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Direct Essays - La Malinche 1. Review of the Spaniard and Aztec Civilizations Encounter

The Spaniards had to communicate with the Aztecs by using La Malinche as an interpreter. La Malinche translated all that Motecuhzoma had said to Cortes. He told La Malinche to tell Motecuhzoma that, "There is nothing to fear. tell him that we love him well and our hearts are contented.".

2. Medea

This myth traces back to an actual historical figure, La Malinche, of the Aztecs. La Malinche was a girl born of a noble Aztec family in 1505. In 1521 La Malinche gave birth to two of Cortes' children. However, it was too late, and the entire Aztec society was destroyed by Cortes, with the help of La Malinche (The Spirit, timeline). Just as La Malinche literally killed her children (and symbolically killed the future of her society), Medea did the same.

3. Columbus, A Discoverer

Columbus, a discoverer, who sought new lands and recognition for his home country, sought respect from the king and queen in Spain. Columbus's first impressions of the natives were that they were savages who wore no closes, as thus limiting his observations to physical description of the Indians.

4. Spanish Conquistadors in America

While Cortes was in Tabasco he took many prisoners, including a young native girl called Malinche. After leaving Tabasco the fleet landed a little north of San Juan, on Good Friday, where Cortes established a town that they called La Villa Rica de La Vera Cruz.

5. Miguel Leon-Portilla The Broken Spears

La malinche translated this speech and the Spaniards grasped Motecuhzoma's hands and patted his back to show their affection for him. (65)Little did Motecuhzoma know the great heartache his people would later come to endure.

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Example Essays: La Malinche

1. Analysis of an Aztec Encounter

The Spaniards had to communicate with the Aztecs by using La Malinche as an interpreter. La Malinche translated all that Motecuhzoma had said to Cortes. He told La Malinche to tell Motecuhzoma that, "There is nothing to fear. tell him that we love him well and our hearts are contented.aE He took this to his advantage by lying to him.

2. Pre Colonial Literature

This was evidence of co-opting because Cortes took La Malinche and used her to his advantage, since she was bi-lingual he could communicate with the people of the land, with intentions of imperil zing them and assimilating them into a new culture.H.Verrazano had a very positive first encounter with the indigenous people.

3. Religious Symbolism in Borderlands

Gloria Anzaldua's "Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza," is a novel which encompasses the life of a Chicana living in the United States-Mexico border area. Guadalupe is of major relevance in "Borderlands: La Frontera," appearing in a chapter when her story is told. She is said to be one of the three mothers of the Chicana along with la Malinche and la Llorona.

4. The Conquest of Mexico

With the quincentennial of Columbus's "discovery" of America upon us, it now is, perhaps more than ever, an appropriate time to reevaluate the actions of the European explorers who subjugated the Native American peoples and their civilizations. Undoubtedly the most glorified and heroically portrayed of these figures of the European conquest of the New World were the conquistadores, the Spanish conquerors of Mexico and Peru in the 16th century. These men, under leaders such as Hernan Cortes and Francisco Pizarro, nearly eliminated the Aztec and Inca peoples. Surely many of these soldiers w.

La Malinche

The essays are ideal for those taking examinations in English Literature.

Sample essay topic, essay writing: La Malinche - 1333 words

'La Malinche.' Slave, interpreter, secretary, mistress, mother of the first 'Mexican.' her very name still stirs up controversy. Many Mexicans continue to revile the woman called Do

na Marina by the Spaniards and La Malinche by the Aztecs, labeling her a traitor and harlot for her role as the alter-ego of Cortes as he conquered Mexico. They ignore that she saved thousands of Indian lives by enabling Cortes to negotiate rather than slaughter. Her ability to communicate also enabled the Spaniards to introduce Christianity and attempt to end human sacrifice and cannibalism. Herself a convert, baptized Marina, she was an eloquent advocate for her new faith. As for the charges against her, they are in my opinion baseless.

