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Accounting Essay Research Paper ACCOUNTING THE LIFELINE

Accounting Essay Research Paper ACCOUNTING THE LIFELINE

Accounting Essay, Research Paper

ACCOUNTING THE LIFE-LINE OF THE BUSINESS WORLD Christian De Church Professor Hercer Communications 215 April 18, 2000 Introduction What goes on in business and other organizations? How are their activities carried out? Who is responsible for them? And, what part does accounting play? These questions and many more are often thought about by many confused and mislead business majors. The main purpose of accounting is to provide useful, reliable, and timely information to people who make rational investments, credit, and similar decisions. Because accountants serve decisions makers by providing them with financial information that helps them make better decisions, accounting is often decried as a service activity. Decision makers who use accounting information include present and potential investors, lenders, managers, suppliers, customers, and other users. Accounting is used to provide information about all profit-oriented businesses. Accountants also provide information about nonprofit organizations such as churches, hospitals, museums, schools, and various government agencies. The people who use accounting information about nonprofit organizations include their managers and people who denote to or pay taxes to them, who use their services, or who otherwise work with them. Whether you are planning to be an accountant, an employee, a manager within an organization, or an external user of the information, a your knowledge of accounting will help you achieve more success in your career. The internal role of accounting is to serve the organization’s various functions by providing information that helps them complete their tasks. By providing this information, accounting helps departments such as Finance, Human Resources, Research and Development, Production, Marketing, and Executive Management reach their overall goals. Finance Department Every organization needs money to operate and grow. Organizations use money to acquire equipment, buildings, vehicles, and financial holdings. The finance department has the function of planning how to obtain money from sources such as payments from customers, loans from banks, and new investments from owners. In preparing plans, the finance department identifies and evaluates alternative sources of funds. In addition, finance analyzes alternative investment opportunities to identify which to take and which to reject. With this information, the finance department uses the accounting information about actual cash flows and evaluating past decisions to function. Human Resource Department All organizations require efforts from people. As a result. employees must be located, screened, hired, trained, compensated, promoted, and counseled. The human resource department function is responsible for handling all these tasks of the organizations. The accounting aspect that helps the human resource department function is the payroll and its costs. Employees need to be paid in order to work for the company and their wages or salaries are expenses to the company in which an organization must report for profits/losses and taxes. Research and Development Department As economics tells us, the law of supply and demand, companies need to find new ways to meet the needs of their customers and others. Thus, research and development into new technologies and products or services is essential. This may be as simple as testing a new recipe for pizza or as complex as creating a more powerful computer. Research and development managers need information about the costs they already incurred so they can decided whether to continue their projects. Production Division Many companies produce and then sell goods to their customers. Producing these goods requires planning and coordinating many specific activities. These activities include designing the production process, acquiring materials used in production, and selecting the workers’ skills to be applied are all ran by the production manager. The production division of the company depends heavily on accounting information to determine whether its operating costs are occurring as expected. In

