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Children Smiling Essay Research Paper Philip DanknerWriting

Children Smiling Essay Research Paper Philip DanknerWriting

In every crisis situation?whether war, deep poverty, or natural disaster?children are the greatest victims. They are the weakest physically; therefore they are the first to succumb to disease or starvation. Due to their age, they are incapable of understanding why they are forced out of their homes, why their neighbors have gone against them, or why they are forced in to refugee camps with no explanation. With no responsibility for their fates, they are by definition innocent.

They are full of energy, unless they are seriously ill, and are willing to smile at all costs. From my personal experience in Botswana, the children are more visible than adults, and are more readily accepting of being photographed. Christmas of my junior year of high school was the date, and Botswana was the destination. A safari with a family of five, I couldn?t imagine any other way to spend my Christmas vacation. Not only did it get me into to the college of my choice it opened my eyes to a different culture that I was not previously exposed to. It seats nine, it is big, green and takes rich families around Africa, I like to call it a Land Rover, but they seem settled with ?people mover. As I stepped out of the people mover I couldn?t help but look through my camera constantly. I was beginning to observe my surroundings thinking about the memories that were about to be made.

Just as people see things through their eyes, I see things through my camera in pictures. I had just embarked on my image making adventure of a lifetime. I was in the center of a village of about eight hundred called Jedibe. Not only were the people friendly but, they were also eager to get their picture taken. I began shooting. It was my first true ecstasy. I can?t even begin to explain the feelings it brought to me. I was in a state of Euphoria. I was looking at poor weathered starving children who were staring at my camera like a deer caught in headlights. Even though the children were extremely poor they were happy to see my family and me. I suppose they were so happy to see my family and me because they were dependent on tourism. Tourism was their main source of income that provided the village with employment.

One of my distinct memories was of a man whose job was to clear animals off the runway at the airstrip. He would chase away all the animals before and after any of the planes took off or landed. He did not speak to us, but you could tell he took his job seriously. I spent over eight hours photographing him and Jedibe village. That day, I began making relationships with them that I still keep today. The one person their that sticks out in my mind was a small little girl named Tooka. She was not shy, and she was the cutest little girl I have ever seen. She would let me hold her in my arms, and photograph her non-stop. Meeting Tooka and a completely new culture, enabled me to open my horizons and begin to understand how other people in the world live and work. This was probably one of the most rewarding experiences I have ever had in my life. It made me realize my dream of becoming a National Geographic Photographer, and paved the road that I would take to my destination?NYU.

Although it benefited me in such a great way, how did it benefit them? It honestly didn?t. I sent the black and white prints of the people back to Africa. They sent back messages and thanked me for the prints, but other than that they truly did not benefit from what I did in Africa.

As I was researching African photographers I ran into Sabastio Salgado. He is famous for his portraits of children in their natural environments. He specialized in photographing children in black and white. When reading his introduction to his book The Children I remember him describing photographing children by saying,

When they see a camera, they jump with excitement, laughing, waving, pushing each other in the hope of being photographed. Sometimes their very joy gets in the way of recording what is happening to them. How can a smiling child represent deep misfortune?(1)

This quote was parallel to the way I felt while photographing children in Botswa

na. They were extremely poor yet the happiness they conveyed on their face was insurmountable. The photographs were supposed to convey their poverty and misfortune, yet all I saw was happiness. I was photographing in Botswana on Christmas day 1998. I was there for most of the day and didn?t want to leave. I remember a group of children that I photographed were preparing to perform a dance for our tented camp that was located just up the river from their village. They were dancing with beads in sacks on their ankles. The emotion and energy conveyed through my camera lens could not be repeated. The motion of their legs and arms, the smiles on their faces, the beautiful costumes they were wearing, and the energy they encompassed was amazing, but more importantly I have that memory in my portfolio to share with other people. Photography is about taking one moment in time and record it, making it a memory. I make memories to take with me for the rest of my life. In Sabastiao Selgado book, he took each photograph to remember the children he encountered throughout his assignments. Documentary photography is about taking a moment of time and history and recording it making it a memory. Documentary is the style that Salgado and I both encompass in our work. That day I shot 30 rolls of film and was sad, because that was all the film I had with me.

Another striking feature of photographing in Africa was their sense of family. When I embark on an image making adventure I see different things. When I made the prints from Africa, I noticed how family oriented they were. I have numerous photographs of brothers and sisters embracing each other. I have images of older siblings taking care of younger ones. It was as if family was an utmost important part of their lifestyle. As I photographed the children in Jedibe village I thought about my childhood. It made me look back at my childhood photo albums and remember that trials and tribulations of my own childhood. This was another aspect that made me think about the importance of memory in photography. I hope they will take the photographs that I sent and use them in the future to help them remember their childhoods. At eighteen I realize how fast my childhood went, but at least I have photographs to remember special events like my birthday and Christmas. Without these memories I will never be able to look back and reflect on how I grew up.