So let us visit this remarkable woman and examine the facts. All historians agree that she was the daughter of a noble Aztec family. Upon the death of her father, a chief, her mother remarried and gave birth to a son. Deciding that he rather than Marina, should rule, she turned her young daughter over to some passing traders and thereafter pro - claimed her dead. Eventually, the girl wound up as a slave of the Cacique (the military chief) of Tabasco. By the time Cortes arrived, she had learned the Mayan dialects used in the Yucatan while still understanding Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs and most Non-Mayan Indians.'La Malinche' did not choose to join Cortes

She was offered to him as a slave by the Cacique of Tabasco, along with 19 other young women. She had no voice in the matter. Up till then, Cortes had relied on a Spanish priest, Jeronimo de Aguilar, as his interpreter. Shipwrecked off Cozumel, Aguilar spoke the Mayan language as well as Spanish. But when the expedition left the Mayan-speaking area, Cortes discovered that he could not communicate with the Indians. That night he was advised that one of the women given to him in Tabasco spoke 'Mexican.'Do

na Marina now enters Mexican history. It was she who served as the interpreter at the first meetings between Cortes and the representatives of Moctezuma. At that time Marina spoke no Spanish.

She translated what the Aztecs said into the Mayan dialect understood by de Aguilar and he relayed it to Cortes in Spanish. The process was then reversed, Spanish to Mayan and Mayan to Nahuatl. Bernal Diaz, author of 'The Conquest of New Spain' authenticated her pedigree. An eyewitness to the events, he did not describe her physically, but related that after the Conquest he attended a reunion of Do

na Marina, her mother and the half - brother who had usurped her rightful place. Diaz marveled at her kindness in forgiving them for the injustice she had suffered. The author referred to her only as Marina or Do

na Marina. So whence came the name 'La Malinche?' Diaz said that because Marina was always with Cortes, he was called 'Malinche'--which the author translated to mean 'Marina's Captain.' Prescott, in the 'Conquest of Mexico,' (perhaps the best known book on the subject) confirms that Cortes was always addressed as 'Malinche' which he translated as Captain and defined 'La Malinche' as 'the captain's woman.'Both definitions confirm that the Indians saw Cortes and his spokesperson as a single unit. They recognized that what they heard were the words of 'Malinche,' not 'La Malinche. ' So much for the charge that she was a traitor, instigating the destruction of the Aztec Empire. As for the charge of 'harlotry,' it is equally flawed.

She was totally loyal to Cortes, a one-man woman, who loved her master. Cortes reciprocated her feelings. Time after time he was offered other women but always refused them. Bernal Diaz frequently commented on the nobility of her character and her concern for her fellow 'Mexicans.'It is very possible that without her, Cortes would have failed. He himself, in a letter preserved in the Spanish archives, said that 'After God we owe this conquest of New Spain to Do

na Marina's progress from interpreter to secretary to mistress, as well as her quick mastery of Spanish, are remarkable--and all this amidst the turmoil of constant warfare, times when a woman less courageous and committed might well have fled. The ability of Marina to help Cortes to communicate with the Indians shaped the entire campaign. From the very first meeting between Cortes and the emissaries of Moctezuma, an effort was made to establish friendly relations with the Aztec Emperor. Later, during Cortes's encounter with the Caciques of Cempola, that same talent opened the door to the Conquest. Here, Cortes met the 'Fat Cacique' and by arresting five tax collectors sent by the Aztecs, made his first Indian allies: Cempoalans were the first of the Indian warriors to join him. Yet even then, he tried to persuade Moctezuma to invite him to Tenochtitlan, freeing the captives to carry a message to the Emperor that he had come in peace. Without Marina, attempts to negotiate with the Aztecs would have been impossible. These efforts did much to keep Moctezuma undecided about how to deal with the invaders. This hesitancy played a large part in the outcome of the Conquest. Perhaps the most important negotiations Marina made possible were those with the Tlascalans.

After an initial armed clash, an alliance was forged that brought thousands of warriors to fight alongside the Spaniards. As Cortes moved toward the Aztec capital, a pattern evolved. First conflict, then meetings in which Do

na Marina played a key role in avoiding more bloodshed. Hence, the picture of Marina that emerges is that of an intelligent, religious, loyal woman. Her contribution to the success of the Conquest is immense, but she cannot be held responsible for it happening. To a very large degree, the Conquest came because of the brutality of the Aztecs: a rebellion by their oppressed neighbors, who would have rallied to anyone who promised them relief from the Aztecs' constant demands for tribute and sacrificial victims. But from another standpoint, the fate of the Aztec Empire was sealed in the very first meetings of the emissaries of Moctezuma with Cortes, when they gave him gifts of gold and silver that Sernal Diaz valued at over 20,000 pesos de oro. Prescott, writing in 1947, valued each peso de oro at $11.67 U. S.