carrying out its work, the production department operates within a set of internal controls designed by the accounting information. Internal controls dictate procedures that are necessary to ensure that accounting reports about production activities are dependable and useful. Marketing Department Companies can sell goods and services only if customers are willing to buy them. The marketing department provides customers information about goods and services and encourages their purchase. This includes sales efforts that involve contacting customers directly. The marketing department also includes advertising that provides information to large numbers of potential customers. The marketing managers use accounting information on reports about the company’s sales and its marketing costs. Executive Management Department All organizations must have leadership, vision, and coordination. Long-term strategies need to be established and employees must be motivated to do their best. These tasks are made the duty of the company’s executive managers, who also represent the company in dealing with the public. Because executive management has overall responsibility for the organization, it depends heavily on accounting information to understand what is happening. Executive managers do not have the time to visit each branch of their company to get a progress report on operations. This is why management gets a simplified statement of performance numbers, that are a valid representation, in which helps managers to understand what was done well and to identify where improvements might be made. Executive managers also receives and uses budget reports that describe future plans for the company. The preceding information about accounting shows how important accounting is for most organizations. Regardless of your career goals, you will surely use accounting information and work with accountants. Whether you want to be an accountant, plan to hold some other position in an organization, or expect to be an investor or creditor, you will benefit by understanding how accounting information is developed. Accounting, whether we like it or not, is always going to be apart of our everyday lives form reconciling a bank statement to auditing a major corporation. IN order to survive in the world today one should always have some understanding where source of life is coming from and how it is used as it pertains to you. Works Cited 1. Ideas and Concepts of Markets. JP Morgan. Online. Available: http://www.labmorgan.com/jobs/home.html. April 4, 2000 2. Understanding where it all comes from. Deloitte &Touche. Online. Available: http://www.dtonline.com/pfa/pfa.htm. April 4, 2000 3. Corner Stone of Business. Arthur Andersen. Online. Available: http://www.arthurandersen.com/acct/home.htm. April 4, 2000 4. Larson, D. Kermit. Accounting Principles Times Mirror Group, Inc. company New York. 1996 5. Interview source: De Church, D. James, CPA. (610) 631-0826. April 8, 2000 Introducing: Bob McGee Presentation given by: Christian De Church Date: April 18, 2000 Christian De Church, a sophomore at Widener University, is currently majoring in accounting. He is a current member of the Beta Alpha Psi Accounting Honors Fraternity, which updates the members on the latest trends and laws in the accounting field and tutors students in accounting courses. His college career in sports, thus far, has consisted of varsity football and club rugby. He is a brother of Theta Chi Fraternity and holds the position as Marshal, educating and guiding new members. As a sophomore he was elected secretary of the student government association of the student body. As secretary, he forms committees to enhance the student life outside of the classroom and am currently working with the Information Technology department to help set up online-voting for various elections. Three nights a week during the spring and fall he work as a tutor and mentor in Performance Academics Competition (PAC) Hall, where he tutors student athletes in business courses. He plans to graduate as an accounting major, work for the Big 5 in accounting firms, and move onto graduate school

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Реферат на тему Accounting Essay Research Paper ACCOUNTING THE LIFELINE

