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Forces and Motion
What is a Velocity - Time Graph?
A velocity - time graph shows
how an objects velocity (how fast it is moving ) changes with time.
Velocity - Time Graphs for
Constant Velocity and Constant Acceleration.
The picture below shows a velocity - time graph
for an object with a velocity that does not change.
The straight horizontal line in the graph above shows
that the objects velocity does not change as time goes by.
The object is said to have a constant velocity .
Compare this with the distance - time graph for constant velocity.
The picture below shows a velocity - time graph
for an object with a velocity that increases at a constant rate.
The straight line sloping upwards in the graph above
shows that the objects velocity is increasing as time goes by.
Increasing velocity is called acceleration.
What is Constant Acceleration.
The straight line in the graph above shows that
the velocity of the object has a constant acceleration .
This means that the
velocity of the object is changing at a constant rate.
The slope of the line in the graph above shows
1. the acceleration is positive because the line slopes upwards
2. how fast the acceleration is.
The greater the slope. the faster the acceleration is.
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Doc Brown's Physics AQA GCSE Additional Science-PHYSICS Revision Notes
Physics Unit P2.1 Forces and their effects Study Notes
PHYSICS UNIT 2 Physics P2 for GCSE Additional Science or GCSE Physics
REVISION NOTES GUIDE SUMMARY: What do you need to know for the examinations? What do you need to able to do in the exams? In AQA GCSE Science A examinations HT means for higher tier students only. Sorry, but I don't have much time to answer questions, but if you see any apparent errors or wish to comment, please email me. All my notes, learning objectives, comments for exam revision are based on the official AQA GCSE Science A Key Stage 4 syllabus specification.
PHYSICS UNIT 2 Physics P2 for GCSE Additional Science or GCSE Physics
AQA GCSE Science PHYSICS 2 Unit P2.1 Forces and their effects
Appreciate that forces can cause changes to the shape or motion of an object.
Not only can objects can move in a straight line at a constant speed but they can also change their speed and/ or direction (accelerate or decelerate).
Be able to use/produce graphs can help us to describe the movement of an object.
These may be distance-time graphs or velocity-time graphs.
You should be able to use their skills, knowledge and understanding to:
interpret data from tables and graphs relating to speed, velocity and acceleration
evaluate the effects of alcohol and drugs on stopping distances
evaluate how the shape and power of a vehicle can be altered to increase the vehicle�s top speed
draw and interpret velocity-time graphs for objects that reach terminal velocity, including a consideration of the forces acting on the object.
AQA GCSE Science PHYSICSUnitP2.1.1 Resultant forces
a) Know and understand that whenever two objects interact, the forces they exert on each other are equal and opposite.
b) Know and understand that a number of forces acting at a point may be replaced by a single force that has the same effect on the motion as the original forces all acting together.
Know that this single force is called the resultant force.
c) Know and understand that a resultant force acting on an object may cause a change in its state of rest or motion.
You should be able to determine the resultant of opposite or parallel forces acting in a straight line.
d) Know and understand that if the resultant force acting on a stationary object is:
zero, the object will remain stationary
not zero, the object will accelerate in the direction of the resultant force.
e) Know and understand that if the resultant force acting on a moving object is:
zero, the object will continue to move at the same speed and in the same direction
not zero, the object will accelerate in the direction of the resultant force.
AQA GCSE Science PHYSICSUnitP2.1.2 Forces and motion
a) Know that the acceleration of an object is determined by the resultant force acting on the object and the mass of the object.
Be able to use the equation:
a = acceleration in metres per second squared, m/s 2
F = the resultant force in newtons, N
m = mass in kilograms, kg
b) Know and understand that the gradient of a distance�time graph represents speed.
You should be able to construct distance�time graphs for an object moving in a straight line when the body is stationary or moving with a constant speed.
c) HT only. You should be able to calculate the speed of an object from the gradient of a distance�time graph.
d) Know that the velocity of an object is its speed in a given direction.
e) Know and understand that the acceleration of an object is given by the equation:
Be able to use the equation:
a is the acceleration in metres per second squared, m/s 2
v is the final velocity in metres per second, m/s
u is the initial velocity in metres per second, m/s
t is the time taken in seconds, s
f) Know and understand that the gradient of a velocity�time graph represents acceleration.
g) HT only. Be able to calculate the acceleration of an object from the gradient of a velocity�time graph.
h) HT only. Be able to calculate the distance travelled by an object from a velocity�time graph.