Dollars. The Spanish appetite for gold was whetted, making the Conquest inevitable. But had Cortes failed, the next expedition, perhaps without an interpreter, would certainly have shed more Mexican blood. Then too, had Cortes met with no success, the Smallpox epidemic that raged in the Aztec Capital might well have spread throughout the entire empire. By destroying the city, he perhaps saved the country. Bernal Diaz wrote: 'When we entered the city every house was full of corpses.

The dry land and stockades were piled high with the dead. We also found Mexicans lying in their own excrement, too sick to move.'After the Conquest, Cortes, with a wife in Spain, arranged to have Marina married to a Castilian knight, Don Juan Xamarillo. Soon thereafter she disappeared from history. But she had borne Cortes a son, Don Mahin Cortes. While many other Indian women were impregnated by Spaniards, we have no record of their fate. Hence, if modern-day Mexicans are a blend of Spanish and Indian blood, Do

na Marina's son was the first 'Mexican' whose career we can follow.

He rose to high government position and was a 'Comendador' of the Order of St. Jago. In 1548, accused of conspiring against the Viceroy, he was tortured and executed. In more recent times, the term 'Malinchista' has been used by some to describe those who dislike Mexicans. But Do

na Marina deserves better. A fearless, loyal and determined woman, she was a heroine who helped save Mexico from its brutal, blood-thirsty rulers--and in doing so she played a major role in fashioning what is today one of the most dynamic societies in all of Latin America.

Research paper and essay writing, free essay topics, sample works La Malinche

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  • Aztec Empire The Aztec Indians, who are known for their domination of southern and central Mexico, ruled between the 14th and 16th centuries. Their comes from from Azatlan, the homeland of the north. The Aztecs also call themselves Mexica and there language came from the Nahuatlans wich is branch of the Uto-Aztecan family. The Aztecs were formed after
  • The Toltecs, Aztecs, And Mayans Sample essay topic, essay writing: The Toltecs, Aztecs, And Mayans - 574 words TOLTECS; The Toltecs were an Indian tribe who existed from 900 A. D. to 1200. They had a capital city of Tollan, and their influences reached south to the Yucatan and Guatemala. They were a composite tribe of Nahua, Otomi, and Nonoalca. The
  • Hernan Cortes Sample essay topic, essay writing: Hernan Cortes - 659 words Hernan (also Hernando or Fernando) Cortes was born in Medellin, Estramadura, in Spain in 1485 to a family of minor nobility. Cortes was sent to study law at the University of Salamanca. In 1501 He left school to fight in a military expedition but becameill and
  • The Aztecs The Aztec people ruled from the Gulf of Mexico to present day Guatemala. There capital city was Tenochititlan. The greatest controlling force was religion. It was shown in their architecture and sculpture. They also had writing, numbers and a calendar. They had recorded dates for religious holidays. The children were taught respect, courtesy, truthfulness and self control.
  • History of Mexico Before the Spanish Mexico was occupied by a large number of Indian groups with very different social and economic systems. In general the tribes in the north were relatively small groups of hunters and gatherers who roamed large areas of sparsely vegetated deserts and dry lands. These people are often called the Chichimecs, though they

9 November 2014. Author: Criticism

A Guide to Writing Subtitles - Free Essay Collection

A Guide to Writing Subtitles

A subtitle is a textual version of what is said onscreen; often used in foreign movies to translate languages or in science fiction films to translate a lost or imaginary language to real language.
To begin, the subtitler should have the film on media (VHS, DVD, etc.), a copy of the production and, if possible, a copy of the dialogue list.
Everything in the film should be subtitled. Even road signs, billboards, and anything else written on-screen that is relevant to the story and will help the viewer understand the plot.