Accounting Essay, Research Paper

ACCOUNTING THE LIFE-LINE OF THE BUSINESS WORLD Christian De Church Professor Hercer Communications 215 April 18, 2000 Introduction What goes on in business and other organizations? How are their activities carried out? Who is responsible for them? And, what part does accounting play? These questions and many more are often thought about by many confused and mislead business majors. The main purpose of accounting is to provide useful, reliable, and timely information to people who make rational investments, credit, and similar decisions. Because accountants serve decisions makers by providing them with financial information that helps them make better decisions, accounting is often decried as a service activity. Decision makers who use accounting information include present and potential investors, lenders, managers, suppliers, customers, and other users. Accounting is used to provide information about all profit-oriented businesses. Accountants also provide information about nonprofit organizations such as churches, hospitals, museums, schools, and various government agencies. The people who use accounting information about nonprofit organizations include their managers and people who denote to or pay taxes to them, who use their services, or who otherwise work with them. Whether you are planning to be an accountant, an employee, a manager within an organization, or an external user of the information, a your knowledge of accounting will help you achieve more success in your career. The internal role of accounting is to serve the organization’s various functions by providing information that helps them complete their tasks. By providing this information, accounting helps departments such as Finance, Human Resources, Research and Development, Production, Marketing, and Executive Management reach their overall goals. Finance Department Every organization needs money to operate and grow. Organizations use money to acquire equipment, buildings, vehicles, and financial holdings. The finance department has the function of planning how to obtain money from sources such as payments from customers, loans from banks, and new investments from owners. In preparing plans, the finance department identifies and evaluates alternative sources of funds. In addition, finance analyzes alternative investment opportunities to identify which to take and which to reject. With this information, the finance department uses the accounting information about actual cash flows and evaluating past decisions to function. Human Resource Department All organizations require efforts from people. As a result. employees must be located, screened, hired, trained, compensated, promoted, and counseled. The human resource department function is responsible for handling all these tasks of the organizations. The accounting aspect that helps the human resource department function is the payroll and its costs. Employees need to be paid in order to work for the company and their wages or salaries are expenses to the company in which an organization must report for profits/losses and taxes. Research and Development Department As economics tells us, the law of supply and demand, companies need to find new ways to meet the needs of their customers and others. Thus, research and development into new technologies and products or services is essential. This may be as simple as testing a new recipe for pizza or as complex as creating a more powerful computer. Research and development managers need information about the costs they already incurred so they can decided whether to continue their projects. Production Division Many companies produce and then sell goods to their customers. Producing these goods requires planning and coordinating many specific activities. These activities include designing the production process, acquiring materials used in production, and selecting the workers’ skills to be applied are all ran by the production manager. The production division of the company depends heavily on accounting information to determine whether its operating costs are occurring as expected. In carrying out its work, the production department operates within a set of internal controls designed by the accounting information. Internal controls dictate procedures that are necessary to ensure that accounting reports about production activities are dependable and useful. Marketing Department Companies can sell goods and services only if customers are willing to buy them. The marketing department provides customers information about goods and services and encourages their purchase. This includes sales efforts that involve contacting customers directly. The marketing department also includes advertising that provides information to large numbers of potential customers. The marketing managers use accounting information on reports about the company’s sales and its marketing costs. Executive Management Department All organizations must have leadership, vision, and coordination. Long-term strategies need to be established and employees must be motivated to do their best. These tasks are made the duty of the company’s executive managers, who also represent the company in dealing with the public. Because executive management has overall responsibility for the organization, it depends heavily on accounting information to understand what is happening. Executive managers do not have the time to visit each branch of their company to get a progress report on operations. This is why management gets a simplified statement of performance numbers, that are a valid representation, in which helps managers to understand what was done well and to identify where improvements might be made. Executive managers also receives and uses budget reports that describe future plans for the company. The preceding information about accounting shows how important accounting is for most organizations. Regardless of your career goals, you will surely use accounting information and work with accountants. Whether you want to be an accountant, plan to hold some other position in an organization, or expect to be an investor or creditor, you will benefit by understanding how accounting information is developed. Accounting, whether we like it or not, is always going to be apart of our everyday lives form reconciling a bank statement to auditing a major corporation. IN order to survive in the world today one should always have some understanding where source of life is coming from and how it is used as it pertains to you. Works Cited 1. Ideas and Concepts of Markets. JP Morgan. Online. Available: http://www.labmorgan.com/jobs/home.html. April 4, 2000 2. Understanding where it all comes from. Deloitte &Touche. Online. Available: http://www.dtonline.com/pfa/pfa.htm. April 4, 2000 3. Corner Stone of Business. Arthur Andersen. Online. Available: http://www.arthurandersen.com/acct/home.htm. April 4, 2000 4. Larson, D. Kermit. Accounting Principles Times Mirror Group, Inc. company New York. 1996 5. Interview source: De Church, D. James, CPA. (610) 631-0826. April 8, 2000 Introducing: Bob McGee Presentation given by: Christian De Church Date: April 18, 2000 Christian De Church, a sophomore at Widener University, is currently majoring in accounting. He is a current member of the Beta Alpha Psi Accounting Honors Fraternity, which updates the members on the latest trends and laws in the accounting field and tutors students in accounting courses. His college career in sports, thus far, has consisted of varsity football and club rugby. He is a brother of Theta Chi Fraternity and holds the position as Marshal, educating and guiding new members. As a sophomore he was elected secretary of the student government association of the student body. As secretary, he forms committees to enhance the student life outside of the classroom and am currently working with the Information Technology department to help set up online-voting for various elections. Three nights a week during the spring and fall he work as a tutor and mentor in Performance Academics Competition (PAC) Hall, where he tutors student athletes in business courses. He plans to graduate as an accounting major, work for the Big 5 in accounting firms, and move onto graduate school

Toyota was founded by kiichiro toyoda - Free Information Technology Essay - Essay UK

Free Information Technology essays 1 Introduction 1.1 Company Overview

In 1937, Toyota was founded by Kiichiro Toyoda, son of Sakichi Toyoda, who created the Toyoda Automatic Loom Company. Toyota is a division of Toyoda Automatic Loom Works allocated to the production of automobiles under direction of Kiichiro Toyoda. Toyota's headquarter is in Toyota City, Aichi and in Tokyo. In addition to manufacturing automobiles, Toyota provide financial services to through its Toyota financial services division and also builds robots. Toyota Motor Corporation and Toyota Industries form the bulk of the Toyota Group, one of the largest corporations in the world.

