There are many different kinds of advertising (on the radio, on television, in newspapers, in magazines, and on billboards). In your opinion, which one of these kinds of advertising is the most effective? Why? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
All advertising media share a common goal; to reach as many consumers as possible and convince them to buy a certain product. They all employ similar strategies to achieve this objective, but some are more effective than others. In my opinion, television is the most effective because of several advantages it has over other advertising media.
For one thing, I believe television advertising has a greater power to engage its audience than print and radio media have. While print appeals only to the sense of sight and radio only to hearing, television appeals to both sight and hearing simultaneously. Moreover, a television advertisement is a moving film and therefore is quite successful at presenting the illusion of reality. The characters in a television commercial seem alive. For these reasons, we are probably more likely to pay close attention to a television commercial than to a radio commercial or an ad in a magazine.
Secondly, the advantage of television advertising over other advertising media is related to the costs involved in producing television commercials. Because of the extremely high cost of advertising on television, the companies which can afford the expense can also afford to do intensive market research. In other words, they can study market trends and buying habits in order to target a very specific consumer audience.
Finally, of all the advertising media, television reaches the widest audience. With a television in nearly every household and the average person watching several hours of television per day, television presents an enormous possibility of exposing a product to a large number of people.
In conclusion, the advantages of television advertising make it by far the most effective advertising medium. Since the marketing industry is very competitive, even the smallest advantage can give a company an edge over its competitors. Thus, companies with a large advertising budget undoubtedly prefer television to other forms of advertising media.
This programme will equip you with a specialist education in media studies that will firstly enable you to build an impressive portfolio of skills in media production, and secondly help to launch your career in this field. It examines the ‘mass media’, which in the past used to only mean newspapers, films, TV and radio, but now also incorporates the Internet and digital broadcasting as well. You will be studying the media in an academic way, looking at its history, how it influences people and society, and the different methods of interpreting it.
The skills acquired on this course, together with the communications and IT training provided will give graduates opportunities to consider careers in areas such as; Radio and TV Production, Journalism, Teaching, Publishing, New media and Corporate Production.
Apart from preparing you for a range of communication professions, it will also teach you about the changing role of media and journalism within society and its relationship to consumer culture, democracy, and everyday life in a globalised world. You will explore the media as a source of information, entertainment and identity, by studying the content, rise and power of global media companies.
The degrees courses are flexible enough to allow students to focus on those areas that interest them the most, whether it’s making video news reports, online journalism, designing advertising or public relations campaigns.
Media studies degree course overview
Curriculums are responsive to current issues and developments, meaning you will be introduced to modern theories and techniques in media practice. Students will also have considerable intellectual freedom and choice when choosing their modules, with specialist options built into programmes to enable a greater degree of personal exploration. These choices will become even broader as your studies develop. Many media studies degree courses offer crossovers with other subjects such as communication studies, English and politics, with some universities offering joint honours degrees that combine media studies with other subjects.
Classes are taught in seminars and workshops, with students taking part in research activities and a range of projects that can include film production, animation, online enquiry-based learning, virtual world studies and web design.
Assessment is typically done by a mixture of practical coursework, essays and presentations. Depending on the course, you can be assessed via essays, video documentaries, television scripts or even group presentations. Overall, these assessments will have been developed to comprehensively test your skills, knowledge and talent in this subject.
Typical course modules and areas of study on a media studies degree
Students will learn about
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Media studies personal statement example
"There is a revolution in media which has been sweeping the advanced countries of the world in highly significant ways. To me it’s a really exciting time that I want to be involved in, and through this statement I wish to show my personal drive, commitment and suitability to study this subject at a high academic level.
I believe it is an incredibly exciting and empowering subject where there will always be something new to learn. I’m attracted by its dynamic environment in which new ideas, technologies and techniques are being developed all the time. As a hand’s on person who has a creative streak and good judgement, I am driven to work in an industry where I will be able to come up with my very own ideas and then be involved in developing, nurturing and executing them. For me personally there is a lot of satisfaction to be gained from challenging yourself and then achieving.
Another reason that I want to study this subject is that finding a job in the media industry is tough and competitive. To me this is my first real step towards a career in the communication and media industries. By having a degree qualification that has educated you about the latest technological and cultural advances in the media world, you can have a edge over others and really stand out.