The next and most important observation I made when I was visiting Africa through my photography was the aids epidemic. Why does an entire continent on a whole have to suffer from such a deadly disease? As an outsider I was just observing. There is a picture I took of a little boy laying down behind a group of people. He was very skinny, so I inquired about him. Someone clued me in that he was dieing of Aids. I almost cried when I heard that. As a gay male I guess I sort of have a grasp of HIV and Aids, but not to an 8-year-old child. Someone that age should not have to be dealing with such a travesty. I can only take that memory and relflect. I think about my childhood and imagine how I would feel if it was cut short like that. What does someone at that age remember. How does someone that age deal with such a short lifetime.

Broadening a person?s perspective on new things is very important. I learned about a new and different culture, a new country and a new continent. There is so much more I want to learn and do in Africa. I hope that in the future I can return to Africa and experience more than I did the first time. There is a tremendous amount of community service that I would like to partake in Africa. I hope that in the near future I can plan a trip back to Botswana and use my knowledge I have gained here at school to good use. When I returned from Africa I gained a tremendous amount of knowledge on a variety of subjects of which I had no prior knowledge.

The future is always uncertain, but the past is factual. The past gets put into history through documentation and memory. Without memory we would never learn from our mistakes. We would also never recall the past. I am beginning to understand the relationship between photography and memory. It is very important to understand that when I take photographs they become my memories from my life. That was what my trip to Africa was, one big body of work that is now memories.

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Jonathon Swift Essay Research Paper In Jonathan

Jonathon Swift Essay, Research Paper

In Jonathan Swift?s essay. A Modest Proposal. Swift proposes that the poor should eat their own starving children during a great a famine in Ireland. What would draw Swift into writing to such lengths. When times get hard in Ireland, Swift states that the children would make great meals. The key factor to Swift?s essay that the reader must see that Swift is not literally ordering the poor to cannibalize. Swift acknowledges the fact of the scarcity of food and empathizes with the struggling and famished souls of Ireland through the strange essay. Being of high society Britain, which at the time mothered Ireland, Swift utilizes his work to satirically place much of the blame on England itself. Through his brilliant stating of the fact that the children cost money as well as aid in the drought of food and necessities the reader can get an idea of the suffering on going in Ireland; this brings the reader to see that instead of keeping the children their parents should either eat them or sell them on an open market. By wasting the scarce food in Ireland, the people are killing themselves; thus the children can be consumed saving food and at the same time making food. It is interesting to see how well Swift conveys his view towards the poor in this odd manor. Swift sees how the poor are treated by the affluent who may think that the impoverished are the reason for Ireland?s food problems. In fact, the entire essay is nothing more than sarcastic piece that deeply imbeds the blame upon the rich who he feels might have just as much or even more blame on Ireland?s food problems than the poor ever have. Swift intelligently uses his common sense logic in a strange way to convey his feelings about this predicament. Swift goes to great lengths to intelligently show these feelings. The ways at which Swift camouflages his ideas and thoughts throughout this essay brought many readers at the time to think that he actually wanted Ireland to revert to eating their children. His employment of such literary elements of irony, mix cynicism, and pure contextual reaction from the reader help to map the entire essay.

Thoughout the work, Swift persistently relies upon the use of irony. It is quite apparent that no rational human being would bring themselves to eating the flesh of another, which also adds to the irony of the story. Another interesting point of reflection is the fact that although Swift has children of his own, his are grown and his wife can no longer bear any more. Because of this fact, it is clear that further analysis would show that this work is purely fictional and cannot be taken literally. Many people of the time actually did take Swift?s recollections literally, which brought about much condemnation to Swift as a literary writer. Cynical readers of the time had come to expect such a voice from one like Swift. From the first sentence of the essay, Swift begins to fool the reader by applying the dreary atmosphere of starvation in Ireland. For example, Swift keenly routes to the beggars in the streets with there starving children close at hand. It must be brought to attention that Swift?s piece shows much remorse for the poor especially the children of the poor, even though it doesn?t state this quite so clearly. Swift does not feel that the starving children are of no use for the Irish people, except for being expended of. He may state that the children of the rich hold Ireland?s future in hand and the children of the poor. It is his combination of feelings between the rich and impoverished which brings the reader to see all directions to which the essay will embrace.

Furthermore, this roots to the many underlying statements, which emerge all throughout the story. Swift clearly holds deep resentment directed to those who blame those who are forced on bringing themselves to begging for food and wandering the streets. Though he indifferently speaks of the needy as ?dead and rotting. Swift is being nothing more than satirical. What better way of ending poverty and strife in Ireland than wiping out all of the young generations, which would delete all of the destitute generations to come. Bringing the children to an open market would allow the wealthy citizens to purchase them for dining reasons. The skins of the ?carcasses? could be utilized to make gloves for the ladies. The hardened soles of the their feet could be used to make boots for the gentlemen. At this point, it is clear to the reader that Swift is being purely fictitious. The rich would have more uses for the bodies of these children than an Indian with a newly killed buffalo would.

