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Title IX Essay Research Paper A Brief

Title IX Essay Research Paper

A Brief Overview of Title IX and how it effects both Men and Women Title IX of

the Education Amendments of 1972 is the ?Federal law which prohibits sex

discrimination against the students and employees of any educational agency that

receives Federal financial assistance?(Mathews I-1). From June 23 1972 all

the way up until today there has been a constant struggle as to what

gender?equality actually is. Title IX has had a profound effect on both male

and female students on college campuses all across the country because as it

gives one group of students opportunities it in a sense is responsible for

stealing away those same opportunities from another group of students. There may

be an attempt to achieve equality in college athletics based solely on gender

but this attempt may actually be creating inequality especially in regard to the

number of athletic opportunities which are available for student-athletes. The

effects of Title IX on male student athletes are very noticeable in that in

order to create an equal number of scholarship opportunities for women men may

have to give up their scholarships. An example of this is the lawsuit of Tom

Caruso v. University of Arkansas-Fayetteville on May 27 1993 (Curtis 6). Mr.

Caruso was a member of the Universities? diving team and their decision to

discontinue the diving program in an effort to comply with the Title IX

guidelines was definitely unfair to him. Another example of inequality where

male athletes are concerned is the decision that the Southeastern Conference

made in 1995 that has required each of its member institutions to provide a

minimum of two more women?s sports than men?s sports (Curtis 2). By

requiring there to be two more women?s sports than men?s sports men are

losing out on two additional opportunities to participate in intercollegiate

athletics. Many colleges and universities are doing away with non-revenue

generating men?s sports such as tennis soccer and track in an effort to find

the additional funds to support the extra women?s sports. The female student

athlete population can definitely feel the effects and benefits of Title IX as

well. There are women?s sports programs seemingly popping up every day.

Schools that basically ignored female athletics in the past are now offering

women?s gymnastics golf volleyball water polo etc. Every single female

sport that is being added is not only providing opportunities for the women as

athletes right now but also the opportunities to be involved in their specific

sport when their playing career is over. Whether they look for positions as

coaches athletic trainers or administrators opportunities are definitely on

the horizon whereas before they had a very limited future in regards to the

number of positions available and due to the ?lack of parity between male and

female salaries in those positions? (Kovacs 16). Women may have more of a

variety of sports to choose to participate in now but the total number of

scholarship opportunities is still way below the opportunities given to the men.

Also there are quite a few institutions that are ?dragging their feet? when

it comes to compliance with Title IX. The promise of more opportunities is out

there but it seems to take a while for those promises to materialize. A huge

myth that has circulated from the beginning of the Title IX struggles is that

football programs will become extinct if girls and women are given the

opportunity to play sports. Unfortunately the gender equity debate has boiled

down to the myth that girls are not as interested in playing sports as boys. And

even if they are the male-dominated sports society doesn?t want to add more

sports teams for girls because they are in fear that this will cause them to

lose their favorite college football team. The myth that women?s volleyball or

track will cause football an untimely death is absurd. If for no other apparent

reason football is the ?cash cow? at most universities and without the

money that football programs bring into the athletics department budgets not

many other sports could survive. All that women want is the opportunity to play

sports not the opportunity to take sports away from men. By giving women the

opportunity to participate in college athletics men are having opportunities

taken away from them. If you want girls softball and gymnastics then we are

going to have to take away your boys lacrosse team. The girls shouldn?t really

be blamed here because all they want is an opportunity to participate just

like the men have done for decades. Women deserve the opportunity as do men to

not only participate in college sports as athletes but also to participate in

college down the road as an administrator or coach. Once again the question

arises: In the attempt to create equality based solely on gender how can you

keep from creating inequality? It?s a shame that one gender may have to suffer

so that the other can attempt to have ?equality?.