The translated subtitle must not exceed the length and duration of the time that is available (for example, the number of frames). This means that subtitling could involve a good amount of paraphrasing.

The basic format of the subtitle should follow the following:
• three seconds are needed to read a line,
• a single subtitle showing should not exceed two lines, and
• a line of subtitles should not exceed 37 characters.
Translating/paraphrasing/summarizing the text to fit in the parameters and restrictions of subtitles can be one of the most important and difficult aspects of writing subtitles.
The goal of the subtitles is not to translate word for word. Instead, it is to make the viewer understand the plot and what is being said in order to understand the film. The subtitler must be faithful to the sense of the content, which in most cases is very difficult because we have a limit of 2 lines per single subtitle and 37 characters per line. The key is to remember that the subtitler must summarize and paraphrase the words of the film in such a way that the viewer will still understand the plot, and comedic/dramatic/etc. value of the scene.
The subtitler should give the most accurate translation and interpretation of the original text into the target language in the fewest number of words possible. The subtitler should know and decide what to deliver to the audience in order to carry out and insure understanding of the plot and of the main points. It is ok to leave out some content as long as it will not prove particularly important or relevant to the plot later on.
Translating jokes can be rather difficult and tricky. Jokes that are funny in one language often don't make sense in other languages, especially things like plays on words, puns, etc. The best thing to do in a situation like this would be to brainstorm and find a similar joke of similar comedic value to place in the subtitle that renders the same comedic atmosphere or feeling.
The general rule of thumb is to not use words not listed in the dictionary when writing subtitles. Part of the role of the subtitle is to serve as a model for literacy, and therefore they should be grammatically correct.
The format and consistency of the subtitles is very important.
A subtitler must use consistency when writing subtitles. It would be difficult for the viewer and unnecessarily confusing for them to see differences in things like numbers, measurements, names, nicknames, etc. For example, if the subtitler chooses to use numerical numbers, then he/she should not change to written letters during the course of the film.
Some consider italics are not necessary, but usually subtitles use italics for: off-camera speech, text being read, the TV, the radio, songs, book or movie titles, and foreign words.
Line division and placements are crucial to the appearance of the film to the viewer, as well as the ease of viewing for the viewer.
Whenever two lines of unequal length are used, the upper line should preferably be shorter to keep as much of the image free as possible and in left-justified subtitles in order to reduce unnecessary eye movement.

Line division is particularly important to how subtitles look on screen and most particularly the speed of reading and comprehension. If the text fits on one line, keep it on one line, the viewer will be happy to see more of the screen. If the text does not fit on one line, then you should try to divide it as best as possible, keeping in mind the following basic principles:

1. Divide at punctuation marks (",", ".", ":", "…")
2. BEFORE conjunctions (i.e. you should have the conjunction on the second line: and, or, because, etc.)
3. BEFORE prepositions (i.e. you should always move the preposition on the second line, ex: on, for, in, inside, on the outside of, etc.) Watch out for compound prepositions.
4. DO NOT SEPARATE a noun from its article (i.e. do not leave the article "a", "an", "the" on the first line and the noun on the second line).
5. NO DOT DIVIDE a name, whenever possible and whenever you have plenty of space the keep it together.
6. NO NOT DIVIDE compound or reflexive verbs (i.e. do not leave the auxiliary, reflexive, negative particle etc on the first line and main verb on the second line.)
7. NO NOT DIVIDE verbal phrases, idioms, expressions
8. Do not split abbreviations
9. Try not to divide the subject from the verb whenever the space allows it.
10. DO NOT LEAVE ONE WORD on a line even if it is followed by punctuation.
The basic principle to line division is to keep idea units and semantic units together; it will insure easier and faster reading and comprehension by the viewer.

"Subtitling- Basic Principals" (

"Subtitling and Translation" (

"Subtitle" by Wikipedia Encylocpedia (

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The significance of La Malinche to writers and artists essays The significance of La Malinche to writers and artists

The figure and reputation of La Malinche varies from a traitor of Mexico, to an intelligent woman who took advantage of the situation she found herself in. Her story is documented by Bernal Dial, a soldier of the Cortes expedition, and various native texts such as the Lienzo de Tlaxcala. Whatever their varying opinions, it is known that she was essential to the success of the Spanish conquest of Mexico. It would have been impossible for Cortes to have survived as long as he did without the interpreting skills of La Malinche.