2. What are the basic principles of Toyota's production system? To which areas of the organization do these principles apply? 2.1 Introduction to Toyota's Production system

The Toyota Production System (TPS) is a production system that sharped in the attitude of the complete elimination of all waste and that instills all aspects of production with this philosophy in search of the most efficient production method. (Toyota Motor Corporation, 2010) Beside organises manufacturing and logistics for automobile manufacturer, TPS also use to communicate with suppliers and customers. It originally called ‘Just In Time Production', as it builds on the approach created by Sakichi Toyoda, Kiichiro Toyoda and Taiichi Ohno. (Wikipedia, 2010) When all done, TPS brings order of importance progresses in material handling, inventory, quality, scheduling, and customer satisfaction. The recompense to shareholders is important and well acknowledged. (Strategos)

2.2 Basic principle of Toyota's production system

These are 7 principles of Toyota Production System; reduce set up time, small-lot production, employee involvement and empowerment, quality at the source, equipment maintenance, pull production and supplier involvement. (1000 advice)

2.2.1 Employee Involvement and Empowerment

Employee Involvement and Empowerment enable people to make decisions about their work. By forming a team, Toyota assigns their worker the task and training to do many specific tasks, this can help the human resource department and accounting and finance department to save up the training cost, salaries and wages as human resource department do not need hire a lot of workers. Each team has a leader who works in the same line, and the teams are also given the responsibility for house keeping and minor equipment repair. This also can help the company to save some repair and maintenance cost. (TAKTX, 2007)

2.2.2 Quality at the Source and Equipment Maintenance

In order to reduce waste related with defects in a process, the function of quality at the source focuses on the skills and knowledge in employees' hands to prevent defects from moving through the value stream as workers are at the best position to eliminate product defects. Employees are taught the minimum quality standard at each step of the process and authorized to correct defects or remove the defective item before the value-added activity is conducted. If the defect cannot be fixed, any worker can close down the line but other operations still can carry on. (TAKTX, 2007)

As for the equipment maintenance principle, Toyota operators are assigned primary duty for basic preservation since they are in the best position to defect signals of failures. Maintenance specialists analyse and fix only difficult troubles, improve the operation of equipment, and train workers in preservation. This can help the accounting and finance department save up the repair and maintenance costs and the wastages as the employees have the basic knowledge on how to identify the defective items and fix it. (TAKTX, 2007)

By using Andon, it will give different lights to show out which product failed to meet the quality standard (Red light) and which are in good condition (Green light) by using the electronic dashboard, plasma screen and overhead display. This will eventually help the sales and marketing department to make more sales as the products are in good quality and this also build up customers' confidence towards the company's products. (Learnsigma)

2.2.3 Pull production

Pull production also known as Just-In-Time (JIT) is a strategy that uses to reduce the central warehousing and storage costs and reduce wastages. (Toyota) By using Just-In-Time principle, Toyota can produce quality products efficiently through the complete removal of waste, variation, and illogical requirements on the production area. In order to distribute a vehicle requested by a customer as soon as possible, the vehicle is efficiently built within the shortest workable period. Toyota only starts to customise the car when they receive order from customers. The assembly line must stock with some parts so that any kind of vehicle ordered by the customer can be assembled. As there is no storage or warehousing is needed and no wastage on material, this will help accounting and finance department to cut down costs. (Nash, Poling, 2007)

3. How is TPS interconnected with the culture at Toyota? Are TPS and Toyota's culture interdependent? Could one exist without the other? 3.1 Introduction

Mostly people will think that Toyota Way is same as Toyota Production System (TPS), but it is not same. TPS is already included in the 14 principles of the Toyota Ways. TPS is the most efficient and well developed example of which principles of the Toyota Way can carry out. Toyota Way consists of the basic principles of Toyota culture, which consent to s the TPS to operate so successfully.