AQA GCSE Science PHYSICSUnitP2.1.3 Forces and braking
a) Know and understand that when a vehicle travels at a steady speed the resistive forces balance the driving force.
You should know and understand that most of the resistive forces are caused by air resistance.
b) Know and understand that the greater the speed of a vehicle the greater the braking force needed to stop it in a certain distance.
You should know and understand that for a given braking force the greater the speed, the greater the stopping distance.
c) Know and understand that the stopping distance of a vehicle is the sum of the distance the vehicle travels during the driver�s reaction time (thinking distance) and the distance it travels under the braking force (braking distance).
d) Know and understand that the a driver�s reaction time can be affected by tiredness, drugs and alcohol.
You should appreciate that distractions may affect a driver�s ability to react.
e) Know and understand that when the brakes of a vehicle are applied, work done by the friction force between the brakes and the wheel reduces the kinetic energy of the vehicle and the temperature of the brakes increase.
f) Know and understand that the a vehicle�s braking distance can be affected by adverse road and weather conditions and poor condition of the vehicle.
You should understand that �adverse road conditions� includes wet or icy conditions.
Poor condition of the car is limited to the car�s brakes or tyres.
AQA GCSE Science PHYSICSUnitP2.1.4 Forces and terminal velocity
a) Know and understand that the faster an object moves through a fluid the greater the frictional force that acts on it.
b) Know and understand that an object falling through a fluid will initially accelerate due to the force of gravity.
You should understand that eventually the resultant force will be zero and the object will move at its terminal velocity (steady speed).
You should understand why the use of a parachute reduces the parachutist�s terminal velocity.
c) Be able to draw and interpret velocity-time graphs for objects that reach terminal velocity, including a consideration of the forces acting on the object.
d) Be able to calculate the weight of an object using the force exerted on it by a gravitational force:
Be able to use the equation:
W = the weight of the object in newtons, N
m is the mass in kilograms of the object, kg
g is the gravitational field strength in newtons per kilogram, N/kg
AQA GCSE Science PHYSICSUnitP2.1.5 Forces and elasticity
a) Know and understand that a force acting on an object may cause a change in shape of the object.
b) Know and understand that a force applied to an elastic object such as a spring will result in the object stretching and storing elastic potential energy.
Calculation of the energy stored when stretching an elastic material is not required.
c) Know and understand that for an object that is able to recover its original shape, elastic potential energy is stored in the object when work is done on the object to change its shape.
d) Know and understand that the extension of an elastic object is directly proportional to the force applied, provided that the limit of proportionality is not exceeded:
Be able to use the equation:
F is the force in newtons, N
k is the spring constant in newtons per metre, N/m
e is the extension in metres, m
Practical work in unit 2.1 to help develop your skills and understanding may have included the following:
dropping a penny and a feather in a vacuum and through the air to show the effect of air resistance
planning and carrying out an investigation into Hooke�s Law
catapult practicals to compare stored energy
measurement of acceleration of trolleys using known forces and masses
timing objects falling through a liquid, eg wallpaper paste or glycerine, using light gates or stop clocks
planning and carrying out an investigation to measure the effects of air resistance on parachutes, paper spinners, cones or bun cases
measuring reaction time with and without distractions, eg iPod off and then on.
AQA GCSE Additional Science PHYSICSAQA GCSEAdditional ScienceGCSE Physics Unit P2 Index:
When an object moves in a straight line at a steady speed, you can calculate its average speed if you know how far it travels and how long it takes. The following equation shows the relationship between average speed, distance moved and time taken:
average speed is measured in metres per second, m/s
distance moved is measured in metres, m
time taken is measured in seconds, s
For example, a car travels 300 m in 20 s. Its average speed is:
A man runs after a bus. The bus is travelling at an average speed of 5 m/s. The man runs 25 m in 6 s. Does he catch the bus?
The man’s average speed is 25 ÷ 6 = 4.2 m/s. So he will not catch a bus moving at 5 m/s.
To calculate the motion of everyday objects such as toy cars or tennis balls:
Speed and distance-time graphs
Speed is measured in metres per second (m/s) or kilometres per hour (km/h). If an athlete runs with a speed of 5 m/s, she will cover 5 metres in one second and 10 metres in two seconds. An athlete with a faster speed of 8m/s will travel further, 8m in each second, and will take less time to complete his journey.