The most extensive and probably most reliable source of information about La Malinche is from Bernal Diaz’s account of the Spanish conquest. He referred to her throughout his writing by her Christian name Dona Marina. He knew her and was an eyewitness to everything she did and said, although to begin with he would not have been able to understand her. He wrote his memoirs some thirty years after the conquest, so he was able to write with hindsight, and when La Malinche was literate in Spanish. So it is through him that her history before she joined the Spaniards is known.
As a young girl she was the daughter of Caciques (chiefs), of a town called Paynala, situated in the Isthmus, between the two empires of the Maya and Aztec. [When trying to discover the roots of La Malinche, Anna Lanyon went to the region of the Isthmus where Paynala was known to have existed. In her book ‘Malinche’s Conquest’, Lanyon writes that the small town of Jaltipan is her possible place of birth, as there are stories of migration between the two places. ] Her father died, and her mother remarried, another Cacique and bore him a son. It seemed that both wanted the son to be the next Cacique, and so sold La Malinche to Indians of Xicalango, claiming that she had died, for their desire to become true. From the people of Xicalango, she was in turn passed onto the Tabascans as a slave, and there she learnt the Mayan language. [Her.

Related Essays:

The significance of La Malinche to writers and artists. (1969, December 31). In Retrieved 20:08, July 26, 2016, from

MegaEssays. "The significance of La Malinche to writers and artists.", (December 31, 1969). Web. 26 Jul. 2016.

MegaEssays, "The significance of La Malinche to writers and artists.,", (accessed July 26, 2016)

User Malinche, from Germany

Malinche About Malinche.

Hello everybody out there,

my name is Sabrina, and I am living in the beautiful city of Berlin.

Studying Cultural Anthropology with focus on Latin America, I have come to regard Peru and especially the White City of Arequipa almost as my second home. But besides, I dream of travelling the whole of Latin America. a little bit as it happens in 'The Motorcycle Diaries'.

Indeed, I have been fortunate and travelled a lot, not only throughout South America, but also in Europe.

The passion for languages goes hand in hand with my passion for travelling. So, if you speak one of the languages listed in my profile, do not hesitate to write me in your language! I am lways also eager to learn new words and phrases in other languages, so feel free to teach me something on your postcard!

I also enjoy writing (and the dream of becoming a professional writer), since it is one more way to travel. by fantasy! Most of my works include aspects of fantasy and are situated (surprise) in Latin America. Do you have a recommendation for a good book? Send it! (The recommendation, of course, not the book!) ;)

Last but not least, I just love music and will be happy to learn about what music you listen to or what artists are famous in your country. I also listen a lot to what is usually classified as world music, mestizo, etc.

If you feel that all the topics I have suggested seem boring, then why don't send me your favourite joke (if it can be translated) or recipe?

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The significance of La Malinche to writers and artists essays The significance of La Malinche to writers and artists

Nahuatl name was Malinalli or Malitzin, which means ‘wild beast’, but after becoming property of the Spaniards, her name changed to Dona Marina, or to the natives La Malinche.]
La Malinche came into possession of the Spaniards at the town of Potonchan, located on the coast, after they had defeated the Tabascan people. As a present Cortes was presented with twenty women, for what he could do with at his own discretion, but the idea was as concubines. This was not uncommon for Cortes during the conquest, for as Diaz writes, even Moctezuma offered him his own daughter. However none went on to be so significant and important as La Malinche was.
In Cortes’ second letter to Charles V, King of Spain at the time, he only refers to her as the “Indian woman from Putunchan”. This would suggest that Cortes was not that very interested in La Malinche, as he does not even call her by her name, and also writes of her as being from Potonchan. Evidently he did not care about her history, unlike Diaz, who dedicated a small section of his work about her story. When the twenty women were handed over, it was La Malinche who ‘caught the eye’ of Diaz, as he wrote “she was a truly great princess…good-looking, intelligent and self-assured.” Straight from the start Diaz knew of her qualities, which made her stand out from the rest, as Diaz does not mention any of the other women.
The fact of La Malinche being recognised as being important is emphasised in a European engraving, located at the University of California, Berkeley. It depicts the scene of when La Malinche was presented to Cortes. She is at the front of the group of women; head cast downwards and completely naked like the other women. Lanyon rightly points out that the engraving does not show the sacredness and terror that must have gripped La Malinche, although Cortes is shown to welcome her courteously.
A translated Nahuatl text called ‘The Broken Spears’ says t.