Curtis Mary C. Dr. Gender Equity in Sports. 26 June 2000. The University of

Iowa Women?s Intercollegiate Athletics Department Research on Title IX

Lawsuits and Voluntary Acts. *bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/Title_IX.html.*

Kovacs Frank W. Title IX: Parity of Coaches? Salaries for Male and Female

Athletic Teams. Washington D.C. National Education Association. 1979. Mathews

Martha. Implementing Title IX and Attaining Sex Equity: A Workshop Package for

Postsecondary Educators. Washington D.C. Resource Center on Sex Roles in

Education National Foundation for the Improvement of Education. September 1978.

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FREE Title 9 Essay

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I am apposed to title ix. It is obvious that when title ix is brought up equality is the biggest factor, when we all know that not all things are meant to be equal. When a subject like sports equality is addressed there is no fair solution that will equally benefit both male and females at the same time. When you try to equal out the amount of athletes according to gender it is obviously close to impossible.

Proportionality in sports between male and females is just not something that can be fixed in one government act. It?s a plan fact that there is a larger amount of male athletes then there are females. When the side of female equality is addressed and tried to be fixed the male side will suffer in loss. When you take a percent of scholarships from the male side and give it to the female, the male?s side will lose a percent of scholarships. This side is very dependent on that percent to make sure there is enough to spread over the whole.

I believe that if this subject was brought up earlier then 72 that it might have been easier to fix, but there is now just too many athletes and programs to change and make equal between male and females. You can not now make it equal and fair for females without making it unfair for those males who are cut out.

Now as to not to be total blind on the fact I do recognize that it is important for females and males to be equal in everything possible, but this part of equality in our nation is just not an easy fix. You can plainly see this in the fact that the act was passed in 1972 and is still not total valid everywhere. This will take time, and there will be unfair cuts from the male side, but it will eventually equal out, or at least come to a settle.

But to say that this should be passed I am against it. There should not be a strain put on this subject, it is obvious that sports will be a male dominated area for a very along time. The female sports will catch up, but I

Essays Related to Title 9

Title IX Research Paper Starter

Title IX Research Paper Starter

Title IX of the Educational Amendments to the 1964 Civil Rights Act was signed into law in 1972. It bans any educational institution that receives federal funds from discriminating on the basis of sex, and applies to all academic and extra-curricular programs. Title IX has been praised as the chief factor behind the advances made in gender equity in education over the past three decades. In addition, the significant advances of women in higher education and in the workplace since the 1970s have been attributed by some to Title IX. Despite all this, Title IX is most well known for the impact it has had on intercollegiate athletics. The scale of women's collegiate athletic programs has increased exponentially during the past four decades, principally as a result of Title IX.

Keywords College Athletics; Educational Institution; Equal Rights; Federal School Funding; Gender Equity; Nonrevenue Sports; Revenue Sports; School Sports; Sex-Based Discrimination; Three-Part Test; US Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights

Overview

Title IX has been called "the most controversial topic in college sports," and its legacy has likewise been called "a legacy of debate" (Suggs, 2002). A component of the 1972 Educational Amendments to the 1964 Civil Rights Act, Title IX was designed to end discrimination on the basis of sex in education, just as Title IV of the original 1964 Civil Rights Act had been designed to end discrimination on the basis of race. While many claims have been made about the exact impact Title IX has had on gender equity in education, one result of Title IX is overwhelmingly clear: it began, and continues to fuel, a vigorous debate about funding for, participation in, and the purpose of intercollegiate athletics.

After the passage of Title IX, educational institutions accepted and applied the legislation to their academic programs without any resistance or debate (Suggs, 2002). Most college and secondary school athletic programs, however, virtually ignored Title IX until a series of Supreme Court decisions during the 1990s made it clear that lack of compliance left schools vulnerable to lawsuits with monetary-damage claims. Partly as a result of this threat of prosecution, educational institutions increased their efforts to comply with Title IX's athletic provisions throughout the 1990s (Anderson, Cheslock, & Ehrenberg, 2006, p. 227). These efforts persist, albeit not without continued controversy.

Over the first four decades of its existence, Title IX has garnered many vocal supporters and critics. The supporters praise Title IX for expanding women's educational opportunities and changing American culture's expectations of what women can achieve. The critics charge Title IX with discriminating against men, as efforts to comply with the legislation have led some institutions to eliminate men's teams in less widely popular sports such as wrestling and swimming. Despite these accusations, Title IX is legislation with which all educational institutions must comply.

