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Research Paper How To Write Conclusion Of Project

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Research paper introduction and conclusion

How to write a research paper? - Part VI 6. Introduction and conclusion.

Now that you know exactly what you are about to introduce, you can write an introductory section to your paper. You can use your introduction to do the following:

  1. point out the timeliness or value of your research;
  2. define an abstract or special term used in your thesis;
  3. explain why you have taken this particular aspect of your topic;
  4. inform your reader of the various aspects of your topic other than the one you have chosen;
  5. give pertinent anecdote that provides a direct means of leading into your topic;
  6. summarize how you have approached your topic.

Whatever your approach, your introduction should be relevant; it should gain the immediate attention of your reader, and it should clarify your thesis in some way.

The conclusion of the research paper is the most valuable single part of it. All the material you have gathered means nothing to your reader until you present the conclusion you have reached as a result of your research. Restate your thesis and show what the material you have presented adds up to. Analyze and evaluate your main points for your reader; also consider the consequences and general implications of them to your conclusion. Although no actual new information is usually introduced in the concluding paragraphs, the conclusion is the only "original" contribution you offer in your paper. It manifests the value of your research as well as your understanding of the material that you have presented. It should be a strong recapitulation of your major ideas.

Good luck with your research paper!

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Write conclusion research paper - Do My Research Paper For Me

Write conclusion research paper

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How to Write a Conclusion to a Science Research Paper

How to Write a Conclusion to a Science Research Paper

If you are accustomed to writing essays, you probably have experienced some trepidation about writing conclusions -- largely because you have endless options about how to wrap up your essay on precisely the right note. But if you're about to write a conclusion to a science research paper. you're in for a pleasant surprise. Most science research papers at the college level conform to the style of the American Psychological Association. which refers to the conclusion as the “discussion” portion. There is a four-step, seamless process to writing such a conclusion, and all four steps require that you ask yourself pointed and poignant questions about the research you have just conducted.

Explain, Interpret Findings

Explain and interpret the results of your scientific research. Lay out the facts in a straightforward manner. Explain what you found and discovered. Include numbers and statistics. Revisit your hypothesis and explain how your data supported or failed to support your hypothesis. Take the next step of interpreting your findings in the context of previous research and studies on the subject. Describe how your findings were consistent or inconsistent with previous work. Do your best to explain those consistencies or inconsistencies. Don't hold back on rendering your opinions; in fact, your instructor probably will evaluate you on your analytical skills. Adopt a rational and logical point of view and support your ideas in concrete terms.

Describe Your Contributions

Segue to describing what your scientific research has contributed to the field. Explain why it was important and what gap it filled. To some extent, you must adopt the mindset of a forecaster in describing the potential implications of your findings. Tout why your research project matters, what difference it will make and what changes it might inspire. Strive for a reasoned and balanced tone.

Define the Limitations

Define the limitations or shortcomings of your scientific research. remembering that it's a rare project that proceeds exactly as intended. For example, assuming that your science project involved a survey, with the benefit of hindsight. you might wish that you had increased the sample size. Or you might reword some questions that respondents found confusing. No honest researcher would say, “I conducted this science project perfectly from beginning to end.” Your instructor probably will evaluate your judgment and critical-thinking skills in this portion of the conclusion, so be honest. If you need a few days to adopt a fair-minded attitude, take it.

Suggest Future Research

Proffer suggestions for future study in the field. With any luck, some ideas occurred to you during the course of your research -- often landing under the heading of, “If only I had more time, I would. ” Think back to those moments and present realistic ideas for future research. Then expound on why you think these ideas are worthwhile and important to the field. Push yourself to present provocative ideas. well beyond, “This project could be improved by including more participants.” The veracity of any research project is not necessarily measured by size alone. Your instructor probably will reward you for your creative thinking style and your skill at concluding your science research paper on a compelling, forward-looking note.

Here’s how to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

Here’s how to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

Conclusion is the final obligatory paragraph of any project. It doesn’t include any new information, but it is very important for the logical completeness of the paper. Conclusions for different assignment types differ. Here’s how to write a conclusion for a research paper.

