Broken Telephone This is a listening and pronunciation activity that always gets people laughing. The leader first must think of a sentence or phrase and whisper it to the person beside her. That person will then whisper what she heard to the next person. Each person can only say, "Can you please repeat that?" one time. When the message reaches the end of the chain that person must speak out loud. Oftentimes the message will be completely different when it reaches the end. Try to find out where the chain broke! In a big group you can send the message two ways and find out which team comes closest to the real message. (A famous example is the army message that started as "Send reinforcements, we're going to advance" and ended as "Send three and fourpence, we're going to a dance.")
Check the exercises.
To prepare them to work
T. focuses on the lesson title. Ask them what they know about the special days in Ukraine. Ask them if it is an article, a diary or an advert, a postcard or a letter? Explain them the difference
to set the context for the lesson and generate interest
Twenty definitions! Maybe if I get to evening out the verbs and nouns and other parts of speech a little better, and future archaeologists will think this was some sort of dictionary for an actual language. Oh, one can only hope to delude the future so well.
PREVIOUS HOMEWORK: I'm a little late in posting the top answers from one of the past assignments - the most recent homework assignment is still due on Thursday, but allow me to catch up on a past homework.
Based on the 'elaborate excuses' comic, the assignment was: "In 40 words or less, what is the most elaborate AND realistic excuse you can come up with for your failure at an extremely mundane task? Your task can be anything realistic and mundane, but it must be clear what you failed at in your forty words."
There were many clever responses - you can check out an assortment of both creative and true homework answers to read through the best - but the best, in my opinion, came from Mackenzie in Syracuse, NY :
Bending quickly over
To salvage fallen dishware.
Sad glittering effects a pause
'Tisn't my place!
Who am I to combat
Those most intrinsic forces?
Our planet's, indeed, my kitchen's
'Tis folly, fighting.
Coexist with the forces that be!
Well done, Mackenzie! You will receive a small prize from me. Thanks to everyone else who submitted their homework. Enjoy reading through the many great answers .
- have much homework for tomorrowLook at other dictionaries:
Homework — Homework, or homework assignment, refers to tasks assigned to students by their teachers to be completed mostly outside of class, and derives its name from the fact that most students do the majority of such work at home. Common homework… … Wikipedia
Homework — Álbum de estudio de Daft Punk Publicación 20 de enero de 1997 (RU) 25 de marzo de 1997 (EE.UU.) Grabación 1993 1996 Daft House (París, Francia) Género(s) House … Wikipedia Español
Homework — (engl. für Hausaufgabe) bezeichnet: Musik Homework (Daft Punk Album), Album von Daft Punk (1997) Homework (Atomic Rooster Album), Album von Atomic Rooster (2008) Homework (EP), EP von Bass Sultan Hengzt (2010) Filme Homework (2011), US… … Deutsch Wikipedia
homework — n. 1. preparatory school work done outside school (especially at home). Syn: prep, preparation. [WordNet 1.5] 2. Hence: [fig.] Studies or other preparatory work done prior to some activity; usually used of preparations for activities of… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
homework — UK US /ˈhəʊmwɜːk/ noun ● do your homework Cf. do your homework … Financial and business terms
homework — [hōm′wʉrk΄] n. 1. work, esp. piecework, done at home 2. lessons to be studied or schoolwork to be done outside the classroom ☆ 3. study or research in preparation for some project, activity, etc. used mainly in the phrase do one s homework … English World dictionary
homework — homework, homeworking A form of wage work undertaken by family members in their own homes, for large or small firms, usually on a piece rate basis. Not to be confused with school children s tasks set by the school to be undertaken at home, nor… … Dictionary of sociology
homework — 1680s, work done at home, as opposed to work done in the shop or factory, from HOME (Cf. home) + WORK (Cf. work). In sense of lessons studied at home, it is attested from 1889 … Etymology dictionary
homework — ► NOUN 1) school work that a pupil is required to do at home. 2) preparation for an event or situation. 3) paid work done in one s own home, especially piecework … English terms dictionary
homework — 1. (homework) (5733↑, 291↓) You go to school for fucking 6 1/2 hours, constantly taking it up the ass (figuratively) from dickhead students and fucktard teachers. Then you go home, which SHOULD be time that doesn t involve learning shit you don t … Urban English dictionary
- to raise awareness of the importance of teamwork
By the end of the lesson, pupils will be able to make sentences about animals, school things and friends.