The entire context of the story must be taken into account for the reader to have an adequate response. First off, the reader must see the conditions from which the essay is recalled. Many of the poor from this period lacked the ability to read. At the same time, Swift is aware of the fact that much of his audience is compiled of the rich and well to do. This class of people would most likely find it hard to consume the children of dirty beggars. What would the lowly beggars have done anyway if they were made to bring their children to auction, as if they were slaves or even prized meat? Most likely, as anyone else, they would have rebelled and thrown a coupe. This compilation of rhetoric and propaganda aimed to the upper class stirs an echo of an ironic portrayal of cynicism. Swift proposes this heinous portrait to bring an air of humor over the terror ongoing in Ireland through the respect of cannibalism. Very few authors of the time would venture into such shady territory; to poke fun at a dismal time such as the one Swift has seen. How can cannibalism, the eating of human flesh, be take so lightly by someone who would never revert to cannibalism himself? Actually, cannibalism is really not seen so lightly by Swift. It is clear that a famine is not a time to joke about the scarcity of food. Although to place blame on the rich through a sarcastic joke is very affective. Swift is humorous, yet at the same time a bit brutal for his justifications.

Because of the indifferent tone which Swift imposes, he was very often thoroughly analyzed, as well as judged, for his motives for writing. A Modest Proposal? proves noteworthy of being neither modest nor even proposable to any audience, no matter how rough the times may be. This indifferent tone towards the selling of children of which Swift writes has more of an impact than that of one in which the writer might actually be profoundly troubled over such a famine. The affect that is risen by Swift?s employment of a mixture of sarcasm, irony, and cynicism into his tone is one of clearity. It is his lack of expectations towards a good outcome that exalts the tone of Swift?s paper to a higher level. Swift knows that the depression and bleakness of the period will take time in getting better. To the poor it will seem like an eternity; thus, giving Swift a reason to write the way in which he does.

Throughout his writings, Jonathon Swift has used many different voices to explicate his views on the melancholy time period in which he lived. He uses a totally inverse route in writing his works. Swift brings to light many aspects of his culture such as greed, poverty, and ignorance. Other writers of the period would probably not even touch such aspects. A Modest Proposal? is a prime example of every interesting degree of Swift?s writing abilities. Ingeniously, the essay is a collection of these abilities. In conclusion to the story, the reader can scrutinize each sentence to find a different meaning or interpretation. Clearly, this essay is and should be treated as a work of fiction and nothing more. Though it is nothing more than a fictional work it should be taken into account that the essay carries a deeper meaning to which every reader can find difference.

FREE Our Starving World Essay

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Hunger is a major problem in the world today; one that can no longer be ignored. Over 80 million children are born every year and there is enough food available to feed them all, however, it is used very inefficiently and distributed very unevenly. Many people do not understand how complicated the food system actually is. There are many steps involved in providing and distributing food for everyone across the globe. Each year, thousands of people die of starvation, and over a billion suffer from severe hunger or malnutrition (Pringle 1). Even in the United States, the world's richest nation, there are approximately 15 million malnourished Americans (Milbauer 1). Children all around the world are growing up crippled in mind and body by malnutrition, and there is really nothing they can do about it. Many children are simply born into poor, hungry families. Governments are already trying to put an end to this problem, but there are also many things individuals and families can do to help the world hunger situation. To understand the severity of hunger in the world today, one must examine the meanings of hunger and malnutrition, and recognize who the hungry are, how the food system works, and what measures can be taken to end world hunger.

Food is essential for life. To be healthy and well nourished, humans must have adequate amounts of a variety of good-quality, safe foods. Without adequate nutrition, children cannot develop their potential to the fullest and adults will experience difficulty in maintaining or expanding theirs. Food provides people with the energy they need for growth, physical activity and the basic body functions (breathing, thinking, temperature control, blood circulation and digestion). Food also supplies people with the materials to build and maintain the body and to promote resistance to disease. These different functions are made possible by the nutrients contained in food. The types of nutrients in

Essays Related to Our Starving World

Children Smiling

Children Smiling

In every crisis situation?whether war, deep poverty. or natural disaster?children are the greatest victims. They are the weakest physically; therefore they are the first to succumb to disease or starvation. Due to their age, they are incapable of understanding why they are forced out of their homes, why their neighbors have gone against them, or why they are forced in to refugee camps with no explanation. With no responsibility for their fates, they are by definition innocent.

They are full of energy. unless they are seriously ill, and are willing to smile at all costs. From my personal experience in Botswana. the children are more visible than adults, and are more readily accepting of being photographed. Christmas of my junior year of high school was the date, and Botswana was the destination. A safari with a family of five, I couldn?t imagine any other way to spend my Christmas vacation. Not only did it get me into to the college of my choice it opened my eyes to a different culture that I was not previously exposed to. It seats nine, it is big, green and takes rich families around Africa. I like to call it a Land Rover, but they seem settled with ?people mover. As I stepped out of the people mover I couldn?t help but look through my camera constantly. I was beginning to observe my surroundings thinking about the memories that were about to be made.