Questions a Good Conclusion Covers

A good research paper conclusion

  • repeats your topic;
  • reminds why your research is important;
  • echoes your thesis statement and hypothesis;
  • briefly summarizes key findings;
  • explains how these findings can be used;
  • offers options for further research.

Here are guiding questions which will help you draft an effective research paper conclusion without the unnecessary elbow grease:

  1. What did your thesis statement say?
    E.g. A healthy diet is an important lifestyle choice that is essential for an individual’s career success. By saying ‘no’ to junk food, a person boosts a will power and makes an important investment in personal development.
  2. What were your main research questions?
    E.g. The current study has revealed a direct link between healthy lifestyles of top managers and their professional achievements.
  3. What did you find out?
    E.g. Most successful businessmen confess that a conscious choice of healthy eating gives them extra energy and inspiration.
  4. Who and how can use your findings?
    E.g. These findings can be helpful for anyone who is interested in career, professional development and personal wellbeing.
  5. Is there room for further research?
    Further research of the effects of healthy eating on academic performance of college students can have valuable implications for educational sphere, whereas the principles of healthy diets can be made a part of curriculum.
Main Elements of a Research Paper Conclusion

A good conclusion goes beyond mere summary of what has been said in the previous chapters. Without adding any new information, it should help readers see the main findings from a fresh perspective. It’s easier to write a good conclusion if you use this formula:

Another good example of a research paper conclusion:

The legendary Beatles, the British pop music sensation, have had an immense influence on popular culture and rock music of the second half of the twentieth century. The talents of songwriters, personal charisma of the band and original love lyrics were recognized by most of their fans as the main reasons behind the phenomenon of Beatle-mania. Despite the attempts of their followers to copy their style, the success of the Beatles remained inimitable. Therefore, the analysis of the main reasons behind the band popularity can be of cultural and historical but not practical value. Further research of their contemporary followers could shed more light on the band’s influence on modern culture.

Useful Phrases for Your Research Paper Conclusion

To combine the different parts of your research paper conclusion into a whole and to make them flow, you may need some of the following words and phrases:

*Kindly note that the well-known ‘in conclusion’ and ‘to sum it all up’ are not on this list of recommended vocabulary.
E.g. Cartoons characters might have significant effects on children’s psychological development, which is later displayed in their behavioral patterns. At a stage when children’s minds are developing and quickly absorbing the information they receive, parents need to be careful and selective about what they expose their kids to. From the research that has been carried out, it can be concluded that children who spend a substantial amount of time watching TV often fantasize about the lives the characters are living. Children who view shows in which violence seems realistic and remains unpunished are more likely to imitate it in their lives. The results should be applicable to education of would-be and today’s parents. Further research on possible positive effects of positive characters is desirable for receiving deeper insight into the mechanisms through which cartoons characters are influencing children’s development and psychology.

How NOT to Write a Research Paper Conclusion

You can easily avoid major time wastes, if you stay away from the following common errors:

  1. Twist ending. Avoid surprising readers in the introduction part. Avoid including any new information and/or changing your mind as to the main question. Your conclusion should be predictable and logical.
  2. Obvious remarks. ‘In conclusion’, ‘to sum it up’ or ‘in summary’ are just meaningless phrases. Readers can see how much of the text is left and these too obvious phrases can irritate them.
  3. Mere summary. A brief summary is just one step in how to write a research paper conclusion, but it’s not all you need.
  4. Apologizing. Trying not to make your conclusion too categorical, you may want to add something like ‘but I’m not an expert’ or ‘In my humble opinion’. Don’t hesitate that your research deserves attention and be sure to show it in the conclusion. There’s a special section for discussing some possible limitations of your study, but it goes before conclusion.

That was a comprehensive guide on how to write a conclusion for a research paper. Do you have any questions left? Feel free to comment below.