Recycling the materials about school things, friends and animals.
Textbook; the DVD of the book
Activity 1 Sing a song.
Objectives: to warm up
You can repeat any warm up song you want.
Activity 2 Play “Team Game”
Objective: to recycle the vocabulary and structures for animals, friends and school things
Teams of 4-5 pupils will play in this game. Each team choose a name and a leader for their team. The game is played 3 rounds.
Hold an auction of animals. Each pupil names an animal in turns. If anybody does not speak any more, begin counting off 1-2-3. If you have not said 3 before someone has remembered an animal, the auction proceeds. It proceeds until the last player says a word after which nobody adds. Then you will count off 1-2-3. As soon as you say 3, the auction comes to an end. The one who names the last word becomes the winner.
Explain that the pupils will play the game “Who will prepare his bag well?”
Each team prepare a bag. They choose their speaker, i.e. the one who will speak.
The other members of a team will help the speaker. The pupils name the objects and show them. Each team show their bags and their contents. It is necessary for them to:
1) name the objects;
2) name the colour of each object;
3) use the structures: This is a. ; I’ve got. ; It’s red.
The use of plurals like “I’ve got two pens” is welcomed.
Song Hockey Pokey. Look at Unit 6, Lesson 4, Activity 5 for instructions.
Each team must speak on the theme of friends. The team decide who they will speak about. They also decide who will speak: one speaker or several pupils one by one. Then they make the story plan.
I’ve got a friend.
His name is Amir.
The teams should prepare performances. They confer and choose what they will show. It can be a song or a rhyme in English which they have learnt in 1 class. Each team must show one piece of performance.
Ask the pupils to remember any song or poem they have learnt in class 1 and get ready to recite it by heart.
I think Indira is from India. India is in Asia.
I think Sue is from China. China is in Asia.
I think Marco is from Italy. Italy is in Europe.
I think Jessica is from Canada. Canada is in North America.
I think Nikita is from Russia. Russia is in Europe and Asia.
I think Emily is from Great Britain. Great Britain is in Europe.
I think Andrew is from Ireland. Ireland is in Europe.
Our Explorers’ Club has begun its work. Young explorers from different countries have come to the club. I have already made friends with some kids. I am attaching their photos.
You can see David in the first photo. He is speaking on his mobile phone. He often phones home to learn about his puppy’s latest adventures.
There are two girls in the second photo. Sue and Indira are sitting in a cafe and having coffee. Sue is telling a funny story and Indira is smiling. They are nice and friendly. In the evening, they cook different dishes from their countries. Yesterday, I tasted an Indian one. It was spicy, but delicious!
Look at Marco! He is playing football. He plays very well. He is really good at football.
Emily, from Great Britain, wants to become a journalist, in the photo, she is writing an article about our Explorers’ Club.
Now just look at the photos! Jessica is reading an English magazine for explorers and Andrew is feeding a squirrel in the park.
Sorry, but I have to finish my e-mail. Our English lesson will begin in 5 minutes.
1. David is speaking on his mobile phone. He often phones home to learn about his puppy’s latest adventures.
2. No, they are not. They are sitting in a cafe. In the evening, they usually cook different dishes from their countries.
3. Yes, he is. Marco is a good football player.
4. Emily is writing an article about Explorers’ Club. Emily wants to be a journalist.
5. Jessica is reading an English magazine for explorers.
6. Andrew is feeding a squirrel. He is from Ireland.
Country: Great Britain
Languages: Spanish and French
Hobbies: travelling, playing football
Who do you talk on your mobile with?
How do you spell your surname?
What time do you get up on Sundays?
Where do you spend your summer holidays?
How many friends do you have?
What do you do at weekends?
When do you do your homework?
1. Daniel is older than Jessica.
2. Jessica lives in North America.
3. Both Daniel and Jessica speak English.
4. Both Daniel and Jessica like visiting places of interests because travelling is their hobby.
5. Jessica would like to visit France and Italy.
6. I think Daniel likes playing sports because one of his hobbies is football. I think Jessica likes reading books because one of her hobbies is Literature.
Andrew and his family travel around Ireland by bikes.