3.2 Toyota's 14 cultures

The main idea of the Toyota Way is to review the principles of the Toyota Way through the 4Ps model—Philosophy, Processes, People and Partners, and Problem Solving. (Liker, 2005) The Toyota's 14 cultures have divided into 4 sections. Section I is talking bout the Long-Term Philosophy; Section II is about The Right Process Will Produce the Right Results; Section III is tell us about Add Value to the Organization by Developing Your People; and Section IV is about the Continuously Solving Root Problems Drives Organizational Learning. (Scribd)

3.2.1 TPS interconnected with 14 Cultures

Toyota Way has stated that it is important to use “pull” system to prevent from produce good in the amount that are more than the customer required. (Liker, 2004) The pull production method has been developed as one of its principles in TPS to reduce stock holding costs and lead times by Toyota. (TMMK, 2010) One of the main concepts of TPS, Pull Production also known as "Just-in-Time", also being recognised as reduce stock holding costs and lead times. Toyota improved the pull production method in which the quantity of work performed at each stage of the process is determined exclusively by demand for materials from the immediate next stage.

Promotes creativity, nonstop upgrading, and improvement by encouraging employees' participation and that similarly creates high levels of employees' loyalty to the company is the attraction of a human resources management system by empowering its workers. (Kotelnikov, 2001) Most of the process improvement idea that produced by Toyota employees has been put into action. Teamwork is very important in Toyota's management as the leader of each team is those who are capable that also work in the same line with their teammates. (Liker, 2004) Toyota culture is to have a high opinion of its partners by challenging and helping them to improve. Toyota treats suppliers much like they treat their employees, challenging them to do better and helping them to achieve it. Toyota provides cross functional teams to help suppliers discover and fix problems so that they can become a stronger, better supplier. (Lean Deployment) Toyota treats them as its own extension of business. (Liker, 2004)

Build a culture of stopping to solve problems and to get quality right at the first time is similar to the Jidoka which is one of the basic perceptions of TPS. Any employee in the Toyota Production System has the authority to stop the process to signal a quality issue. (Lean Deployment) Toyota Way's principle also emphasis that visual control is used so that, there is no unknown problem. (Liker, 2004) If the employee does not know where the problem happen, he/she cannot do anything to fix it. Eventually, here comes in the Andon system, which is a display board that helps to monitor the production process. (TMMK, 2010)

3.3 TPS and Toyota's culture is interdependent

The Toyota Production system is a combined and interdependent system involving many aspects. The Toyota Production System has been an extremely good success at Toyota, but much less useful in other locations. (Greene) The industrial engineering genius at the back of the TPS is the leader of Toyota Manufacturing and Shigeo Shingo, Mr. Taiichi Ohno. These sources explore some significant differences between TPS at Toyota, and recent less successful application to a different place. All elements of the Toyota Production System systems are therefore interdependent and focused on the goals of adding value and eliminating waste. All require focus, flexibility, trained and motivated staff, continuous learning and improvement. (Greene)

The system that the companies have tried to implement can be found in fields as diverse as aerospace, consumer products, metals processing, and industrial product. (Spear, Bowen, 1999) For TPS to work effectively, it needs to be implemented in its entirety, not bit by bit. Each element of TPS will only fully develop if grown in an environment that contains and encourages the philosophies and managerial practices needed to support it. (Liker & Hoseus, 2008) The managerial culture for TPS is caused in several factors, including developing and sustaining a sense of trust, a commitment to involve those affected by teamwork, equal and fair treatment for all, and fact-based decision making and long-term thinking. All of these aspects must be in place and in practice for TPS to truly grow and provide the high-quality, high-productivity results it is capable of producing. TPS uses the chance to develop its exceptional workers in terms of productivity and job satisfaction with the support of Toyota Way. Based on mutual trust between people, a working environment is built and this will instantly involves the process of work remarkably in the passing on jobs from suppliers to firms. The lean management requires more highly developed people and deeper trust than in a mass-production system (Liker & Hoseus, 2008).

4 Describe how information system support each of the business process describe in this case 4.1 Business Process

A business process is a collection of related, planned activities that deliver a particular service or product for a particular customer or market. It is also a set of coordinated tasks and activities, carried out by both people and equipment that will escort to achieving a specific organizational objective. It means a great importance on how the work is done within and organization, in compare to a product's focus on what. Therefore a process is a specific ordering of work activities across time and place, with a beginning, an end, and clearly defined inputs and outputs like a structure for action. It often can be imagined with a flowchart as a categorization of activities.