Just as people see things through their eyes. I see things through my camera in pictures. I had just embarked on my image making adventure of a lifetime. I was in the center of a village of about eight hundred called Jedibe. Not only were the people friendly but, they were also eager to get their picture taken. I began shooting. It was my first true ecstasy. I can?t even begin to explain the feelings it brought to me. I was in a state of Euphoria. I was looking at poor weathered starving children who were staring at my camera like a deer caught in headlights. Even though the children were extremely poor they were happy to see my family and me. I suppose they were so happy to see my family and me because they were dependent on tourism. Tourism was their main source of income that provided the village with employment.

One of my distinct memories was of a man whose job was to clear animals off the runway at the airstrip. He would chase away all the animals before and after any of the planes took off or landed. He did not speak to us, but you could tell he took his job seriously. I spent over eight hours photographing him and Jedibe village. That day, I began making relationships with them that I still keep today. The one person their that sticks out in my mind was a small little girl named Tooka. She was not shy, and she was the cutest little girl I have ever seen. She would let me hold her in my arms, and photograph her non-stop. Meeting Tooka and a completely new culture, enabled me to open my horizons and begin to understand how other people in the world live and work. This was probably one of the most rewarding experiences I have ever had in my life. It made me realize my dream of becoming a National Geographic Photographer. and paved the road that I would take to my destination?NYU.

Although it benefited me in such a great way, how did it benefit them? It honestly didn?t. I sent the black and white prints of the people back to Africa. They sent back messages and thanked me for the prints, but other than that they truly did not benefit from what I did in Africa.

As I was researching African photographers I ran into Sabastio Salgado. He is famous for his portraits of children in their natural environments. He specialized in photographing children in black and white. When reading his introduction to his book The Children I remember him describing photographing children by saying,

When they see a camera, they jump with excitement, laughing, waving, pushing each other in the hope of being photographed. Sometimes their very joy gets in the way of recording what is happening to them. How can a smiling child represent deep misfortune?(1)

This quote was parallel to the way I felt while photographing children in Botswana. They were extremely poor yet the happiness they conveyed on their face was insurmountable. The photographs were supposed to convey their poverty and misfortune, yet all I saw was happiness. I was photographing in Botswana on Christmas day 1998. I was there for most of the day and didn?t want to leave. I remember a group of children that I photographed were preparing to perform a dance for our tented camp that was located just up the river from their village. They were dancing with beads in sacks on their ankles. The emotion and energy conveyed through my camera lens could not be repeated. The motion of their legs and arms, the smiles on their faces, the beautiful costumes they were wearing, and the energy they encompassed was amazing, but more importantly I have that memory in my portfolio to share with other people. Photography is about taking one moment in time and record it, making it a memory. I make memories to take with me for the rest of my life. In Sabastiao Selgado book, he took each photograph to remember the children he encountered throughout his assignments. Documentary photography is about taking a moment of time and history and recording it making it a memory. Documentary is the style that Salgado and I both encompass in our work. That day I shot 30 rolls of film and was sad, because that was all the film I had with me.

Another striking feature of photographing in Africa was their sense of family. When I embark on an image making adventure I see different things. When I made the prints from Africa, I noticed how family oriented they were. I have numerous photographs of brothers and sisters embracing each other. I have images of older siblings taking care of younger ones. It was as if family was an utmost important part of their lifestyle. As I photographed the children in Jedibe village I thought about my childhood. It made me look back at my childhood photo albums and remember that trials and tribulations of my own childhood. This was another aspect that made me think about the importance of memory in photography. I hope they will take the photographs that I sent and use them in the future to help them remember their childhoods. At eighteen I realize how fast my childhood went, but at least I have photographs to remember special events like my birthday and Christmas. Without these memories I will never be able to look back and reflect on how I grew up.

The next and most important observation I made when I was visiting Africa through my photography was the aids epidemic. Why does an entire continent on a whole have to suffer from such a deadly disease? As an outsider I was just observing. There is a picture I took of a little boy laying down behind a group of people. He was very skinny, so I inquired about him. Someone clued me in that he was dieing of Aids. I almost cried when I heard that. As a gay male I guess I sort of have a grasp of HIV and Aids. but not to an 8-year-old child. Someone that age should not have to be dealing with such a travesty. I can only take that memory and relflect. I think about my childhood and imagine how I would feel if it was cut short like that. What does someone at that age remember. How does someone that age deal with such a short lifetime.

Broadening a person?s perspective on new things is very important. I learned about a new and different culture, a new country and a new continent. There is so much more I want to learn and do in Africa. I hope that in the future I can return to Africa and experience more than I did the first time. There is a tremendous amount of community service that I would like to partake in Africa. I hope that in the near future I can plan a trip back to Botswana and use my knowledge I have gained here at school to good use. When I returned from Africa I gained a tremendous amount of knowledge on a variety of subjects of which I had no prior knowledge.

The future is always uncertain, but the past is factual. The past gets put into history through documentation and memory. Without memory we would never learn from our mistakes. We would also never recall the past. I am beginning to understand the relationship between photography and memory. It is very important to understand that when I take photographs they become my memories from my life. That was what my trip to Africa was, one big body of work that is now memories.