3. False. Andrew’s family travels with their relatives.
4. False. During their trips they stay in small hotels for the night.
6. False. Next year, they are going to cross France and Spain on bikes.
1. b), 2. a), 3. e), 4. d), 5. c)
a) the second conversation;
b) David is going to take part in the friendly football match.
Indira is going to take photos of the football match.
Nikita Smirnov is a member of the Explorers’ Club. He is only twelve years old, but he has already taken part in several expeditions. He started travelling with his parents when he was only two years old. Last summer, Nikita went to an international eco-camp in the Altai Region. Together with teenagers from different countries, he enjoyed the beauty of nature. They went hiking in the mountains, swam in lakes with crystal clear water, made fires in the evening and spoke English. They also planted trees and cleaned the area.
Nikita has visited some other countries. He has been to Finland recently, but he has not been to Australia yet. He hopes to go there one day. What country would you like to visit?
1. Nikita is twelve years old.
2. Yes, it is. Nikita has already taken part in several expeditions.
3. He started travelling with his parents when he was only two years old.
4. Last summer Nikita went to an international eco-camp in the Altai Region.
5. The teenagers went hiking in the mountains, swam in lakes, made fires in the evening and spoke English.
6. They planted trees and cleaned the area.
7. Nikita has been to Finland recently.
8. Nikita wants to visit Australia one day.
1. I spend my summer holidays in a small village which is situated next to a big lake.
2. Here’s the magazine which is very popular among my classmates.
3. I often meet this strange old man who lives next to my house.
4. I know the pharmacy which has the necessary medicine.
5. Here are the books which are from the library.
6. I know the girl who works at the post office.
1. Is your house light or dark?
2. Colchester is my home town.
3. Last year, I stayed in Britain too long and I really missed home.
4. Where is your house? — It’s in Park Street.
5. There is no place like home.
I was very pleased to get your letter. I liked your story about the summer club and your new friends and adventures. You asked me about the most popular holidays in my family so I’ll try to answer your question.
I think that the most popular holidays are New Year and Easter. But there is a special holiday in our family, which I want to tell you about. It’s Victory Day. My great-grandfather/ought for his country in the Great Patriotic War. He was a doctor. He was at the victory in Berlin in 1945. He didn’t like to speak about the war, but he often remembered his friends and his hospital.
On 9th May, we watch the military parade on TV and then go to the square in front of the Bolshoi Theatre or to the Park of Victory to meet the veterans. There are a lot of flowers, smiles and tears.
My great-grandpa died last summer. But, next Victory Day, I will go to the Park of Victory and put flowers to the monument of the heroes. In the evening, I will watch the salute in honour of my grandpa and his friends. I’m proud of my grandpa and I want to be a doctor, too.
Well, I think I have answered your question. Victory Day is not only a great holiday for all Russian people, but also for my family.
And what are the most popular holidays in your family? Which holiday do you like most of all? How do you spend it?
Write back soon.
• Victory Day is a special holiday for Sergei because his great-grandpa fought for his country in the Great Patriotic War.
1. The most popular holiday in Sergei’s family is not only New Year but also Victory Day.
2. Sergei’s great-grandpa told him not only about his hospital but also about his friends.
3. On 9th May, they went not only to the square in front of the Bolshoi Theatre but also to the Park of Victory.
4. There are not only a lot of smiles on Victory Day but also tears.
5. Sergei told Mag not only about the most popular holidays but also about a special family holiday.
1. British children get their Christmas presents on the morning of December 25th.
2. The people of Norway give the city of London a big Christmas tree.
3. British people have Boxing Day on the 26th of December.
4. People get cards without signatures only on St Valentine’s Day.
5. Children dress up as ghosts and witches on Halloween, on the 31st of October.
6. A pumpkin can become a lantern.
7. The other British holidays are Pancake Day and April Fool’s Day in spring, Queen’s official birthday in summer, Harvest Festivals and Guy Fawkes’ Day in autumn.
1. British people celebrate Guy Fawkes’ Day on the 5th of November.
2. They build fires and set off fireworks.
3. One can also try bonfire food, namely sausages and jacket potatoes.
4. Despite its sad history, now Guy Fawkes’ Day is a holiday.
1. When do we celebrate Mother’s Day in Russia?
2. Why do British people celebrate “Bonfire Night” on the 5th of November?
3. What do people in Russia do on New Year Eve?
4. Who do we congratulate on the 8th of March?
5. How long does your winter holiday last?
6. What holiday is there in June?
I am from Canada. My country is situated in North America. It’s a large country. Canada stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west.