Related Essays:

The significance of La Malinche to writers and artists. (1969, December 31). In Retrieved 20:08, July 26, 2016, from

MegaEssays. "The significance of La Malinche to writers and artists.", (December 31, 1969). Web. 26 Jul. 2016.

MegaEssays, "The significance of La Malinche to writers and artists.,", (accessed July 26, 2016)

Character Analysis of McTeague - Free Essay Collection

Character Analysis of McTeague

Frank Norris s novel McTeague explores the decay of society in the early twentieth century. Set in San Francisco, a place where anything can happen where fact is often stranger than fiction (McElrath, Jr. 447), Norris explores themes of greed and naturalism, revealing the darker side of human psyche. What can be found most disturbing is the way that Norris portrays McTeague, in shocking detail, as nothing more than a brute animal at his core. Norris explores the greed and savage animalism that lurks inside McTeague.

McTeague is first portrayed as a gentle giant. The reader is introduced to McTeague as he sits in his dental parlor, smoking his cigar and drinking his steam beer. He is described as a tall, slowly moving man.

McTeague s mind was as his body, heavy, slow to act, sluggish. Yet there was nothing vicious about the man. Altogether he suggested the draft horse, immensely strong, stupid, docile, obedient (Norris 7).

Immediately one can visualize McTeague, a large lumbering mass, going about his daily activities in quiet solitude. The dental practice that McTeague runs provides him with a sound income, and in the first few chapters of the novel, he desires nothing more out of life than to practice what he loves. When he opened his Dental Parlors, he felt that his life was a success, that he could hope for nothing better (Norris 7).

Upon meeting Trina, his best friend Marcus s love interest who comes to him because of a broken tooth, his psyche begins to change and animalistic feelings begin to well up inside McTeague. The male, virile desire in him tardily awakened, aroused itself, strong and brutal. It was resistless, untrained, a thing not to be held in a leash an instant (Norris 25). Norris uses the animal imagery to describe the deterioration of McTeague s human qualities.

When McTeague tells Marcus of his intentions with Trina, there is a palpable tension between the two characters. Although at first they act like gentlemen, there is a silent rivalry between them.

Well, what are we going to do about it, Mac? he said.

I don know, answered McTeague in great distress. I don want anything to to come between us, Mark.

Well, say, Mac, he cried, striking the table with his fist, go ahead. I guess you you want her pretty bad. I ll pull out; yes, I will. I ll give her up to you, old man (Norris 48).

McTeague almost seems sincere in his attempt to rectify his friendship. Despite the fact that the two are deciding which one will have Trina, without her input on the matter, they feel that they are both noble men. The dentist treats his friend for an ulcerated tooth and refuses payment; the friend reciprocates by giving up his girl. This was nobility (Norris 48-9). After this encounter, the two men go back to their flat where a fight

between two dogs is about to occur. Norris uses foreshadowing at this point and more animal imagery to describe the silent rage growing inside Marcus. Suddenly the quarrel had exploded on either side of the fence. The dogs raged at each other, snarling and barking, frantic with hate (Norris 52). This scene is repeated throughout the novel when McTeague and Marcus meet, adding to the feelings of tension between the two.

After Trina and McTeague plan to be wed, she wins the lottery providing a catalyst for the further decay of their character. After winning the five thousand dollars, the passport to doom that brings on all the trouble, she begins to hoard the money and become stingy (Rexroth 345).

Just now, yielding to an impulse which often seized her, she drew out the matchbox and the chamois sack, and emptying the contents on the bed, counted them carefully She counted it and recounted it and made little piles of it an drubbed the gold pieces between the folds of her apron until they shone (Norris 164).

