According to Kirby, Goodpastor and Levine (2000), creative thought, along with, inductive and deductive logic comprise the bedrock and substance to all our thinking.
Inductive thinking also known as the "bottom up approach, moves from particular observations to a more generalized theory or conclusion, it detects patterns and regularities; as well as, it helps to formulate tenetative hypothesis, from which we derive our generalized theory or conclusion. For example, if we see 100 cats, all with a different colored coat, we could conclude that all cats have some type of coat, right? Wrong, there is such a thing as a sphynx; which is hairless. This intern becomes an error in reasoning also known as a fallacy.
"Some philosophers, such as the skeptic David Hume, argue that there is no absolutely sound inductive argument , but we do have good practical inductive arguments based on repeated, accurate observations. The following would be and example given by Kirby Goodpastor and Levine (1999) of a sound inductive argument. "Every day I notice that the sun rises in the east and sets in the west. Though I'll be dead in one hundred years, I know that my grandchildren will also see the sun rise in the east and set in the west. There is a good chance that the grandchildren will make this observation predicted; although, with inductive thinking there is always the possibility that the argument might be false, for they are statements of probability not certainty.
Again, inductive arguments detect patterns, regularities, help formulate tentative hypothesis, and finally help us to formulate a conclusion and/or generalized theory. These theories or conclusion can be challenged. In the sphynx example one could argue with evidence or observation that suggests a contrary conclusion. In the sun-set example the probable outcome was given, but there is also the impossibleThis Essay is Approved by Our Editor Essays Related to Inductive Reasoning
Induction is reasoning from a small set of examples to a general conclusion about all similar examples. For instance, we believe that the sun will rise tomorrow based on countless days of experience. Of particular importance to us is drawing conclusions about the future on the basis of past or present experience. Hume says that all such reasoning works only if things go on as they have before. Only if past experience is a reliable guide to future experience. Without this assumption, the reasoning is unjustified. So, how do we know the future will be like the past. Deduction won’t work because it is not a contradiction to assume that the future will change. Hume says that just because the future has resembled the past in the past, it doesn’t follow that it will resemble the past from now on. If one assumes this, they are arguing in a circle. Induction may be justified by saying that the past or present cause the future. If we know the cause, which is the past or present, then we know the effect, which is the future. However, Hume says that you only have the idea of causation because, in the past, you have seen things go together all the time. Therefore, the concept of causation is based on past experience. To assume that causation will continue as it has is to assume the future will be like the past. This is circular reasoning. According to Hume the attempts to answer the problem of induction cannot succeed. Contemporary science is very successful. Its success is based on discovering exception less laws of nature. So, we are justified in concluding that nature follows exception less laws. However, Hume believes that this is still circular reasoning because laws have been exception less up until now so how do we know that will continue. The more we notice a uniformity, that is we see two things together, the more probable that they will appear together next time. The problem with this, according to Hume is.Related Essays:
Induction. (1969, December 31). In MegaEssays.com. Retrieved 09:18, July 25, 2016, from http://www.megaessays.com/viewpaper/24174.html
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Ion Boldea, Syed A. Nasar, "The Induction Machine Handbook"
CRC | 2001 | ISBN: 0849300045 | 950 pages | File type: PDF | 27,4 mb
Often called the workhorse of industry, the advent of power electronics and advances in digital control are transforming the induction motor into the racehorse of industrial motion control. Now, the classic texts on induction machines are nearly three decades old, while more recent books on electric motors lack the necessary depth and detail on induction machines. The Induction Machine Handbook fills industry's long-standing need for a comprehensive treatise embracing the many intricate facets of induction machine analysis and design. Moving gradually from simple to complex and from standard to new knowledge, it includes an extended presentation of windings parameters as influenced by frequency and saturation, offers a complete account of standard and new testing methods, and devotes several chapters to the design of variable-speed induction motors. With a coherence and consistency not attainable in contributed works, this handbook draws on the authors' long experience in the field and takes full advantage of its rich literature. The presentation of all types of induction machines complete with many numerical examples, digital simulations, and design sample cases make the Induction Machine Handbook a comprehensive, up-to-date resource ideal for both for practicing and student engineers.