History The Political Climate Surrounding Title IX

During the late 1960s and the 1970s, the women's movement, what many refer to as the second wave of feminism, succeeded in focusing national attention on the sex-based inequalities that hampered American women's lives. One of the most deleterious of these inequalities was the earning gap between men and women. Although women had, by this time, become a vital part of the American workforce, female wage earners were rarely paid as much as their male peers. Women's organizations and advocacy groups asserted that this earnings gap could be traced back to sex-based inequalities in education. Women filed class action lawsuits against colleges, universities, and the US federal government, alleging that these institutions discriminated against women. All this encouraged Congress to focus on sexual discrimination in education and hold hearings on the subject in the summer of 1970 (U.S. Department of Justice, 2001).

This was the political climate out of which Title IX was born. Hoping to build on the momentum gained by the special hearings a year before, Representative Edith Green made an unsuccessful attempt to add a ban on sex-based discrimination to the 1971 Education Amendments. The next year, in an attempt to derail the renewal of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, conservative Southern congressmen added gender to the categories protected against discrimination. They hoped that the idea of equal opportunities for women would be distasteful enough to prevent the passage of the entire bill (Suggs, 2002). To their chagrin, the legislation was passed and Title IX became law.

Title IX

Title IX prohibits any educational institution receiving federal funds from discriminating in any activity or program on the basis of sex. In all academic and extra-curricular fields except athletics, Title IX was adopted and applied with little or no controversy (Suggs, 2002). In contrast, decades passed before Title IX was effectively enforced in the field of athletics. When Title IX became law in 1972, most colleges simply did not have varsity sports teams for women. According to the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), while approximately 170,000 men participated in college sports programs in 1972, just under 30,000 women also participated (Suggs, 2002). In the first few years after Title IX was passed, it was unclear what, if anything, colleges and universities would be required to do to remedy this situation. The first interpretation of how Title IX applies to intercollegiate athletics was not issued until 1975, with a delayed compliance date of 1978. These initial instructions were generally felt to be too vague, so a more comprehensive plan was issued by the US Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights in 1979 (Anderson et al. 2006).

Enforcing Title IX

Although the 1979 plan included a three-part test to prove compliance with the portion of Title IX dealing with athletics, the test was ignored throughout most of the 1980s. The Carter, Reagan, and George H. W. Bush administrations put a low priority on enforcing Title IX, and as a result, educational programs felt no real need to comply with the law (Anderson et al. 2006). When, in 1984, the Supreme Court ruled that Title IX was only applicable to the specific programs that directly received federal aid, athletic programs became legally exempt from compliance (Suggs, 2002). This situation lasted until 1988, when Congress, overriding a veto by President Reagan, enacted the Civil Rights Restoration Act. This law restored the broad interpretation of Title IX, in which Title IX applied to all programs or activities at institutions that received federal funds, whether or not a program was a direct recipient of these funds (U.S. Department of Justice, 2001).

Efforts on the part of collegiate athletic programs to enforce Title IX increased throughout the 1990s for several reasons. The US Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights is responsible for enforcing Title IX, and does so on a complaint-driven basis (Barnett, 2003). Until students started reporting discrimination, and doing so in such a way that threatened more than just inconvenience for educational institutions, Title IX would not be enforced. This process of upping the stakes of Title IX compliance began in 1992 when the Supreme Court ruled in Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools that the plaintiff in a Title IX lawsuit was entitled to monetary damages as long as the discrimination was intentional. In 1996, Cohen v. Brown University contributed to the increasing wariness on the part of colleges and universities of Title IX lawsuits. In this case, the Supreme Court held that Brown University was obliged to "adhere to strict criteria for demonstrating gender equity in intercollegiate athletics" (Anderson, et al. 2006, p. 228). This decision was particularly startling because Brown already had more women's sports teams than any other university besides Harvard. The decision convinced schools that until they were in strict compliance with Title IX, they would be vulnerable to lawsuits. Another factor that helped plaintiffs in such lawsuits was the Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act, which Congress passed in 1994. This law mandated that institutions give free access to data about their men's and women's athletics programs. Access to this data helped the federal government more easily gauge compliance with Title IX. Finally, unlike its predecessors, the Clinton administration made enforcing Title IX a priority (Anderson et al. 2006).