Norris devotes several chapters her miserliness, somewhat excessive with the pettiness and petit-bourgeois traits of Trina s Swiss family however if Norris indulges in harsh stereotypes, it is because society produces them (Brier 1310). McTeague contrasts Trina, always concerned with her excessive hoarding. If it were up to McTeague, they would live a comfortable life. After losing his business, he and Trina are forced to move.

Trina still refuses to draw upon their nest egg, and McTeague begins to show his distaste for their lifestyle. It was not mere economy with her

now Trina could have easily afforded better living quarters than the single whitewashed room at the top of the flat, but she made McTeague believe that it was impossible (Norris 212). During these turbulent days for the McTeague s, Marcus is racked with self-loathing over his missed opportunity. You fool, you fool, Marcus Schouler! If you d kept Trina you d have had that money. You might have had it yourself to throw five thousand dollars out the window God damn the luck! (Norris 103). On one occasion the hatred between the two leaves them in a physical situation. The two men are wrestling together and Norris uses animalism to show their loss of civility. There was a sudden flash of bright-red blood The brute in McTeague that lay so close to the surface leaped instantly to life, monstrous, not to be resisted (Norris 182). The character qualities begin to take a form all their own, and are governed by primitiveness. This is no longer civility, but rather brute animalism.

The laws of humanity no longer govern McTeague, and his abusive qualities foreshadow imminent doom. McTeague becomes obsessed with the greed that has overcome Trina and assaults her in order to get her to give him money.

The people about the house and the clerks at the provision store often remarked that Trina s fingertips were swollen and the nails

purple as though they had been shut in a door The fact of the matter was that McTeague, when he had been drinking, used to bite them, crunching and grinding them with his immense teeth Sometimes he extorted money from her by this means, but as often he did it for his own satisfaction (Norris 239).

At one point McTeague steals money from Trina and abandons her. McTeague spends the money in royal fashion, absolutely reckless of the morrow, feasting and drinking for the most part with companions he picked up heaven knows where (Norris 280). After spending his money and wandering the streets for days, he shows up at Trina s window begging for more money. When she doesn t give him any money, his hatred of Trina increased from day to day (Norris 282). Fueled by greed and the animal instinct inside of him, he sets out to make her pay. In a final act of fury McTeague kills his wife and steals her money.

Trina lay unconscious, just as she had fallen under the last of McTeague s blows, her body twitching with and occasional hiccup that stirred the pool of blood in which she lay face downward. Toward morning she died with a rapid series of hiccups that sounded like a piece of clockwork running down (Norris 290).

From this point, McTeague sets out to live alone on his new wealth, however he has one last encounter with Marcus Schouler. In the final chapter of the novel, McTeague is fleeing for Mexico through Death Valley. Marcus, who hears of the brutal murder of Trina, decides to avenge her death and take the money that he believes is rightfully his. The two meet in the unforgiving climate of Death Valley and have one last confrontation.

Suddenly the men grappled, and in another instant were rolling and struggling upon the hot, white ground McTeague did not know how he killed his enemy, but all at once Marcus grew still beneath his blows As McTeague rose to his feet, he felt a pull at his right wrist; something held it fast. Looking down, he saw that Marcus in that last struggle had found strength enough to handcuff their wrists together. Marcus was dead now; McTeague locked to the body. All about him, vast interminable, stretched the measureless leagues of Death Valley (Norris 340).

In this last scene, McTeague is left to die in the brutal conditions of Death Valley, a force that his primitiveness and greed cannot escape.

Norris develops the novel in a way that takes the reader through the mind of McTeague. The final effect is one of chilling realism. McTeague develops a greed and brute quality that can be realized in all of us. Norris magnifies the deconstructive traits that lurk inside of society and all of us and shows them too us, if we dare to look for them.

Brief, Peter. 1,300 Critical Evaluations of Selected Novels and Plays: McTeague. Vol. 3, McT-ROB. Salem Press, 1978.

McElrath Jr, Joseph. Twentieth Century Literary Criticism: McTeague. Vol. 24. Gale Research Company, 1987.

Norris, Frank. McTeague. USA: Signet Classic, 1964.

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