Реферат: Starving For Perfection Essay Research Paper Starving

Starving For Perfection Essay, Research Paper

Starving for Acceptance

In today s society, where physical characteristics are used to measure beauty and success, people are willing to push their bodies to extremes to achieve physical perfection. As an overweight woman, I may be considered a failure of society s beauty test. However, my high self-esteem and acceptance of my body allows me to not be disturbed by what, to some, may seem as a sign of failure. Unfortunately, there are people whose desire to be accepted by society causes them to develop eating disorders. The two most common are called anorexia and bulimia (WebMD.Com Eating 1). The Anorexia Nervosa and Related Eating Disorders, association (ANRED), states Anorexia and bulimia affect primarily people in their teens and twenties, but clinicians report both disorders in children as young as six and individuals as old as seventy-six (ANRED Statistics 1). Anorexia and bulimia are both serious eating disorders with differences and similarities in their symptoms, diagnosis, causes, treatments and prognosis.

Although anorexia and bulimia share many of the same symptoms, they also have many differences. About half of people with anorexia also have symptoms of bulimia (MayoClinic.Com 2). According to the American Anorexia Bulimia Association (AABA), some symptoms of anorexia are: excessive exercising, depression, weakness, exhaustion, constipation, and loss of menstrual period in women (AABA Anorexia 1). They also state that bulimics suffer from those symptoms as well. (AABA Bulimia 1). Although there are

similarities, each disorder has its own unique characteristics. A major symptom of bulimia is binging and purging. Bulimics practice binging, eating large amounts of food at one time, and purging, causing themselves to vomit, or defecate, in an attempt to prevent weight gain (Reyes 1). Anorexics, however, restrict their diets and starve themselves in attempt to stay thin and if possible, lose more weight ( Anorexia Nervosa 1)

Like any other illness, eating disorders need to be diagnosed by a health care professional. People with eating disorders may also have psychological problems (WebMD.Com Eating 1). Because of this, medical and mental healthcare workers are able to diagnose both disorders (ANRED Treatment 3). The Mayo Clinic states that race, age, and social status of patients are also factors that affect the diagnosis of eating disorders:

One misconception is that eating disorders are confined to young white people from affluent families. People of all races, ethnic groups and socioeconomic levels can be affected. In the United States, researchers have found that Hispanics are diagnosed with eating disorders at about the same rate as whites, while higher rates are found among American Indians. Although the disorders are less common among young people who are Asian and black, there is evidence that blacks are more likely to develop bulimia than anorexia. (MayoClinic.Com 3)

Males suffering from anorexia and bulimia are often not correctly diagnosed. Some healthcare professionals consider eating disorders to be a female problem,

and therefore, fail to properly diagnose males with these disorders (ANRED Males 1). However, men are just as affected by societies demand for the perfect body. Colleen Rush of Dr.Drew.Com writes, of the 5 million Americans who suffer from eating disorders, approximately 10 percent–or 500,000–are men (Rush 1). Anorexics are usually very thin, with a body weight that is 15% below their required body weight. However, in addition to assessing their physical appears, doctors must also perform an Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and an Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) to determine if a patient is truly anorexic and not afflicted with a psychological disorder ( Anorexia Nervosa 4). Bulimia may be harder to diagnose because bulimics may not be visibly underweight and may even be overweight (AABA Bulimia 1). Doctors must perform complete physical exams to rule out other disease as the first step in determining if a person has bulimia ( Bulimia Nervosa 2). Additionally they must be able to recognize the obvious symptoms:

According to the American Psychological Association, a diagnosis of bulimia requires that a person have all of the following symptoms: Recurrent episodes of binge eating (minimum average of two binge-eating episodes a week for at least three months). A feeling of lack of control over eating during binges. Regular use of one or more of the following to prevent weight gain: self-induced vomiting, use of laxatives or diuretics, strict dieting or fasting, or vigorous exercise. Persistent over-concern with body shape and weight. (qtd in Bulimia Nervosa 3)

Once these symptoms have been confirmed, a doctor will then be able to accurately diagnose if a patient is bulimic.

Although anorexia and bulimia are different diseases, they have some of the same causes. According to ANRED, a major cause of anorexia and bulimia is the emphasis society places on having a perfect body:

A casual review of popular magazines and TV shows reveals that women are encouraged to diet and be thin so they can feel good about themselves, be successful at school and at work, and attract friends and romantic partners. Men, on the other hand, are exhorted to be strong and powerful, to build their bodies and make them large so they can compete successfully, amass power and wealth, and defend and protect their skinny female companions. (ANRED Males 2)

Living up to the high standard set by society causes anorexics and bulimics to spend hours obsessing about their appearance. Anorexia and bulimia may also be caused by several other reasons, including cultural and family pressures, chemical imbalances, emotional and personality disorders, and genetics (WebMD.Com What 1). People with family histories of eating disorders are more likely to be diagnosed with them (MayoClinic.Com 4). Men and women, who have a history of depression, personality disorders, or substance abuse, are at a higher risk for eating disorders (WebMD.Com 2). No one knows what causes anorexia, but some experts believe that anorexia is a response to social attitudes

that equate beauty with being thin (Johnson 1). Bulimia is however, thought to be caused, by social, psychological and biological factors (Reyes 2).