As a flexible, creative and independent individual, I have superb interpersonal skills that allow me to communicate effectively in written, oral and visual forms. All of these are personal traits which are essential to study and also have a career in this fast moving sector.
At college I studied Media Studies at A level, and am pleased to say that I passed with high grades. College taught me how to think in an all-encompassing way, and gave me the mental resources to do what I do well by thinking progressively.
I understand that to get a job in the media, you need to have practical experience just as much as a qualification. This is why I have put a lot of effort into doing plenty of relevant extracurricular activities and trying to gain as much work experience as possible. To this effect I recently took a temporary job as a Media Assistant with a publishing company. I was involved in media planning and buying, as well as using social media to publicise the company and build its brand. Other duties included researching and developing ways to improve target audience engagement and expand product knowledge through social media platforms.
Right now my ambition is work in media and to this end I have chosen your highly regarded institution to achieve my goal. All my work experience and academic achievements to date now make me feel fully prepared to start degree program. I believe that I can easily fit into your course as I already possess substantial knowledge of the subject, am able to handle an intensive amount of coursework and can manage my study time effectively.
I have chosen to study at your university because you have a growing reputation in media studies, and I believe that I can benefit from the contacts that you have developed in all areas of journalism and media. I feel your institution has the right mixture of academic professionalism, welcoming atmosphere and vibrant social scene that can help me to grow professionally and emotionally. I would be very grateful indeed if you would consider my application to enrol on your media studies degree course, as I feel that I have the required ambition, personal commitment, knowledge and experience that are needed to be a successful student at your institution."
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Your advertising essay could focus on a style of advertising from a specific era or location. Or you could discuss the advertising techniques of one icon in the advertising industry. Another option would be the history of one medium of advertising, for example radio. A false advertising essay would be very interesting to the reader.What is expected in an academic essay?
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So you have done the research for your essay and written down some notes. It’s time to put it all together and polish it up. Organize your notes into sections that belong together. Title each section with a subheading. Now take the subheadings and organize them into a logical flow. This becomes your outline. Check out some high quality advertising essay samples to see the proper way for structuring the advertising essay introduction.
Once you have the outline sketched out, look it over and see if there is anything missing. If so, add in what’s necessary so it makes sense. Start writing the body of the essay, using the outline as a framework. Fill in each section.
Once the body is complete, construct the introduction. It comprises the opening paragraph, and should tell the reader what the essay is about. Don’t give everything away in the opening; get the reader curious enough to continue reading.
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Analysis Humor In Advertising Essay, Research Paper
Humor and Advertising
Advertising is one of the critical marketing variables which marketers use to differentiate products in a cluttered marketplace. In order to increase the effectiveness of advertising for a product, advertising messages should be unique and meaningful. This concurs with the von Restorff effect, which concludes that interference is minimized by the presentation of a unique item in a group of similar items. Companies have attempted to use many vehicles to create this differentiation effect. One such vehicle is the employment of humor.
The use of humor in advertising constitutes billions of dollars in spending each year (Campbell et al. 44). Furthermore, the popularity of humor is evident in the fact that 24.4% of television advertisements attempt to be humorous (Alden & Hoyer 29). However, while humor has attained popularity in advertising, its use is continuously being debated. The reason for this debate is that there are a number of both positive and negative effects which can be attributed to the use of humor.
Therefore, the purpose of this research paper is to methodically evaluate the use of humor by examining the broad range of research which has been conducted on its effectiveness in advertising. The studies chosen represent a combination of two types of research. First, empirical studies provide hypothesis-driven data which examine relationships between the effectiveness of humor and other relevant factors. Furthermore, much research on humor effectiveness has been conducted on representative advertising executives. The contention of researchers in these situations is that these executives have extensive experience in both failed and successful advertising campaigns. Thus, their actions and opinions provide valuable insight into the overall effectiveness and efficiency of humor in advertising.
These studies will be examined in relation to the effects of humor on the consumer information processing stages of attention and comprehension, as well as the effectiveness of humor messages in persuading customers to purchase a given product. Furthermore, the type of advertising medium and product factors will also be critically evaluated in order to uncover their existing relationships to humor effectiveness. All of these topics will be then integrated into the examination of various companies which have attempted to use humor in their advertising campaigns. Lastly, based on the relevant research, several key factors in utilizing humor successfully will be presented. These situations represent the necessary circumstances which should be present to increase the probability of an effective humorous advertising campaign.