It begins with the customer's requirement and ends with the customer's need satisfaction. Process oriented organizations break down the difficulties of having structure departments and try to stay away from functional silos. Afunctional siloexists when thebusiness processesof a functional unit within thesection of labourof an organization focus privately on their functional objectives. This becomes awkward when the tendency of focus creates barriers that do not serve a reasonablebusiness purposeand negatively crashes the unit's ability to serve their role in the broader mission of the organization. A business process can be collapsed into several sub-processes, which have their own characteristic s, but also play a role in achieving the goal of the super-process. The planning of processes and sub-processes down to activity level is typically includes in the analysis of business process. Business Processes are designed to make a product or service more desirable for the customer and should not include redundant activities Business Processes can be developed through a large number of methods and techniques. For example, the Business Process Modeling Notation is a Business Process Modeling technique that can be used for drawing business processes in a workflow.

4.2 Functional Business process

There are 4 functional areas in a business. Manufacturing and production department's function is to assemble the product, checking the quality and produce bills of materials. Sales and marketing department's responsibility is to indentify the customers, create the customers awareness and sell good to customers. Finance and accounting department need to pay the creditors, create financial statement and manage the cash account. The last functional area is Human resources department. Their job is to hire employees and evaluate the performance and enrolling employees in benefits plans.

4.2.1 Enterprise Resource Planning

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is an enterprise system that provides single information system for organization with wide coordination and integration of key business processes. The function of ERP is to collect data from various function areas and store the data in a single storage. It enables different system to share information and to work closely with each other. For ERP, when customer places an order, the sales and marketing department will send the order to the warehouse and the warehouse will pick the ordered product and schedule shipment and inform the factory to restock whatever used up. The accounting department will be notified to send customer invoice. The customer service representative will track the progress and inform the customer about their order status. EPR provide valuable information for improving the company management and decision making. The corporate headquarter can have access to up to the minutes data to check for the accurate sales, forecasts and to analyze overall product profitability or cost structure.

The common functional areas of operation in most companies would include Marketing and Sales; Manufacturing and Production; Accounting and Finance; and Human Resources. ERP software was designed to get rid of the difficulties to share data and processes that happen when companies design and apply information systems for a single function or activity. SAP ERP is a solution for Tata Iron and steel company Limited (TISCO). The steel major's rapid response to market change and shifting to customer point of reference from product combined with the performance of ERP will speak more than measurements of their success for the suitable action. The company is now able to obtain benefits in all aspect and make further progress in each and every operation of an enterprise. (ERPwire2009)

4.2.2 Supply Chain Management

Supply Chain Management (SCM) system is an automate flow of information between firm and suppliers to optimize production and delivery. It is a close relation of activities involved in buying, making and moving the product. The objective of SCM is to get right amount of their products from their sources to targeted point with least amount of time and cost. If the company and suppliers do not have accurate information, excessive inventories, in accurate manufacturing plans and missed production schedules will happen in the company. SCM helps manufacturing and production department to decide when and what to produce, store and move. It helps the firm to communicate orders rapidly, track the order status and check inventory available and monitor inventory levels. Besides that, SCM also help them to reduce the inventory, transportation and warehousing cost. They help to track shipments; plan production based in actual customer demand, and rapidly communicates changes in product design.

Dell‘s strategy is to provide customized, low cost, and quality computers that are delivered on time. Dell successfully implemented this strategy through its efficient manufacturing operations, better supply chain management and direct sales model. Dell takes orders directly from its customers through on phone or online. Thus, Dell reduces total cost of PC for the customer as the no need to go through any agent. By directly dealing with the customer, Dell gets a clearer indication of market trends. This helps Dell to plan for future besides better managing its supply chain. It is easier for Dell to get the customers requirements regarding the software to be loaded if they deal with the customers directly. Dell will check all the ordered software before they dispatch it. It helps customers to save time and cost as they no need to hire PC support engineer to load the software. They can use the PCs the moment they arrive. (SCM Case Study)