Anorexia and bulimia are serious disorders that require treatment. Both disorders are treatable and people are able to recover from them. Recovery may be as short as a few months, or last for several years (ANRED Treatment 1). Early detection and treatment is encouraged. The sooner treatment is begun the sooner the person can begin to recover (ANRED Medical 2). According to Donald E. McAlpine M.D. director of the eating disorders program at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, Weight can only be manipulated so far, and then the biological system pushes back (qtd in MayoClinic.Com Eating 3). The starving, stuffing, and purging associated with these disorders can lead to irreversible physical damage (ANRED Medical 1). According to ANRED, people suffering from both eating disorders have treatment options that include but are not limited to:

hospitalization; to prevent death, suicide and medical crisis, medication; to relieve depression and anxiety, dental work; to repair damage and minimize future problems, individual counseling; to develop healthy ways of taking control, group therapy; to learn how to manage relationships effectively, family therapy; to change old patterns and create healthier new ones, nutrition counseling; to debunk food myths and design healthy meals, and support groups; to break down isolation and alienation. (ANRED Treatment 2)

There are a few disorder specific treatments for both. Hospitalization is recommended for anorexics that weigh less than 40% of their normal body weight, show signs of severe depression or risk of suicide, and suffer from severe binging and purging. Anorexics who are not severely underweight can be treated in outpatient therapy ( Anorexia Nervosa 4). If a person does not show signs of a psychiatric disorder, drugs are rarely used to treat anorexia. Sometimes, a drug called cyproheptadine may be used to stimulate appetite, which is usually not effective since anorexics do feel hungry; they just choose not to eat (Johnson 4). Because bulimics often deny their condition, treating them can be difficult, and sometimes only begins with encouragement from a family member. Treatment of bulimia is usually done on an outpatient basis, but inpatient treatment may be necessary to make sure a person eats enough (Reyes 2). Since bulimics may have psychological disorders, a combination of drugs and behavioral therapies is commonly used in their treatment. Antidepressants called Norpamin, Tofranil, and Prozac are commonly used in the treatment of bulimia. These medications are beneficial because they treat the psychological symptoms ( Bulimia Nervosa 3).

Similarities and differences also may appear in the prognosis of anorexia and bulimia. People who have been treated for anorexia need to be aware that their illness may recur (Johnson 4). Likewise, those who have been treated for bulimia may need to continue long-term treatment to prevent a relapse (Reyes 3). Figures on long-term recovery for anorexics vary by study, but the

most reliable sources estimate that 40-60% of anorexics will make a good physical and social recovery, and 75% will gain weight. The long-term mortality rate is estimated at about 10%. The most frequent cause of death in anorexics is starvation, electrolyte imbalance, heart failure, and suicide ( Anorexia Nervosa 5). According to The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, anorexia has the highest mortality rate of all psychiatric disorders ( Anorexia Nervosa 2). Bulimia can be chronic and lead to serious health problems, including seizures, irregular heartbeat, and thin bones. Unlike anorexia, people die as a result of bulimia in rare cases. Early detection and treatment can effectively manage the disorder and help bulimics look forward to a normal life ( Bulimia Nervosa 3).

Anorexia and bulimia are not diseases discussed everyday. More discussion is done about the disadvantages of being overweight than those of being underweight. As long as society continues to embrace the thin and use them as the model of perfection, the number of people who truly suffer from these very serious eating disorders may never be known.

American Anorexia Bulimia Association, Inc. (AABA) Web Site. Anorexia Nervosa. 2 Jun. 2001.

American Anorexia Bulimia Association, Inc. (AABA) Web Site. Bulimia Nervosa. 2 Jun. 2001.

Anorexia Nervosa. The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Ed. D. Olendorf, C. Jeryan, and K. Boyden. 1999. 2 Jun. 2001.

Anorexia Nervosa and Related Eating Disorders, Inc. (ANRED) Web Site. Males with Eating Disorders. 1998. 2 Jun. 2001.

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Реферат: Malthus And Starving Essay Research Paper TheUnited

Malthus And Starving Essay, Research Paper

United Nations projects that the global population, currently at 6 billion, will

peak at about 10 billion in the next century and then stabilize or even decline.

A question immediately following the statement, can the Earth feed that many

people? It is understood that even if food crops increase sufficiently, other

renewable resources, including many fisheries and forests, are already under

pressure. Our food production doubled from 1961 to 1994, but there are still

people who go hungry. This is because the human population has increased more

rapidly than the food production. One of the well-known economists Thomas Robert

Malthus claimed that there was an imbalance between population growth and our

ability to produce food. In his famous work, An Essay on the Principle of

Population, his principle of population was based on three main points:

population cannot increase without the means of subsistence; population

invariable increases when the means of subsistence are available; and the

superior power of population cannot be checked without producing misery or vice.

When taking into account Malthus principle of population it is evident that his

fundamental analysis of population has been proven right. Since the earth

resources are finite, when human population increases, it affects human beings.