This video shows a working example of speed calculation and talks about constant speed.
Direction of travel
There are two ways of looking at a journey:
Quantities that have a magnitude and direction are called vectors .
Velocity is a vector. because velocity is speed in a given direction.
Example. A boy walks in a positive direction and then back again with a constant speed of 2 m/s, so he walks with a velocity of +2 m/s and then with a velocity of –2m/s.
On a distance–time graph :
The steepness, or gradient. of the line shows the speed:
If the direction of travel is being considered:
Between 30 s and 50 s the cyclist stopped. The graph has a steeper gradient between 50 s and 70 s than between 0 s and 20 s – the cyclist was travelling at a greater speed .
To calculate a speed from a graph, work out the gradient of the straight line section as shown above in Fig. 9.1:
Average speed and instantaneous speed
You can calculate the average speed of the cyclist for the total journey in Fig 9.1 above using:
This is not the same as the instantaneous speed at any moment because the speed changes during the journey. If you calculate the average speed over a shorter time interval you get closer to the instantaneous speed .
This video explains about distance and acceleration
Velocity–time and speed–time graphs
A change of velocity is called acceleration. Speeding up, slowing down and changing direction are all examples of acceleration. Fig. 9.2 shows how to interpret a velocity–time graph.
Check carefully whether a graph is a speed-time graph or a distance-time graph.
On true speed–time graphs. the speed has only positive values. On velocity–time graphs the velocity can be negative.
Tachographs are instruments that are put in lorry cabs to check that the lorry has not exceeded the speed limit, and that the driver has stopped for breaks. They draw a graph of the speed against time for the lorry.
Graphs, acceleration and distance
This video explains how to calculate acceleration
Welcome to the GCSE Physics Ninja revision course for AQA P2 (Core / 'Additional Science A' or 'Physics GCSE'). The flashcard lessons below cover all the knowledge and calculation methods that you will need to know for the AQA P2 Additional Science (4408) syllabus (please note that the last exams for this syllabus are in June 2017).
Content for Higher candidates is marked (H). For best results, follow the 4-step Ninja revision process !
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Laura Clements 11HR Physics Course Work Terminal Velocity Aim: To find out how the weight of an object affects the Terminal Velocity. Method: This will be done by dropping a paper cake case from a height of 2 metres and measuring the time taken from it being dropped to it hitting the floor, the weight will then be increased by adding an extra cake case each time and carrying out the same method at each weight. The time taken for the cake case to reach the ground and the distance that it is dropped from will be measured. There are not many safety precautions involved in this experiment, whilst carrying out the experiment care will have to be taken not to fall off any high apparatus if standing on it to reach the 2metres needed to drop the paper case. Apparatus: The apparatus that will be needed to do this is: � Stop Clock � Cake Cases � Metre rule Variables: The variables that might affect . read more.
Terminal velocity is when the air resistance becomes equal to the gravity force and so acceleration stops, the object cannot go any faster it has reached terminal velocity. At the instant of release there is no friction because the object is not moving. The weight of the object makes it accelerate downwards, because gravity is acting on it, the heavier the object the faster it will accelerate. Because gravity is a constant force, it always stays the same; the velocity and the air resistance have to increase to balance it. So unless the weight of the paper case changes there is always the same force of gravity acting on it. So it is expected that there will be a straight line of best fit on our graph of results. Analysis: The results gained from the experiment show that my prediction was correct, as the amount of Newtons increase the terminal velocity is faster, the shorter time it takes for it to hit the ground. . read more.
3.15m/s is the average increase in the terminal velocity each time another paper cake case is added. This shows that adding extra weight increases the terminal velocity quite significantly. This is because terminal velocity is when the air resistance becomes equal to the gravitational force acting on the object and so the acceleration stops. The heavier the object the shorter time it takes for it to reach its terminal velocity. Evaluation: I think the experiment worked quite well, a lot of reliable results were obtained which could be analysed easily and this meant we were able to fulfil our aim. Most of the results are quite reliable; we did 6 experiments at each weight and took an average, which meant they were quite reliable. But because of human error they may not have been as reliable as they could have been, especially as the number of paper cases, and so the weight, increased. We could have improved the experiment by using data logging, electronic sensors, to drop the paper cases through, this would have eliminated human error. . read more.