4.2.3 Customer Relationship Management

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is manages way that used to deal with existing and potential customers. It uses information systems to coordinate all customer interaction processes in sales, marketing and service. It tracks all customer interactions. It also helps to analyze data to optimize revenue, profitability, customer satisfaction and customer retention. CRM help the sales and marketing department spot underserved markets, reward your best customers, fine-tune advertising campaigns, and predict new opportunities. (Fitter, 2010) By using customer relationship management (CRM) tools, Termite Extermination Inc. was able to develop and implement a marketing plan that increased sales dramatically. (Ward) Car manufacturing business will be the best example of CRM if they sell directly to the end users. They have to maintain the database about what the customers prefer when they want to buy cars and keep the database up-to-date. The manufacturer will knows what the customer needs and wants and this will be easier for them to target each customer. To build up the relationship with the customer, they can remind the customers of service dates, product recall and maybe send seasonal cards to customers. (BPC) Toyota have make a comparison of a recent before and after marketing campaign and it showed a 70 percent reduction of non-target customers being mailed, an 80 percent reduction in campaign costs, a 50 percent reduction in campaign development time and a 60 percent increase in campaign ROI. In the next few years, Toyota will contribute between $5 million and $10 million (in U.S. dollars) of additional contribution each year to the sales company by using Lean CRM. (Hill, 2006)

4.2.4 Knowledge Management Systems

Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) help to collect relevant knowledge and experience in firm to support business processes and management decisions. KMS helps to manage and distribute documents and other digital knowledge object. Capturing corporate knowledge involves more than software and technology, it requires a strong document management software and cultural transformation of how information is generated, processed, stored, distributed and turned into innovation. With KMS, the company can share of valuable organizational information throughout the organizational hierarchy. The manufacturing and production department can avoid re-inventing the wheel and reduce redundant work. The human resources department may reduce the training time for new employees. Retention of Intellectual Property after the employee leaves if such knowledge can be codified. With the support by KMS, the experts of BP can respond immediately to operational issues in real times from support centres thank to collaboration technologies and remote data access tools that bring the problem to them. (BP, 2010)

5.0 Conclusion

Toyota Production System is a very useful system and it helps Toyota to earn more revenue. TPS is interconnected and interdependent with the Toyota's Culture as without one of them, Toyota will not be so successful as today. From the above, can see that how TPS help company's functional area. By using it, company can operate smoothly and can generate lots of revenues.

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Men Online Shopping - Buy Men - s Shoes, Apparels, Accessories, Fragrances Online in India

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Online Shopping for men

Shopping is now no more a woman’s pre-engagement activity, nor is it a woman’s favorite stress-buster! While the fairer sex always got its bite in the world of the latest fashion for women. it hasn’t been the same for men. The realm of fashion has grown beyond boundaries and has created a special liking for it amongst men. Men today have started realizing that shopping is no more a woman’s thing, they also enjoy shopping as much as women do. With the evolution of online shopping, they have even started engaging themselves in product selection actively. Men do care about what they wear. And it is so attractive. Men’s fashion has finally come of age. If earlier, men only wore blacks, blue and white, today, a whole spectrum of colors has been infused to the world of men’s fashion wear. Pink is no longer boycotted. And orange, deep reds, pastel greens and more are commonplace in their color palette and wardrobe. If earlier, men were only wearing regular shirts, suits and trousers, the modern-age dainty man wears his heart on his sleeve with funky t-shirts, quirky shorts, metro sexual accessories and more! Skinny pants are in vogue, so are sleeveless ganjis. And that speaks volumes about the evolution in men’s fashion. There is no end to exploration and experimentation in this domain now.

From those times when the vaguely-fashionable souls used to follow their counterparts from store to store and panic silently about carrying those loaded shopping bags, the time has come when shopping has been confined to a comfortable corner of everyone’s room. Now, men do not need to stand in those long queues and wait for the billing to process while their wives or girlfriends continue to check newer stuff. Gone are those days when men dreaded the idea of shopping by its name only and made excuses to escape it from far away! Online shopping has gifted men with much relief and comfort. Men can now comfortably indulge in the latest trends in men’s fashion. They have now started sitting beside their female friends, counterparts and girlfriends to participate in shopping shenanigans.

They do not have to debate and comment about shopping anymore as everything from lifestyle products, kids’ fashion. clothing, shoes and accessories to sports goods, beauty products and personal care are available online.