II. Humor and Consumer Information Processing
A consumer s perception of the advertising is the crucial component in the purchase decision. Perception is accomplished through the three stage processing of information by consumers. The attention and comprehension stages are most important to marketers because they determine whether consumers will acknowledge, organize, and interpret the desired advertising message. In order to create a successful humor campaign, advertisers must examine the relative effects of humor during these two stages of consumer processing.
Humor and Attention
The effect of humor on attention has been studied through both interviewing methods and scientific research. A recent study showed that 94% of advertising executives agree that humor increases attention for an advertisement (Gulas & Weinberger 36). In terms of empirical evidence, there seems to be a consensus that advertising increases the level of attention (36). This fact is strongly presented in a study by Speck (1987) on the effects of advertising in four separate attention dimensions: initial attention, sustained attention, projected attention, and overall attention (36). Speck found that consumers had higher attention levels for humorous advertisements than non-humorous advertisements on all four of these dimensions (36).
Humor and Comprehension
The studies conducted to determine relationships between humor and comprehension have shown great disparity. For example, a literature study by Sternthal and Craig in 1973 found humor to have a completely negative effect on comprehension (Gulas & Weinberger 38). Conversely, in 1986, Stewart and Furse conducted a study using 1,000 television commercials, which seemed to explicitly confirm that humor increased comprehension (Campbell et al. 46).
In total, seventeen studies have been conducted examining this relationship. Six of these studies concluded that a positive relationship existed between humor and comprehension, while six suggested a negative relationship, and five showed neutral results (Gulas & Weinberger 38). Thus, the general conclusion is that can be inferred from these different studies is that other extraneous factors impact the effect of humor on comprehension. Various studies have identified factors which could have caused the inconsistency of the studies, an example of which is humor type.
In 1987, Speck conducted direct research in the attempt to uncover any relationships between humor type and comprehension. Speck s research uncovered that comic wit had a negative effect on comprehension, while other humor types (i.e. satire) had positive effects on comprehension (Gulas & Weinberger 38). The importance of this study is that it demonstrates an example of a factor that can have an effect on the comprehension level of humorous advertising.
III. Humor and Persuasion
Although consumers may process humorous information about a product, the effects of this information on persuasion are of paramount importance. Advertisers are interested in the extent to which humor messages can alter beliefs and attitudes toward a particular product. There have been a number of studies conducted to assess the relationships between the two variables of humor and persuasion. Some studies have demonstrated that humor has increased persuasion, but these studies tend to be qualified by gender, prior attitude, and the nature of the product or event promoted (Gulas & Weinberger 56). Thus, the general conclusion of these studies is that humor does not provide any significant advantage in terms of persuasion (56).
However, although a strong relationship does not exist between humor and persuasion, advertisers and marketing researchers have examined several variables which examine the situations for the both effective and ineffective uses of humor in the persuasion process. One model used to examine the such situations is the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), which deals with the level of consumer involvement in a purchasing decision.
Elaboration Likelihood Model
The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) examines two different routes to persuasion based on the level of consumer involvement. The central route to processing occurs if a consumer is both motivated and able to process the information. Moreover, central route processing occurs in situations of high consumer involvement. Attitudes formed through this route tend to be relatively enduring and predictive of behavior (Petty et al. 135).
Conversely, the peripheral route to processing occurs when a consumer is either unmotivated or is unable to process the information. In these situations, consumers rely on peripheral cues when forming their attitudes. Attitudes formed via this route have the opposite characteristics of attitudes formed through the central route, and tend to be relatively temporary and unpredictive of behavior (Petty et al. 136).
Thus, the ELM relates to humor in advertising in that humor can be viewed as a peripheral cue. Therefore, consumers who process information along the central route will not be persuaded by humor, but rather by the argument strength of the advertisement. However, humor can be effective when processing occurs along the peripheral route, if the humor utilized is processed as a positive cue.
For example, according to ELM studies, the peripheral route is utilized when personal relevance is low. Thus, when personal relevance is low, humor can be used as an effective peripheral cue in the persuasion process. Nonetheless, as the personal relevance increases for a consumer in a situation, he or she tends to scrutinize the content of a message.