We have long, cold winters and short hot summers. My country is famous for its beautiful nature and large lakes. Ice hockey is very popular in my country, but I prefer skating. Do you like to skate?
The young explorer has short red hair and dark eyes. The explorer is tall and slim. The explorer is wearing a green T-shirt and brown jeans.
The young explorer is from Ireland. Ireland is an island which is situated not far from Great Britain. The capital of Ireland is Dublin.
1. When do your summer holidays begin?
2. Where did you spend your last summer holidays?
3. Why do you like summer holidays?
4. What do you do during your summer holidays?
5. What time do you get up in the summer?
6. Who do you go hiking with?
7. How many friends do you have?
1. Look! The children are playing football in the sports ground. In the afternoon he usually plays tennis in the park. I think you’ll find him there.
2. He is working hard because he’s got a Maths test tomorrow. My mother is a teacher. She works in a primary school.
3. Jane, let’s go to the cinema. — I’m afraid, I can’t. I am writing an essay. And it’ll take a lot of time to do it. She doesn’t use a computer or the Internet, she writes letters to her sons every Friday.
4. I don’t eat porridge in the morning because I don’t like it. Where is the kitten? — In the kitchen. It is eating fish.
5. Where is Ann? — She is upstairs. She is doing her homework. I always do the washing up after dinner on Saturdays.
6. What is Granny doing? — She’s in the living room. She is reading the Sunday newspaper. He is going to be a writer. That’s why he reads a lot.
1. — Have you ever been to Italy?
— Yes, I have. It’s a wonderful country.
— When did you go there?
2. — You are smiling, aren’t you? What has happened to you?
— I have repaired my bike.
— Really? When did you repair it? Who helped you?
— I did it myself yesterday. Now I can take part in the cycling trip.
3. — I went to the new sports centre last Saturday.
— That’s great. I haven’t been there yet. Is it worth going?
1. Do you like to travel? — Yes, I’m an experienced traveller. I’ve already been to 10 countries.
2. He is only 14, but he writes exciting stories for a magazine. I think he is going to become a famous writer.
3. Have you ever heard of Krusenstem? — Certainly. He was the first Russian explorer who sailed round the world in the beginning of the 18th century.
4. He was a famous ballet dancer. Now he teaches little children to dance.
5. Mr Anderson teaches English at school. He is one of best teachers. You should speak to him.
• a powerful waterfall
• a beautiful valley
• a famous desert
• a wonderful nature
1. There is some new information about the famous waterfall in this book.
2. There is no water in the desert.
3. Have you heard the news about the explorer?
— No, I haven’t yet.
4. He wanted to make a film about the wonderful nature of the Curonian Spit.
The Simpson Desert is situated in the centre of Australia. There are orange-red dunes everywhere: some dunes are very high and some are 200 kilometres long. It’s hard to get up one of the sand dune and go down the other side. There is almost no water in the Simpson Desert. Sometimes, there is no rain in the desert for years. It is very hot in summer and cold in winter. But many animals, birds, insects and plants live there. The desert is severe but it is beautiful. Today, people like to visit the desert and explore its unique nature.
1. Where is the Simpson Desert situated?
2. Is it warm in winter in the Simpson Desert?
3. Why do tourists like to visit the Simpson Desert?
1. Mr Wilson and Mrs Wilson are Alice’s parents. They’ve got a son and two daughters.
2. Their oldest daughter is married. She has got a husband. They have got two children.
3. Jim is 10. But he is already an uncle. The children of his oldest sister are his niece and his nephew.
4. Alice likes to visit her grandparents. Her grandma and grandpa live in the south of England.
First, Alice made breakfast and fed her niece.
Next, Alice played hide-and-seek with Kitty.
Then she read fairy tales to Kitty. After that, they watered flowers in the garden. Finally, Alice took a photo of her niece in the park.
