the Web Site is at your own risk. If you are dissatisfied with any of the Materials or other contents of the Web Site or with these Terms and Conditions, your sole and exclusive remedy is to discontinue use of the Web Site.

Under no circumstances shall the Company or its agents be liable to any user on account of that user's use of the Web Site. Such limitation of liability shall apply to prevent recovery of any and all damages, including, without limitation, direct, indirect, incidental, consequential, special, punitive and exemplary damages arising from any use of the Web Site, including any damages that may be incurred by third parties.

7. Indemnity
You agree to defend, indemnify, and hold harmless the Company, its officers, directors, owners, members, employees, agents, affiliates, representatives, licensors, and licensees, from and against any claims, actions, or demands, including without limitation reasonable legal and accounting fees, alleging or resulting from your use of the Material or your breach of the TOS, from any claim arising from any Material that you submit, or your violation of any rights of another, including but not limited to intellectual property rights.

8. User Information
The Company may use the information it obtains relating to you, including your IP address, name, e-mail address, mailing address, and use of the Web Site, if required to do so by law or in a good faith belief that such retention, preservation and/or disclosure is reasonably necessary: (a) to respond to any legal process or third party claims; (b) to enforce these TOS; (c) to protect the rights, property or personal safety of the Company, its agents, its users and the public; or (d) for business and/or marketing purposes.

Your personal information will be treated in compliance with our Privacy Policy. You agree to the use of your data in accordance with the Company.s Privacy Policy. 9. Content
You agree that by using the Web Site, you may be exposed to content that you may find offensive, indecent, or objectionable. You use the Web Site at your own risk. You further agree that the Company is not responsible for any Material you transmit or display while using the Web Site.

10. Minors
This Web Site contains material that may not be appropriate for minors. If there is concern by parents that children may visit this site, the Company recommends using a parental control software package. While no parental software package replaces careful supervision of Internet use by children, these tools can be a useful addition to your suite of Internet applications.

11. Notification of Claimed Copyright Infringement
If you find Material on the Web Site which you believe to be an infringement of copyright or other intellectual property rights of you or any third party, you are requested to immediately notify us as described below in accordance with the United States Digital Millennium Copyright Act. To report any alleged infringement, please email us with the following information:

1. your name, address, telephone number, and email address; and if you are representing the owner of the intellectual property, the name of the owner 2. a detailed description of the Material that you claim has been infringed; including the URL where said material is located on the Web Site, or a description of where you found such material on our Web Site; 3. if your claim is based on a registered work, the registration number and date of issuance of the registration; 4. a statement that you believe, in good faith, that the use of the Material on our Web Site has not been authorized by the true owner of the work, its agent, or as a matter of law; and 5. a signed statement, made under penalty of perjury, that all of the information you have provided is true, and that you are the owner of the intellectual property or are authorized to act on behalf of the owner

12. General
The Company makes no claims the Materials are appropriate for any particular purpose or audience, or that they may be downloaded outside of the United States. Access to the Materials may not be legal by certain persons or in certain countries. The Company is not responsible for any damages, claims or injuries that may result from unlawful or inappropriate access to the materials. If you access the Web Site from outside of the United States, you do so at your own risk and are responsible for compliance with the laws of any appropriate jurisdiction.

All legal issues arising from or related to the use of the Web Site shall be construed in accordance with and determined by the laws of the state of the Company applicable to contracts entered into and performed within the state of the Company. By using this Web Site, you agree that the exclusive forum for any claims or causes of action arising out of your use of this Web Site is the court governing the county in which the Company is registered. You hereby irrevocably waive any objection that you may have to the venue of any such proceeding brought in such a court and any claim that any such proceeding brought in such a court has been brought in an inconvenient forum.

If any provision of the TOS is found to be invalid by any court having competent jurisdiction, or invalid under the laws of the governing jurisdiction, the invalidity of such provision shall not affect the validity of the remaining provisions of the TOS, which shall remain in full force and effect. No waiver of any term of the TOS shall be deemed a further or continuing waiver of such term or any other term. Failure to enforce any provision of the TOS does not constitute a waiver for future enforcement of said TOS.

You agree that irrespective of any statute or law to the contrary, any claim or cause of action stemming from or connected to use of the Web Site or the TOS shall be filed within one year after such claim or cause of action arose, or be forever barred.Your browser may not support display of this image.

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