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Academic and Professional Writing: Writing a Research Paper

Writing a Research Paper

This page lists some of the stages involved in writing a library-based research paper.

Although this list suggests that there is a simple, linear process to writing such a paper, the actual process of writing a research paper is often a messy and recursive one, so please use this outline as a flexible guide.

Discovering, Narrowing, and Focusing a Researchable Topic
  • Try to find a topic that truly interests you
  • Try writing your way to a topic
  • Talk with your course instructor and classmates about your topic
  • Pose your topic as a question to be answered or a problem to be solved
Finding, Selecting, and Reading Sources

You will need to look at the following types of sources:

  • library catalog, periodical indexes, bibliographies, suggestions from your instructor
  • primary vs. secondary sources
  • journals, books, other documents
Grouping, Sequencing, and Documenting Information

The following systems will help keep you organized:

  • a system for noting sources on bibliography cards
  • a system for organizing material according to its relative importance
  • a system for taking notes
Writing an Outline and a Prospectus for Yourself

Consider the following questions:

  • What is the topic?
  • Why is it significant?
  • What background material is relevant?
  • What is my thesis or purpose statement?
  • What organizational plan will best support my purpose?
Writing the Introduction

In the introduction you will need to do the following things:

  • present relevant background or contextual material
  • define terms or concepts when necessary
  • explain the focus of the paper and your specific purpose
  • reveal your plan of organization
Writing the Body
  • Use your outline and prospectus as flexible guides
  • Build your essay around points you want to make (i.e. don't let your sources organize your paper)
  • Integrate your sources into your discussion
  • Summarize, analyze, explain, and evaluate published work rather than merely reporting it
  • Move up and down the "ladder of abstraction" from generalization to varying levels of detail back to generalization
Writing the Conclusion
  • If the argument or point of your paper is complex, you may need to summarize the argument for your reader.
  • If prior to your conclusion you have not yet explained the significance of your findings or if you are proceeding inductively, use the end of your paper to add your points up, to explain their significance.
  • Move from a detailed to a general level of consideration that returns the topic to the context provided by the introduction.
  • Perhaps suggest what about this topic needs further research.
Revising the Final Draft
  • Check overall organization: logical flow of introduction, coherence and depth of discussion in body, effectiveness of conclusion.
  • Paragraph level concerns: topic sentences, sequence of ideas within paragraphs, use of details to support generalizations, summary sentences where necessary, use of transitions within and between paragraphs.
  • Sentence level concerns: sentence structure, word choices, punctuation, spelling.
  • Documentation : consistent use of one system, citation of all material not considered common knowledge, appropriate use of endnotes or footnotes, accuracy of list of works cited.

Last updated: August 29, 2014

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How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper: 15 Steps

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

The conclusion of a research paper needs to summarize the content and purpose of the paper without seeming too wooden or dry. Every basic conclusion must share several key elements, but there are also several tactics you can play around with to craft a more effective conclusion and several you should avoid in order to prevent yourself from weakening your paper's conclusion. Here are some writing tips to keep in mind when creating the conclusion for your next research paper.

Steps Edit Part One of Three:
Writing a Basic Conclusion Edit

Restate the topic.You should briefly restate the topic as well as explaining why it is important. [1] [2]
  • Do not spend a great amount of time or space restating your topic.
  • A good research paper will make the importance of your topic apparent, so you do not need to write an elaborate defense of your topic in the conclusion.
  • Usually a single sentence is all you need to restate your topic.
  • An example would be if you were writing a paper on the epidemiology of an infectious disease, you might say something like "Tuberculosis is a widespread infectious disease that affects millions of people worldwide every year." [3]
  • Yet another example from the humanities would be a paper about the Italian Renaissance: "The Italian Renaissance was an explosion of art and ideas centered around artists, writers, and thinkers in Florence." [4]