Will there be a problem if population keeps increasing? Rapid population growth

and the technical development of society have led to difficulties for farmers

worldwide to maintain this dual compatibility. In fact, today farmers face

demands for a high productivity as well as environmentally sound, sustainable

farming practices. Some economists believe human beings have the ability to

produce enough food to feed all the people in the world, but according to

Malthus theory, this cannot happen. When the number of people keeps increasing

while the amount of available food stays the same or even declines, human beings

will face a scarcity of resources and overpopulation in the world. This is what

happening right now. According to a well known biologist-Paul R. Ehrlich, who

said The amount of food available restrains the size of any animal population,

unless space, disease, predators, or some other factor sets lower limits. What

he means is that food production is an element that control our population

growth, this is because people cannot survive without food. When his idea is

observed, it is evident that his idea is similar to Malthus principle of

population. Malthus stated, there is an imbalance between our ability to produce

food and our ability to produce children. (Malthus 80) He said human beings are

far better at making babies than are at finding food for survival. This problem,

exists in all past and present societies, and must also exist in any future

society as well. Therefore Malthus and Paul both agreed that the population

could not increase without an increase of food. Without an excessive population,

the world fertile land can produce enough food, or even excess food. There will

be a sufficient amount of natural resources reserve of human beings. Therefore

the faster the population increases; the more resources will be used. When

population keeps increasing, earth environment will be put into greater danger,

the overexploitation of natural resources will continue and poverty will rise in

most of the world countries. It is because more people consume more food and

more resources to keep their needs. As a result, if there is not enough food,

human population will decline. Malthus stated, the power of population to grow

was indefinitely greater than the power of the earth to produce subsistence. (Malthus,

70) He also said that there was a difference between population growth and food

felwell/http/malthus/index) The difference is

that the population increases by a geometric progression but the amount of

subsistence increases by arithmetic progression. When Malthus wrote his

principle in 1798, he already predicted that in the future, the population would

exceed the amount of food. This is because population grows according to the

geometric progression (1, 2, 4, 8, 16..), and the means of subsistence grows

according to the arithmetic progression (1, 2, 3, 4..) When our population

exceeds the amount of food, people who cannot get food will experience hunger.

As the human numbers increase, deterioration of water quality and destruction of

animal and plant communities increase too. Water pollution has been partly

caused by population growth. Humans consumed, stored and diverted water and used

it to carry away wastes without regard to health or ecological consequences.

Therefore, overpopulation not just threatens food supply, but also water supply.

As human numbers continue to rise, they create needs for land for purposes other

than the production of food. Among these are urbanization and transportation.

Each of these sectors claims cropland in almost every country. When the world

population is examined, it is found that human population is increasing rapidly.

Population growth has expanded greatly over the last 500 years, as larger

numbers of people needed more food supplies and commodities from natural

resources and agricultural activities, more and more people occupied bigger land

spaces in big urban areas. Population growth in today world, therefore, plays a

vital role to changes in the land. It is also found that 90% of the world

population growth is occurring in developing countries in Asia, Africa and Latin

America. In the United States, the natural increase is about 0.6 percent a

year, while the total population growth is around 1%. (fao.org.docrep/meeting/)

The reason why developing countries like Africa and Latin America have a higher

population growth because the majority of their population still under a low

standard of living. The quality of life reached by traditional farming systems

is low compared with that of modem western agricultural systems – short life

span, low level of education, and absence of social services, etc. They need

more children to work on the farm and earn extra income. Children are also born

for the security of their parent age, as life expectancy is high. According to

the1998 report of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United, studies have

shown that overall, developing countries experienced higher output growth over

1994 to1998 than the developed countries. The developing countries having

experienced an increase in per capital food production represent 77% of the

developing country population. (fao.org.docrep/meeting/X1729) However, some

developing country regions like Africa South of Sahara, has suffered a decline

in per capital terms over the 1994 to 1998 because of high rates of population

growth. (fao.org/docrep/meeting/X1729e.htm#P874159) Even though Africa has

increased food production, their population grows faster than their food

production. The most productive and progressive agricultural systems are those

of the industrialized countries, with slow or no population growth. While in

many developing countries, agricultural production is kept with the rapid grow

of population. What happened in Africa proves Malthus. theory is correct. He

stated that there is a difference between the population growth and the food

supply, population increases in geometric progression, and food supply increases

in arithmetic progression. As a result, people in Africa starve because they

have such a high population. Rwanda has about 5.9 million people in 1995, has

produced 23000 tons of food in that year. Cereal commercial imports about 25000

tons and food aid is about 140 tons??(fao.org/giews/english/basedocs/rwa/rwaaidle.stm)

What happened in Rwanda is that in 1995 the amount of food aid and cereal

commercial imports was greater than their food production. As a result, the

population growth in Rwanda threatened people??s lives because the food

production could not satisfy all the people needs. In addition, food and

resources are not often distributed evenly among the human society; this means

that poor people are the ones who will be starving. Also, most of the food that

grows in developing countries is for the exportation to developed countries,

resulting no food left for the people in developing countries. When population

increases in those developing countries, people in the risk of hunger increase,

and the condition becomes severe. As a result, their death rates are much higher

than developed countries, since people in developed countries have the financial

ability to purchase food from others. Although developed countries may not able

to produce food for themselves, because of inadequate farmlands, they can import

food from developing countries in order to satisfy their needs. The reason for

developed countries to import food from others is because those countries have

such a large population, and they cannot produce enough food for themselves.