Furthermore, a study by Yong Zhang (1996) examined the relation between a person s need for cognition and the use of humor. The need for cognition is based on the value an individual consumer places on directing effort toward thinking. Zhang concluded that there was a direct correlation between this need for cognition and the effectiveness of humor in advertisements. Humor does not work as a peripheral cue for individuals with a high need for cognition, as they are motivated to thoroughly examine message content (Zhang 17). However, individuals with a low need for cognition do not have the motivation to investigate an advertisement and, thus, can be persuaded by a peripheral cue such as humor (17). These conclusions based on the ELM are especially relevant to marketers in that they identify the situations where humor can be used effectively.
IV. Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Humor
Humor and Product Type
One of the factors that has been identified in numerous studies as having a significant influence on the effectiveness of humor in advertising is product type. For example, studies have been conducted which examined the effects of using humor for real as opposed to fictional products. Research conducted on this subject has generally agreed that in terms of both attention and comprehension, humorous advertising for real products was effective, while humor used for fictional products was generally ineffective (Gulas & Weinberger 38). This also complies with the consensus that humorous advertisements are more successful for existing products than for new products (54). Also, as previously mentioned, studies have demonstrated that humor is more effective for low involvement products (See the section on the Elaboration Likelihood Model).
Recent advertising research has looked at the effectiveness of using humor, based on the frequency of humor usage in advertising for various product type categories. The contention used in this study is that the frequency of usage correlates with the relative effectiveness of a product type. Thus, both positive and negative advertising experiences shape the decisions which advertisers make when deciding whether to use humor in an advertising campaign.
Products which seem to be best suited for humorous advertising messages are nondurable, day-to day rewards (Campbell et al. 49) such as snack foods, desserts, beer, alcohol, [and] tobacco (47). This finding is also consistent with the views of advertising executives, 70% of which believe that nondurables are best suited for humor (Campbell et al. 45). Researchers have also identified several characteristics which define these products.
As indicated by the ELM, the purchasing of these products is characterized by low motivation to process information, based on the low purchase risk and routine purchase nature (Campbell et al. 49). Moreover, consumers use a heuristic processing style when evaluating communication mediums on one of these products (48). Also, the motivation to purchase these products is also positive in nature, and they have a feel good orientation (48). Finally, products best-suited for humorous advertising have mostly short-term emotional benefits (48).
The products which are worst suited for humorous advertising are durable goods such as fashion clothing and accessories, hair coloring, motorcycle, sports car, fashion luggage, jewelry (Campbell et al. 47). These products contrast sharply in their characteristics as compared to the best suited products for humor usage. First, the higher product risk of these items contributes to a high degree of motivation to process information (47). Furthermore, researchers classify these produces as having an expressive orientation (48). The benefits obtained by consumers from these products are some, long-term emotional benefits. This also contrast with the short-term benefits of the nondurables. Moreover, information obtained by consumers is examined using a systematic processing style (48). Finally, these items do have one characteristic in common with the previously mentioned nondurables: a purchasing situation of positive motivation.
Humor and Type of Medium
There are three traditional types of advertising mediums utilized by marketers: television, radio, and print. The relative effectiveness of humor can be differentiated based on the medium type. In 1984, Madden and Weinberger sent surveys to top advertising executives in the United States to uncover relationships between humor and medium type (Campbell et al. 45). Most surveyed felt that humor was extremely appropriate for television (88%), and radio (84%) advertisements (45). However, only 40% of those surveyed felt that humor was appropriate for print advertisements (45). This corresponds with humor usage by type, which varies by medium type, with television and radio utilizing humor two to three times more than print media (54).
The conclusion for this information is that: Print is reader-paced, allowing more message detail and explanation, while radio and TV are media-paced, passively received by audiences waiting to be entertained. (Campbell et al. 51). Thus, the active nature of television and radio allows it to easier entertain audiences.
VI. Applications of Humor in Advertising
Humorous advertising campaigns have been utilized by many different companies and its popularity is increasing. The purpose of this section is to examine different companies which have used humor and assess their usage based on the preceding cited research.