Restate your thesis.Aside from the topic, you should also restate or rephrase your thesis statement. [5]
  • A thesis is a narrowed, focused view on the topic at hand.
  • This statement should be rephrased from the thesis you included in your introduction. It should not be identical or too similar to the sentence you originally used.
  • Try re-wording your thesis statement in a way that complements your summary of the topic of your paper in your first sentence of your conclusion.
  • An example of a good thesis statement, going back to the paper on tuberculosis, would be "Tuberculosis is a widespread disease that affects millions of people worldwide every year. Due to the alarming rate of the spread of tuberculosis, particularly in poor countries, medical professionals are implementing new strategies for the diagnosis, treatment, and containment of this disease ." [6]

Briefly summarize your main points. Essentially, you need to remind your reader what you told them in the body of the paper. [7]
  • A good way to go about this is to re-read the topic sentence of each major paragraph or section in the body of your paper.
  • Find a way to briefly restate each point mentioned in each topic sentence in your conclusion. Do not repeat any of the supporting details used within your body paragraphs.
  • Under most circumstances, you should avoid writing new information in your conclusion. This is especially true if the information is vital to the argument or research presented in your paper.
  • For example, in the TB paper you could summarize the information. "Tuberculosis is a widespread disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Due to the alarming rate of the spread of tuberculosis, particularly in poor countries, medical professionals are implementing new strategies for the diagnosis, treatment, and containment of this disease. In developing countries, such as those in Africa and Southeast Asia, the rate of TB infections is soaring. Crowded conditions, poor sanitation, and lack of access to medical care are all compounding factors in the spread of the disease. Medical experts, such as those from the World Health Organization are now starting campaigns to go into communities in developing countries and provide diagnostic testing and treatments. However, the treatments for TB are very harsh and have many side effects. This leads to patient non-compliance and spread of multi-drug resistant strains of the disease." [8]

Add the points up. If your paper proceeds in an inductive manner and you have not fully explained the significance of your points yet, you need to do so in your conclusion. [9]
  • Note that this is not needed for all research papers.
  • If you already fully explained what the points in your paper mean or why they are significant, you do not need to go into them in much detail in your conclusion. Simply restating your thesis or the significance of your topic should suffice.
  • It is always best practice to address important issues and fully explain your points in the body of your paper. The point of a conclusion to a research paper is to summarize your argument for the reader and, perhaps, to call the reader to action if needed.

Make a call to action when appropriate. If and when needed, you can state to your readers that there is a need for further research on your paper's topic.
  • Note that a call for action is not essential to all conclusions. A research paper on literary criticism, for instance, is less likely to need a call for action than a paper on the effect that television has on toddlers and young children.
  • A paper that is more likely to call readers to action is one that addresses a public or scientific need. Let's go back to our example on tuberculosis. This is a very serious disease that is spreading quickly and with antibiotic resistant forms.
  • A call to action in this research paper would be a follow-up statement that might be along the lines of "Despite new efforts to diagnose and contain the disease, more research is needed to develop new antibiotics that will treat the most resistant strains of tuberculosis and ease the side effects of current treatments.". [10]

Stick with a basic synthesis of information. [11] The most basic conclusion is the summary closing, which is very similar to the paper's introduction.
  • Since this sort of conclusion is so basic, it is vital that you aim to synthesize the information rather than merely summarizing it.
  • Instead of merely repeating things you already said, rephrase your thesis and supporting points in a way that ties them all together.
  • By doing so, you make your research paper seem like a "complete thought" rather than a collection of random and vaguely related ideas.

Bring things full circle. [12] Tie your research paper together by directly linking your introduction with your conclusion. There are several ways to do this.
  • Ask a question in your introduction. In your conclusion, restate the question and provide a direct answer.
  • Write an anecdote or story in your introduction but do not share the ending. Instead, write the conclusion to the anecdote in the conclusion of your paper.
  • For example, if you wanted to get more creative and put a more humanistic spin on a paper on tuberculosis you might start your introduction with a story about a person with the disease, and refer to that story in your conclusion. For example, you could say something like this before you re-state your thesis in your conclusion: "Patient X was unable to complete the treatment for tuberculosis due to severe side effects and unfortunately succumbed to the disease."
  • Use the same concepts and images introduced in your introduction in your conclusion. The images may or may not appear at other points throughout the research paper.