When the human population in the world exceeds the amount of food supply, food

shortage or famine will occur, which is what happened in Rwanda. I pointed out

that before China, only three countries-Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan-were

densely populated before they industrialized. Within 30 years, each had lost

more than 40 percent of its grain land. And since the huge losses could not be

offset by productivity gains, grain output fell in Japan by 32 percent and in

both South Korea and Taiwan by 24 percent. Add to this equation the widespread

demand by the suddenly affluent populations for greater diversity in their

diets, and the three countries went from being largely self-sufficient to

collectively importing 71 percent of their grain needs. In no case was the heavy

dependence on imports a conscious policy goal, but rather it was the result of

industrialization in a region of land scarcity. (techreview.com/articles/nov95/Brown)

Food scarcity not only occurs in developing countries, but also developed

country. It occurs in those developed countries because those countries need

lands to develop their society. There are less lands for grow crops; therefore

those countries have heavy dependence on import food from other countries. Food

aid is provided for the developing countries because food is unevenly

distributed in those countries. It is estimated that more than 800 million

people, most of them in developing countries, do not have enough food to meet

their basic nutritional needs. (techreview.com/articles/nov95/Brown) It happens

not just because of food shortages, but the fact is that food aid sometimes

cannot reach the famine victims. There are many reasons for that, for example,

food aid is sent to the military to support soldiers, or to the government who

keeps the food for the black market. In order for food donations to reach famine

victims, many sides have to work right. Port facilities must be adequate;

warehousing must be sufficient to store the food safely until it can be

distributed. The entire process must function smoothly in order to help the

hungry people. In the Ethiopian famines of the mid 1980s in a terrible civil

war often used donated food as a weapon, preventing it from reaching starving

people. (Ehrlich 80) Even if food aid is sent to a particular place, the

transportation process must run smoothly in order to still help those famine

victims. Global production of staple food declined slightly in 1998, with most

of the decline being in cereals, although developing country cereal production

increased moderately. Global end cereal stocks for the 1998/99 seasons are

forecast to decline slightly. (fao.org/docrep/meeting/X1729e.htm#P874159) As

Malthus said, the imbalance between population growth and food production has

lead to misery and vice. Therefore a large numbers of countries continue to face

food emergencies and, as a result, civil strife occurs. In Mexico, Zapatistas

struggle to maintain their everyday life because of their civil strife. The

elite groups take advantage of poor farmers. They export their food to other

countries or sell it locally for an extremely high price. According to the

newspaper in Mexico, Antonio was a 45-year-old man with two children and he was

afraid solders would kill him if he went to harvest by himself. The elite groups

take all the crops, leaving poor people with no money to buy medicine or other

daily necessaries. The same situation is occurring in Chiapas right now. The

wealthy people take the majority of food that grows in that area either for

export or sell it in the black market. Even the food staying in Chiapas, it is

not enough to feed the local people. This is because Chiapas have a large

population but a small food supply. The people in Chiapas are starving, since

they have nothing to lose, they try their best to fight the military, which

creates tragedy. Malthus principle is right because all the countries with

violent upheavals in the 1980s and 90s were the ones that showed the highest

growth rate in the 60s. Every country where bloody internecine civil wars have

occurred in recent years had a huge population preceding conflict (npg.org/projects/malthus/geyer_story.)

It is evident that Malthus principle of population is right because he said,

the superior power of population cannot be checked without producing misery

or vice. When the gap between the human population and food production grows

larger and larger, it creates big problems for human beings, such as food

shortages, malnutrition, famine, civil strife, etc. When taking this into

account, Malthus??s principle of population is evident and his fundamental

analysis of population is realistic and possible. In Chiapas and Mexico, civil

strife has been brewing for years because the people in Chiapas are starving.

High population growth, and the degradation of agricultural land results

environmental scarcity and the unfair access to resources by the majority of

citizens. Food shortages create lots of problems, such as civil strife, which is

happening in Chiapas, and also Sierra Leone, Burundi, Kenya, etc. The majority

of hungry people live in developing countries since they are considered less

important than people in developed countries. Even though Malthus principle was

printed about 201 years ago, generally, his principle is proven right today.

Studies have shown that countries, which have huge populations, will experience

misery. If human beings still ignore the problem of the population growth and

the food supply, other problems will follow, such as civil strife and food

shortages. Furthermore, rapid population growth may affect poverty by affecting

the correlates of poverty: low wages, lack of human capital such as education

and health, and lack of income earning assets such as land; income inequality

and loss of economic growth. The only way to solve the problem between the

population growth and the food supply is to reduce our population by using

contraceptive tools. The other way is to distribute our food evenly to all

people around the world. If food were distributed evenly to all people, famine

will not happen. Now, it is time to face reality. It is time to change our

world. It is time to solve our problem.