Currently, educational institutions are generally committed to enforcing Title IX in their educational programs. Compliance, however, is not always easy. Much controversy has been caused in recent years by schools who have decided to eliminate men's sports teams, especially wrestling teams, in order to attain compliance with Title IX.

Applications Content of Title IX

According to the US Department of Education, Title IX "is designed to eliminate (with certain exceptions) discrimination on the basis of sex in any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance" (Office for Civil Rights, 1980, p. 375). This essentially means that institutions must provide students with academic and extra-curricular opportunities on a "gender-neutral basis" (Anderson et al. 2005, p. 225). While Title IX is most well-known in relation to college athletics, the legislation is applicable to myriad other.

(The entire section is 4199 words.)

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Research Paper on Title Ix - Essays - 2509 Words

Research Paper on Title Ix

Title IX Research Paper December 11 Daniel Rose

History TITLE VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 law was what many civil rights activists had been lobbying for over many years. Title VI was made to end segregation and discrimination on the basis of color, gender, and nationality for employment. However, education was not included in TITLE VI, which caused Dr. Bernice R. Sandler, a senior scholar at the Women’s Research and Education Institute in Washington, DC, to still have to fight for her job at the University of Maryland. Dr. Sandler sought out a faculty position for which she was particularly well qualified for, but was denied the position because she came on "too strong for a woman." In 1969, Dr. Sandler gathered statistics showing how female employment at the university had gone down as qualified women were replaced by men. With the help of the National Organization for Women (NOW) and the Women’s Equity Action League (WEAL), she filed sexual discrimination complaints to 250 institutions of the Executive Order. This is one of the events which led to implementation TITLE IX. -------------------------------------------------

During 1970, there were congressional hearings on sexual discrimination. These hearings resulted in the addition of TITLE IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which amended TITLE VI of the Civil Rights Act, says, “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance…” Congresswoman Patsy Mink, a Japanese-American democrat from Hawaii, wrote the TITLE IX of Education Amendments of 1972. In 1972, President Johnson was persuaded by the National Organization for Women (NOW) to make it clearer that women shouldn’t be discriminated; so gave the Executive Order 11246, which required all entities receiving federal contracts to end discrimination in hiring. Since then, Title IX has been affected by various new legislation, executive orders, and judicial review by the Supreme Court, much of which attempted to weaken or undermine Title IX. -------------------------------------------------

In 1974, Senator John Tower introduced the Tower Amendment due to the fear that TITLE IX would “corrupt” men’s sports. The amendment was going to take away TITLE IX’s control over revenue-making sports. The Tower Amendment was rejected within committee, but the Javits Amendment, proposed by Jacob Javits, was accepted and put in place of the Tower Amendment. The Javits Amendment stated that the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) must have “reasonable provisions considering the nature of particular sports.” In 1975, the HEW gave the guidelines of how TITLE IX would be enforced, and they gave universities 3 years to comply with TITLE IX. Title IX was still disliked by people who believed that it would corrupt revenue-making sports and re-proposed the Tower Amendment, which was once again rejected. -------------------------------------------------

Also, the HEW issued the Elimination of Sex Discrimination in Athletics Programs, which discussed the discrimination on the basis of sex in the operation of interscholastic, intercollegiate club of intramural athletic program offered by an educational institution; (2) equal opportunity in the provision of athletic scholarships; (3) the requirement that by July 21, 1976 educational institutions evaluate and correct current policies and practices. The National College Athletic Association (NCAA) found Title IX to be troublesome and claimed that it was illegal in 1976. -------------------------------------------------

The HEW was split up into two bureaucratic agencies in 1980; the.