The most common examples of successful humorous advertising campaigns relate to snack foods and beer. These products are included in the previously mentioned day-to-day rewards category which is generally identified as a favorable category for humorous advertising. For example, Mars Inc. recently was faced with declining sales due to a shift in consumer purchasing and consumption patterns (O Leary 46). For the most part, the purchase of a chocolate bar does not evoke a strong motivation to process information. Thus, based on the ELM, consumers tend to utilize the peripheral route with this type of purchase, and humor can be a beneficial cue utilized by companies.
An example of the strategy employed by Mars Inc. is its recent advertisements for M & M s. This advertising boasts three-dimensional wise-cracking M & M characters (O Leary 46). In the first eight months of the humorous campaign, the M & M product experienced 3% sales growth, while its general likability also increased (46).
Furthermore, in terms of consumer nondurables, Coca-Cola has reevaluated its position and developed a group of humorous advertisements for Diet Coke. For example, the dehydrated commercial pictures a man who is doing garden work. After completing his work, he appears emaciated and sits in a chair. However, after receiving a Coke, his body suddenly returns to normal as he regains his body mass (Lippert 26).
Moreover, beer is another nondurable, day-to-day reward which research has shown is well suited for humorous advertising (Campbell et al. 49). In fact, the view of some analysts is that beer goes with comedy almost as well as it does with pretzels (Soter 27). Budweiser has been especially receptive to this thought an created numerous advertising campaigns based on humor for Bud Light. A few years ago, Bud Light used its I said a Bud Light humorous campaign (Alden et al. 65). In these commercials, individuals who had requested a Bud Light were greeted with a number of different actual lighting devices (i.e. a flashlight). More recently, Budweiser developed its I Love you, man! group of advertisements, which depict Johnny: a man who is continuously denied in his eternal search for one Bud Light.
While the general research on humor supports its effectiveness with these nondurable items, other companies have attempted to use humor with durable goods. For example, Multimedia Design Corporation s mPOWER product is a computer software program used for presentations ( Only mPOWER 18). The company used humor for this product in a print advertisement. In this situation, while humor should increase consumer attention to the advertisement, its effects on comprehension and persuasion should be minimal. The main reason for this again relates back to the ELM, as this type of computer software involves a relatively high degree of consumer involvement. Consequently, information will be processed along the central route, and the effects of humor as a peripheral cue will be limited. Thus, Multimedia Design should have focused more on the product attributes to fulfill consumers high importance on evaluating pertinent information.
VII. Key Success Factors
As is evident from the cited research, there are a plethora of factors which influence the effectiveness of humor in advertising. Thus, companies need to recognize the interactions of these factors in order to create a successful humorous advertising campaign. The following discussion highlights the key success factors which should be considered when utilizing humor in advertising.
First, research has demonstrated that humor is most effective when it relates to the product. In the 1984 Madden & Weinberger study of executives from the top 150 advertising agencies in the country, 88% agreed with the statement: Humor works best when it is related to a product (Campbell et al. 45). Moreover, Speck empirically concluded in 1991 that advertising messages that do not explicitly relate to the topic may be detrimental to advertising effectiveness (Zhang 15).
Marketers must also thoroughly understand the target market when using humor (Tyson 175). Furthermore, humor is more likely to enhance recall, evaluation, and purchase intention when the humorous message coincides with ad objectives, is well-integrated with those objectives, and is viewed appropriate for the product category (Alden et al. 64).
Another important factor was previously cited in regards to the ELM, as studies have demonstrated that low involvement and feeling-oriented products are best suited for humor (Gulas & Weinberger 57). Finally, the research by Gulas & Weinberger concluded that the use [of humor] is more successful with existing rather than new products (57).
The effectiveness of humor depends on a number of extraneous factors and its use is debated among researchers. Most researchers agree that the general benefits of humor include: increasing the audience s attention, creating positive emotions, and enhancing overall attitude toward the ad (Zinkhan IV), while its ability to increase comprehension and persuasion is limited (Zhang 15).
Moreover, the general consensus of this available research is that researchers need to ask when the use of humor in advertising is effective, rather than the more common question of whether humor enhances advertising effectiveness (Basu & Chattopadhyay 466). Thus, companies and advertising agencies must be very careful to thoroughly examine product, medium, and audience factors before creating humorous advertising campaigns. Furthermore, in order to use humor effectively, the relevant consumer behavior topics (i.e. level of involvement) should be examined.
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