Now, boys do not need to raise a fit over the disliking for a certain shirt or trouser bought by their women. Top-notch brands like Fastrack, Lee, Lee Cooper, Converse, Allen Solly and more offer enviable ranges of men’s shoes. shirts and more online at a reasonable price range. Check out what all is available for men at your trusted online megastore Jabong.com:

Shoes for men

Men are known by their shoes, no doubt! The moment you look over a man wearing a polished, neat pair of dress shoes, you know he is a gentleman! Shoes can totally make or break a man’s attire, so choosing the perfect pair is a task indeed. Brands like Andrew Hill, Nike, Balujas, American Swan, Clarks, DC and more have their online collection full of stylish and trendy shoes for men. From sports shoes to formal shoes, moccasins, loafers, boat shoes, flip-flops, sandals, boots and slippers men, they can have their best pick online right here. Want to know the new fashion trends for men? Check out Jabong’s fashion magazine, the Juice, to get the juiciest take on fashion.

Clothing for men

While men’s fashion clothing has many options to offer, dressing for occasions and as per the needs is a trendy and smart man’s choice. He needs to look sharp and unique anywhere he goes. Casual and formal wear for men can be looked for in brands like UCB, Wrangler, Blue Saint, Arrow, Park Avenue, Raymond and more of the likes. Summer wear for men in colorful prints is also a rage that can be chosen from a wide variety available online at Jabong.com. Be it men’s shirts, t-shirts, trousers, jeans or shorts, now every boy has zillions of choices of these summer essentials. Even the range of winter wear for men is wide enough to suit all occasions. Make your choice from the range of men’s fashion clothing available at Jabong.com including sweaters, winter jackets, mufflers, thermals to cardigans. Whatever you choose, don’t let there be a dull moment in the realm of fashion wear for men.

Until and unless one is comfortable from within, one can’t stay stylish and carefree from outside. Choosing the perfect fitting innerwear for men is a task, but online shopping can contribute significantly in making it easier. Check out our latest menswear collection and select some of the finest outfits for yourself. Designer suits for men need to be customized and very precisely designed as men like a minimalistic approach towards dressing up. Designer brands can make this happen in no time. Pick your favorites from our wide range of men’s clothing and get set to make an impression.

Jewellery for men

Like women, jewellery for men is also an essential part of their style vignettes. Stylish rings, bracelets, tech accessories and cufflinks form a major part of their accessory collection. For clubbing or attending an-after office party, those sophisticated cufflinks make a huge statement amongst the crowd.

Accessories for men

Satin ties lend a sober and courteous appeal for those corporate meetings and evening parties. The choice of a wallet also depicts a man’s nature and speaks a lot about him. Leather wallets for men leave an impeccable mark on others. Pair up your neat formal look with a brown or tan wallet from brands like Phosphorus, Hidesign, Adidas, Baggit and more. Watches can’t be missed out when speaking about men’s accessories. Titan, Puma, Casio, Sonata, Maxima, Adidas, DKNY have amazing chronograph, digital and analog watches for men online. Sunglasses also make an important part of the collection of accessories for men. Just a pair of Ray Ban sunglasses would be enough to up the look to the next level.

Perfumes for men

When it comes to making a statement, it can be done through various ways. Carrying one’s typical favorite perfume is also one of them. Perfumes for men essentially need to be strong, masculine, captivating and sensuous. Depending upon the occasion and place, one needs to wear a certain specific fragrance. Axe and Burberry make some of the top names in this list.

Bags for men

What makes the most significant part of one’s personality is a bag, without which both men and women can’t do! While men prefer carrying a backpack most of the time, brands like Nike, Wildcraft, Adidas and American Tourister well understand their needs and offer a varied range of bags and backpacks for men.

Men’s online shopping can be done conveniently here at the Jabong.com megastore, where one can have a variety in products varying from shirts to beauty products for men. Jabong.com is a complete fashion store for men, offering the best of discounts and several benefits like smooth shipping, easy return/exchange, COD, gift-wrapping, etc. For men who always like to make the most of their hard-earned money, GOSF India sale is coming soon! Stay tuned!