1. The buildings in this part of the city are more modem than in its centre.
2. Life in the country is more expensive than city life.
3. The town is famous for its library, one of the oldest in the country.
4. I think that this park is the best in the city.
5. His restaurant is one of the most popular in the town.
6. This newsagent is the nearest to Alice’s house, isn’t it?
1. What are you doing? — I am making some vegetable soup for dinner. I’ve got a new recipe.
2. Reading is a good hobby, isn’t it? Let’s go to the book shop and buy an interesting book about famous travellers.
3. I’m tired. Let’s have a cup coffee in this lovely coffee shop.
4. Little kids like milk chocolate, don’t they?
5. His aunt and uncle are painters. They live in the countryside and rarely come to the city.
6. What is his cousin? — He is a bus driver.
1. I live in a nice town which is situated not far from London.
2. There are lots of nice little cafes which are in the centre of the town.
3. The book was written by Mr Lanteen who was a famous scientist.
4. We live in a semi-detached house which stands not far from the town centre.
5. They live in a small village which is situated in the north of Scotland.
6. I know the doctor who is experienced and helpful.
7. However, I like to spend my time in the back garden which is bigger than the front garden.
a) to celebrate a holiday
to chat with each other
to play board games
a traditional present
to invite guests
in honour of victory
b) 1. Have you sent a greeting card to your granny? — Yes, I have. I sent it (the card) yesterday.
2. What are you going to do on the 1st of May? — We are going for a picnic. The weather will be warm and sunny. Would you like to join us? (Join us!) —Thank you. With pleasure.
3. On the 9th of May we remember people who fought for our Motherland.
4. Jim’s birthday will be tomorrow. He has invited lots of guests. That’s why a birthday party will be in the garden behind the house. I’m sure that everyone will like it.
Bonfire Night was a family holiday. Each year, we gathered at my Grandma’s house and had our evening meal, a hot cup of coffee for the adults and a cup of juice for the children. Then we put warm jackets and gloves on and went into the garden. Then, the adults gave a packet of sparklers to each child. Grandma lit the ends of the sticks and we began dancing around the garden making bright coloured shapes in the air. I loved to write my name in the air. After the sparkler had burnt out, we put them carefully into the basin of water, and started the process all over again until all the packets were empty. It was such a magical holiday.
Posted 11/9/14 12:50 am. last updated: 05/27/16 10:34:29 am
Just one world with buildings from more than 45 cities all around the world.
Agra, Auckland, Austin, Boston, Brasilia, Caen, Chicago, Dallas, Detroit, Dubai, Dublin, Frankfurt, Giza, Hong-Kong, Houston, Kuala Lumpur, Las-Vegas, Lille, Lisbon, London, Los-Angeles, Madrid, Manila, Monterrey, Montreal, Moscow, New-York, Paris, Philadelphia, Pisa, Quebec, Rio, Rio-Antirrio, Roma, Rotterdam, Rushmore Mount, San-Francisco, Seattle, Shanghai, Singapore, St-Louis, Sydney, Taipei, Tokyo, Toronto and Washington.
Take a look at the Sydney Opera House, Mount Rushmore, Rio Christ the Redeemer, Singapore Marina Bay Sands and Gardens by the Bay. just amazing
I added in several places, some maps of my map to facilitate the visit.
Version 2.3. since 2016/05/27
Wow 44 citys! Very, very fast progress, and the new buildings、the mount rushmore are amazing! My project has also made progress, perhaps next week, have the opportunity to publish a :) The bad news is I probably will not for a long time playing minecraft（Because I have to study, do homework, study, do homework. In order to meet the examination）Can you give me some advice about my project? Some screenshots:http://tieba.baidu.com/p/4438985590
Hello you. I didn't really progress faster, I simply stoped to count. Since last release, I think I just added 8 cities. Sure I will give you some advice about your project ^_-
I've looked your screenshots, détails and color are just AMAZING. The effects by night are stunning. Did you have a copy of your city on Planet Minecraft?
My city of completed projects is too low (I'll re-planning of a new downtown area, the airport needs to be rebuilt, villas, mountains and so projects are not completed), the Old downtown and there are too many needs to be improved. I will publish in PMC but takes a long time……very long. (￣3￣)
My maps are far from perfect, but I have published them anyway. Some buildings that I made are missed, at the time I was starting. I said to myself someday I will rebuild them. but I never correct them ^_-
This means "I am a student" in Russian.