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This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Forces and Motion section.
Found what you're looking for?This is a nice first attempt at a report.
1. The use of subheadings to give the report structure is good, although some sections are missing.
2. The use of a diagram to illustrate a scientific concept is good.
3. The report needs an introduction that includes relevant information.
4. The report is missing a results table and graph.
*** (3 stars)
Marked by teacher Luke Smithen 22/05/2013
90 cm Reading Speed Distance m/s mm 1 1.20413 1030 2 1.22893 1090 3 1.22893 1110 4 1.24055 1120 5 1.18243 1050 30 cm Reading Speed Distance m/s mm 1 0.59335 297 2 0.60933 315 3 0.61562 314 4 0.60317 315 5 0.60820 319 20 cm Reading Speed Distance m/s
therefore will be less as well. I also think that the grade P60E sand paper will have the highest values as when I touch it seems to be the roughest surface out of all of them whereas the tabletop surface seems to be the smoothest and so should have the lowest values.
1.7, 1.7 1.7 SAND PAPER P60E Mass of block of wood (g) Force needed to overcome static friction (N) Average force needed to overcome static friction (N) 325 1.7, 1.7 1.7 375 2.4, 2.4 2.4 425 3.1, 3.1 3.1 525 4.2, 4.2 4.2 725 5.6, 5.6 5.6 ii)
1) Initially the forces will be unbalanced so the paper cup will accelerate 2) But then the two forces will balance out and move at a steady speed, this is because it has reached terminal velocity. - Due to a greater mass there will be a greater terminal velocity.
The reason that I think that our cupcake cases will not reach terminal velocity at 2.5 meters is because whilst doing the preliminary work we never came across a constant speed at which the cupcake case reached the floor. I think that if the cupcake cases were raised up off
The gradient of the two cup cakes are different. The large cup cake shows its terminal velocity was not as great as the smaller cup cake with its less steep gradient. My prediction proves correct that the larger cup cake was going to fall at a smaller terminal velocity due
theoretical set of results, which I found using the formula: 9.81 x Sin angle = Acceleration The calculated data is: 10 o = 9.81 x Sin 10 = 1.70m/s 20 o = 9.81 x Sin 20 = 3.55m/s 30 o = 9.81 x Sin 30 = 4.91m/s 40 o =
I will pull the block along at a constant speed with the Newton meter. I will keep the same piece of string for every result so the length is constant to keep it a fair test. I will also use the same Newton meter so there is the same degree of accuracy for all results.
Looking for expert help with your Science work?Below is an essay on "Gcse Science Physicsessay" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.
Contents
Unit 1: Motion Unit 2: Speeding Up and Slowing Down Unit 3: Work and Energy Unit 4: Static Electricity Unit 5: Current Electricity Unit 6: Mains Electricity Unit 7: Nuclear Physics [This is Unit 2 Physics, Additional Physics. This section comes after Core Physics in an AQA Course (Unit 1)]
P2-1. Motion
Speed and Velocity The table below shows the distances travelled by a car over a given amount of time:
We can represent this as a graph:
We call this type of graph a distance-time graph as it plots distance travelled against time taken. A slope on a distance-time graph represents speed. The steeper the slope is, the greater the speed. We can use chosen figures to calculate the speed from the graph.
This formula can be rearranged to show either of the following formulae which we use to work out distance or time:
Generally, speed is measured in metres per second (m/s). Velocity is speed in a given direction. This means that if a moving object changes direction, its velocity changes even if its speed stays the same. When the velocity changes, we say it accelerates. Acceleration is calculated using the following equation:
Acceleration is generally measured in metres per second squared (m/s²). If the value of acceleration is negative, the object is slowing down, or decelerating. A velocity-time graph plots the velocity of a moving body (y axis) against the time taken (x axis).
the slope of a line on one of these graphs represents acceleration – the steeper the slope the greater the acceleration if a slope has a negative gradient, it represents deceleration the area under the line of a velocity-time graph represents distance travelled – the greater the area, the greater the distance travelled
We can use the gradient of a distance-time graph to calculate the speed of an object. For example, if the graph shows that a body has moved 10 metres in 2 seconds, you can easily calculate the speed is 5m/s.
P2-2. Speeding Up and.
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