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Forced Induction There are many ways to make an internal combustion engine work more efficiently, they include cylinder heads that use dual overhead camshafts, variable length intake manifolds, turbochargers, and.
Forced Induction There are many ways to make an internal combustion engine work more efficiently, they include cylinder heads that use dual overhead camshafts, variable length intake manifolds, turbochargers, and superchargers. This paper will discuss the last of these devices listed, the supercharger. All good supercharging systems also integrate an intercooler to increase efficiency, so let�s take a look at the two units together and discuss the physics of what they do and how they work. A supercharger is
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actually a very simple device ;it is nothing more than an air pump. In the past decade superchargers have become a somewhat popular and cost effective way to increase an engines volumetric efficiency without substantial losses to fuel economy. The specific type of supercharger that will be examined is the Eaton roots type. The roots type supercharger consists of two helical shaped rotors that accelerate opposite of one another in a metal housing. The rotors are belt driven off of
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the engines crankshaft and turn at velocities of up to five times that of the engine. Once the air is compressed by the supercharger, it then passes into the intercooler. The intercooler acts as cooling system that reduces the temperature of the compressed air. It is extremely important that a supercharging system has an intercooler because of the high levels of friction that are created and experienced by the process of compressing the air. From the intercooler the compressed air
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then enters the engine and is mixed with the appropriate amount of fuel. Now that we have established how a roots type supercharger with intercooler works, lets take a look at the basic physics of what is happening. Obviously when the supercharger is at rest, not turning, there is an extremely large amount of potential energy. As previously stated the supercharger is belt driven off of the engine�s crankshaft, so therefore it requires the input of ordered energy to work.
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This assignment will explore some traditional philosophical problems surrounding induction, and use them to consider the application of inductive programming techniques in Artificial Intelligence. It will conclude that the implementation.
By using a system of pulleys, it is able to transfer the mechanical energy from the engine required to turn it. There are two pulleys used, one and the crankshaft and one on the supercharger. The two pulleys are different sizes ;this creates a mechanical advantage. The supercharger pulley may be as much as five times smaller than the crankshaft pulley, allowing the supercharger to spin much faster than the engine. Once the engine is started the supercharger then begins
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to produce kinetic energy by turning as well. The supercharger then begins to displace air and actually perform work. The two helical shaped rotors inside the housing
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Below is an essay on "Induction" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.
3rd yr PT BA Philosophy, Group D
Wednesday 19th October 2011
Essay Question 1:
Induction has worked in the past. Is that a good reason to trust induction in the future?
The process of induction is one in which a conclusion is based on consistency in previous experience. Induction deals with coming to general conclusions based on knowledge of specific cases. For example, if someone observes the sun rising and setting every (approximately) twenty-four hours every day they have been alive, and if that person talks to older people (or reads books written by people who lived long ago) that made the same observations, the inductive method leads that person to the conclusion that the sun will rise tomorrow, or at least that it is very, very likely (since the sun could unexpectedly go nova). Deduction, on the other hand is a method for arriving at knowledge of specific things from knowledge of general things. For example, if it is known that all of Jupiter's moons have a smaller radius than Jupiter; one can deduce that Ganymede (Jupiter's largest moon) has a smaller radius than Jupiter. The specific case follows directly from the general. So in essence the difference being that Induction confers only probability on the conclusion, which means that it is possible for premises to be true and the conclusion false. But, it seems obvious to say that evidence supports some theories rather than others, the problem is that saying exactly how has proved surprisingly difficult.
Hume posed the following scenario to show why we have no reason to trust induction. Suppose I drop a piece of chalk – it falls to the ground. Suppose I do it again, with the same result. What will happen if I now drop it again? Obviously, we are confident that it would fall to the ground again. But do we really have any good reason for this expectation?
1) There is no deductive proof that the chalk will fall.
2) All inductive proofs themselves rely on induction – and.