("You are not a student.")
("This boy is a student.")
Russian has eight personal pronouns altogether:
Grammar vs. vocabulary; "getting by" vs. "good Russian" Edit
Are you learning Russian to "get by" on a one-week business trip to Moscow? Or do you want to learn "good Russian"?
To "get by" you need basic grammar, but not the byzantine grammar of "good Russian." You could treat all nouns as if they were masculine, and all verbs as if you are the person doing the action, and Russians would understand your meaning. But you should read over the many grammar rules so that you have a clue what Russians are saying. E.g. you should be able to recognize when a Russian uses the prepositional case, even if you only use the nominative case.
If you want to marry a Russian, learn good Russian. Russians (and people all over the world) are impressed by good language skills. Note that in English the words "conjugate" (to produce the different forms of a verb) and "conjugal" (relating to marriage) come from the same root word (meaning "to join together"). In other words, Russians think that someone who can say "I study, you study, he studies, she studies, we study, they study" correctly (in Russian) will make a good spouse!
Native speakers learn grammar as children, by listening to adults talk, and being corrected by their peers. A child who reads a lot, and whose parents speak correctly, doesn't need to learn grammar rules. As an adult learning Russian, you'll learn best if a native Russian listens to you and corrects your mistakes. But the grammar rules will act as shortcuts, to help you learn faster.
When learning anything, some people are auditory learners, some are visual, and some are movement learners. (See "The Open Mind," by Dawna Marcova, for more about this.) But all three learning styles are needed for organizing and committing to long-term memory. You may prefer to hear spoken Russian, or see written Russian, or (for movement learners) write a Russian word and then write how it sounds in English. You may need to do an activity, such as cooking dinner, to pay attention. But all of us need to do all of these things to learn well.quiz Edit
Formal and Informal Edit quiz Edit
To address a Russian formally, don't use "Mr." or "Ms." Instead, address the person using his or her first name and patronymic.
Russians use relatively few first names. There are only a dozen or so men's first names, and maybe three dozen women's first names. Creativity in baby-naming isn't encouraged.
Russians also use diminutives or nicknames—lots! Each name typically has a version used by your best friend, another used by your other friends, another used by your teachers, another used by your grandmother, another used when you are scolded, etc.
English uses word order to indicate a sentence's subject and object. E.g. "Bob eats lunch" and "Lunch eats Bob" have different meanings in English. Word order is less important in Russian. Instead, meaning is conveyed by suffixes. It would be like an eaten lunch becoming "lunchoo," so you could say "Bob eats lunchoo" or "Lunchoo eats Bob," and still make it clear that it's the lunch that is eaten (not Bob).
This would be straightforward enough if there were simply one case for the subject of a sentence, and a second case for the object of the sentence. Instead, Russian has six cases, conveying such meanings as where you are vs. where you're going, or whether the object of the sentence is animate or inanimate!Nominative case Edit
The primary case, used for the subject of the sentence ("Bob"), is called the nominative case. This is the case you find in dictionaries.Accusative case Edit Prepositional case Edit Genitive case Edit Genitive nouns Edit Genitive adjectives Edit Genitive case of possessive pronouns Edit Instrumental case Edit
Russian lacks "a," "the," and "to be" Edit
Russian lacks the articles "a," "an," and "the." English uses the definite article "the" to indicate a specific place, thing, etc. "I ate the orange" suggests there was only one orange, or it was special or something. English uses the indefinite articles "a" and "an" to indicate that the following noun is not a specific, e.g. "I ate an orange" suggests there were several oranges.
Russian also lacks the verb "to be," and its conjugations "am," "are," and "is."this these and those quiz Edit
In English we add "s" (or "es") to indicate that a noun is plural. Russian isn't so simple.
Note that these rules are for plural nouns. Plural adjectives follow different rules.The 7-letter spelling rule Edit Exceptional plurals Edit
The personal pronouns "he," "she," and "it" Edit
The personal pronouns are straightforward:
The English question word "whose" translates to four Russian words, depending on gender:
If you just want to "get by," say "chee" and you'll be right about 50% of the time.
The possessive pronouns "my," "your," "our," "his," "her," and "their" Edit
To learn to conjugate verbs as well as possessive pronouns, memorize the following order of pronouns:
In this order, in English the possessive pronouns are "my, your, his, her, our, (no formal your), their." Russian makes this complicated because four of these words change depending on whether the following noun is masculine, feminine, neuter, or plural. Three don't change.