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A Brief Overview of Title IX and how it effects both Men and Women

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 is the “Federal law which prohibits sex discrimination against the students and employees of any educational agency that receives Federal financial assistance”(Mathews I-1). From June 23, 1972 all the way up until today, there has been a constant struggle as to what gender–equality actually is. Title IX has had a profound effect on both male and female students on college campuses all across the country, because as it gives one group of students opportunities, it, in a sense, is responsible for stealing away those same opportunities from another group of students. There may be an attempt to achieve equality in college athletics based solely on gender, but this attempt may actually be creating inequality especially in regard to the number of athletic opportunities, which are available for student-athletes.

The effects of Title IX on male student athletes are very noticeable in that in order to create an equal number of scholarship opportunities for women, men may have to give up their scholarships. An example of this is the lawsuit of Tom Caruso v. University of Arkansas-Fayetteville on May 27, 1993 (Curtis 6). Mr. Caruso was a member of the Universities’ diving team, and their decision to discontinue the diving program in an effort to comply with the Title IX guidelines, was definitely unfair to him. Another example of inequality where male athletes are concerned is the decision that the Southeastern Conference made in 1995 that has required each of its member institutions to provide a minimum of two more women’s sports than men’s sports (Curtis 2). By requiring there to be two more women’s sports than men’s sports, men are losing out on two additional opportunities to participate in intercollegiate athletics. Many colleges and universities are doing away with non-revenue generating men’s sports such as tennis, soccer, and track in an effort to find the additional funds to support the extra women’s sports.

The female student athlete population can definitely feel the effects and benefits of Title IX as well. There are women’s sports programs seemingly popping up every day. Schools that basically ignored female athletics in the past are now offering women’s gymnastics, golf, volleyball, water polo, etc. Every single female sport that is being added is not only providing opportunities for the women as athletes right now, but also the opportunities to be involved in their specific sport when their playing career is over. Whether they look for positions as coaches, athletic trainers, or administrators, opportunities are definitely on the horizon whereas before, they had a very limited future in regards to the number of positions available, and due to the “lack of parity between male and female salaries in those positions” (Kovacs 16). Women may have more of a variety of sports to choose to participate in now, but the total number of scholarship opportunities is still way below the opportunities given to the men. Also, there are quite a few institutions that are “dragging their feet” when it comes to compliance with Title IX. The promise of more opportunities is out there, but it seems to take a while for those promises to materialize.

A huge myth that has circulated from the beginning of the Title IX struggles is that football programs will become extinct if girls and women are given the opportunity to play sports. Unfortunately, the gender equity debate has boiled down to the myth that girls are not as interested in playing sports as boys. And even if they are, the male-dominated sports society doesn’t want to add more sports teams for girls, because they are in fear that this will cause them to lose their favorite college football team. The myth that women’s volleyball or track will cause football an untimely death is absurd. If for no other apparent reason, football is the “cash cow” at most universities and without the money that football programs bring into the athletics department budgets, not many other sports could survive. All that women want is the opportunity to play sports, not the opportunity to take sports away from men.

By giving women the opportunity to participate in college athletics, men are having opportunities taken away from them. If you want girls softball and gymnastics, then we are going to have to take away your boys lacrosse team. The girls shouldn’t really be blamed here, because all they want is an opportunity to participate, just like the men have done for decades. Women deserve the opportunity, as do men, to not only participate in college sports as athletes, but also to participate in college down the road as an administrator or coach. Once again, the question arises: In the attempt to create equality based solely on gender, how can you keep from creating inequality? It’s a shame that one gender may have to suffer so that the other can attempt to have “equality”.

Curtis, Mary C. Dr. Gender Equity in Sports. 26 June 2000. The University of Iowa

Women’s Intercollegiate Athletics Department Research on Title IX Lawsuits and Voluntary Acts. *http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/Title_IX.html.*

Kovacs, Frank W. Title IX: Parity of Coaches’ Salaries for Male and Female Athletic

Teams. Washington, D.C. National Education Association. 1979.

Mathews, Martha. Implementing Title IX and Attaining Sex Equity: A Workshop

Package for Postsecondary Educators. Washington, D.C. Resource Center on Sex

Roles in Education National Foundation for the Improvement of Education.

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