Close with logic. If your research paper presented multiple sides of an issue, use your conclusion to state a logical opinion formed by your evidence.
  • Include enough information about your topic to back the statement up but do not get too carried away with excess detail.
  • If your research did not provide you with a clear-cut answer to a question posed in your thesis, do not be afraid to indicate as much.
  • Restate your initial hypothesis and indicate whether you still believe it or if the research you performed has begun swaying your opinion.
  • Indicate that an answer may still exist and that further research could shed more light on the topic at hand.

Pose a question. Instead of handing the reader the conclusion, you are asking the reader to form his or her own conclusion.
  • This may not be appropriate for all types of research papers. Most research papers, such as one on effective treatment for diseases, will have the information to make the case for a particular argument already in the paper.
  • A good example of a paper that might ask a question of the reader in the ending is one about a social issue, such as poverty or government policy.
  • Ask a question that will directly get at the heart or purpose of the paper. This question is often the same question, or some version of it, that you may have started out with when you began your research.
  • Make sure that the question can be answered by the evidence presented in your paper.
  • If desired, you can briefly summarize the answer after stating the question. You could also leave the question hanging for the reader to answer, though.

Make a suggestion. If you are including a call to action in your conclusion, you could provide your reader with a recommendation on how to proceed with further research.
  • Even without a call to action, you can still make a recommendation to your reader.
  • For instance, if you are writing about a topic like third-world poverty, you can various ways for the reader to assist in the problem without necessarily calling for more research.
  • Another example would be, in a paper about treatment for drug resistant tuberculosis, you could suggest making a donation to the World Health Organization or research foundations which are developing new treatments for the disease.

Avoid saying "in conclusion" or similar sayings. This includes "in summary" or "in closing."
  • These sayings usually sound stiff, unnatural, or trite when used in writing.
  • Moreover, using a phrase like "in conclusion" to begin your conclusion is a little too straight-forward and tends to lead to a weak conclusion. A strong conclusion can stand on its own without being labelled as such.

Do not wait until the conclusion to state your thesis. While it may be tempting to save your thesis in order to create a dramatic end to your paper, doing so will create a paper that seems less cohesive and more unorganized.
  • Always state the main argument or thesis in the introduction. A research paper is an analytical discussion of an academic topic, not a mystery novel.
  • A good, effective research paper will allow your reader to follow your main argument from start to finish.
  • This is why it is best practice to start your paper with an introduction that states your main argument, and to end the paper with a conclusion that re-states your thesis for re-iteration.

Leave out new information. [13] A new idea, new subtopic, or new evidence is too significant to save until the conclusion.
  • All significant information should be introduced in the body of the paper.
  • Supporting evidence expands the topic of your paper by making it appear more detailed. A conclusion should narrow the topic to a more general point.
  • A conclusion should only summarize what you have already stated in the body of your paper.
  • You may make a suggestion for further research or a call to action, but you should not bring in any new evidence or facts in the conclusion.

Avoid changing the tone of the paper. The tone of your research paper should be consistent the entire way through.
  • Most often, a shift in tone occurs when a research paper with an academic tone is give an emotional or sentimental conclusion.
  • Even if the topic of the paper is of personal significance for you, you should not indicate as much in your paper.
  • If you want to give your paper a more humanistic slant, you could start and end your paper with a story or anecdote that would give your topic more personal meaning to the reader.
  • This tone should be consistent throughout the paper, however.

Make no apologies. Do not make statements that downplay your authority or discoveries.
  • Apologetic statements include phrases like "I may not be an expert" or "This is only my opinion."
  • Statements like this can usually be avoided by refraining from writing in the first-person.
  • Avoid any statements in the first-person. First person is generally considered to be very informal and does not fit with the formal tone of a research paper.

Writing good conclusion research paper - Can You Write My Assignment From Scratch

Writing good conclusion research paper

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