The four possessive pronouns that change are "my," "your" (informal and formal), and "our."
Adjective endings (nominative case) Edit
Russian adjectives agree with their nouns in gender, number, and case. Here we will learn the adjective endings for gender and number (singular vs. plural). (Cases will be later.)5- and 7-letter spelling rules Edit
In English, "my" and "I have" are different, just as "your" and "you have" are different. Russian makes a similar distinction—but it's more complicated.
The forms are as follows:
Verb conjugation, present tense Edit
In English we say, "I study," "you study," "he studies," "she studies," "we study," "they study." Note that some pronouns use "study," while other pronouns use "studies." "Verb conjugation" is how verbs change with pronouns. English has simple two-form verb conjugation for the present tense.
Russian verbs conjugate in six forms, for "I", "you (singular and informal)", "he" and "she", "we", "you (plural and formal singular)" and "they". In addition, Russian verbs conjugate in either of two ways. In other words, some verbs are first conjugation, when others are second conjugation.
Verb conjugation, past tense Edit
Past tense verbs are somewhat simpler. They conjugate with the gender (or number) of the pronoun. Thus, "I understood" changes depending on whether the speaker is a man or a woman. But the verb is the same for "he understood" or for "I understood," where the speaker is a man. "We understood" and "they understood" are the same.
Verb conjugation, future tense Edit
Russian future tense is incredibly more complex in meaning than English future tense. Russian future tense also contains information pertaining to the aspect of the verb.
Can you decipher these?
Prepositional case adjectives Edit
Russian adjectives must agree with their following noun in gender, number, and case.Prepositional case plural adjectives and nouns Edit Prepositional case personal pronouns Edit
The personal pronouns change (considerably!) in the prepositional case.Prepositional case possessive pronouns Edit
(Russian schools teach all that to second-graders! Now you understand why Ronald Reagan called the Soviet Union the "evil empire"!)Prepositional case question words Edit
Conjunctions: "and," "yes but," and "but" Edit
Let's do something simpler.
In English we add "self" to a pronoun to indicate reflexive action. E.g. "I wash myself" is different from "I wash my dog." In Russian, reflexive action is in the verb, not in the pronoun. E.g. a Russian would say something like "I washself."
Three words for "study" Edit
Russia has three words that translate to "study." (You can imagine that Russians must study three times harder than Americans to learn language skills!)
Russian has two words that translate to "also."
As a memory aid, picture that Emperor Tojo of Japan is also the emperor of Russia. He has a reclusive brother Takzhye who only does things by himself.
Going by foot, by car, and going regularly Edit
Russian has three words that translate to "going."
Necessity and freedom Edit
Remember that "have to" is an adjective, not a verb! Don't try to conjugate it as a verb.
This can be used as the first lesson of your course with your younger level learners (ages 3-7). This lesson leads nicely into the "Colors" lesson - use our "Colors Lesson Plan" for your next lesson.Details:
Saying different fruit and talking about likesDetails:
Counting numbers 1-10Details:
Saying different parts of the bodyDetails:
Saying different shapes and face vocabDetails:
Saying farm animals and animal noisesDetails:
Saying zoo animals and animal noisesDetails:
Identifying and saying 5 different objects in the classroomDetails:
- Identifying and saying 8 different toys
- Reviewing colors
Talking about our worldDetails:
", "Quick, get ready", "He/She is wearing".
This lesson provides a good platform to begin the course with your older kids (8-14 years) as it provides an opportunity for everyone to get to know each other and also sets the ground rules for behavior within the classroom. 'Wh'question forms, modal verbs for rules and stationery vocabulary will also be practiced.Details:
Saying the months of the yearDetails:
Talking about the four seasonsDetails:
Using the present simple tense to talk about daily routines and different times of the dayDetails:
- Identifying different transport vocab
- Saying how you got to school
Talking about where animals and people liveDetails:
- Talking about places in your town
- Using the present continuous with the structures "Where are you going?" & "I'm going to
This lesson should be taught after the "Transport & Travel" lesson as it uses the transportation vocab from that lesson in the "Where are you Going?" board Game.