Category: Research Paper
Free example essay on Breast Cancer:
1.0 Introduction to Breast Cancer
Genetic diseases are widespread. Cancer is a genetic disease and is a major cause of death. (need ref) Cancer is caused by mutations within the genome that result in the development of oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes which both cause the uncontrolled proliferation of cells in opposed ways. The oncogenes are mutated genes that in their pre-mutated state, promote cell replication. However, due to the mutation, these oncogenes cause either enhanced expression or altered nature of protein products. Tumour suppressor genes (‘TSG’) are mutant genes that normally restrain cell growth. It is the most common cause of death for women with statistics showing one in 13 Australian women who live to the age of 74 will be diagnosed with it sometime during their lifetime.
This essay will discuss the nature of breast cancer, the factors causing breast cancer with an emphasis on familial inheritance, methods for testing for breast cancer and available treatments. The prevalence of breast cancer and the high mortality rate especially for women above the age of 70 signifies a need for increased awareness in the community both for prevention and support for those affected by this destructive disease.
2.0 What is Breast Cancer?
Cells make up many different parts of the body – skin, bones, brain, heart, and breasts. These cells are replaced when they become old or injured by replication at varying rates depending on the part of the body. The replication process is regulated by genes that code for proteins which increases or decreases the rate of division. These genes are proto-oncogenes (when mutated become oncogenes) and TSG’s.
The abnormal genetic material translates into non-functional products which causes the cells to multiply without restraint. Most breast cancers are caused by a mutant inactivitation of TSG. In breast cancer, the proliferated cells form a hard mass of cancer that can sometimes be felt upon self examination. The proliferated cells can detach from the tumour and invade other tissue in a process called metastasis.1 This process changes the tumour from being classified as benign to malignant increasing the threat to the life of the person. Malignancy is a great threat as such cancerous cells can migrate throughout the body and to vital organs such as the brain or the lungs thus deleteriously altering their functional capacity.
To understand where these proliferated cells can form within the breast, the anatomy of the breast will be discussed. The breast’s main function is to supply a newborn baby with milk via the mammary glands made up of glandular units. These units are joined by ligaments and fatty adipose tissue. The breast is a sexual organ controlled mainly by hormones released from the pituitary gland and the ovaries. During the menstrual cycle, the hormones progesterone and oestrogen cause changes to the breast. The underlying muscles consist of the pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, serratus anterior and the latissimus dorsi. A diagram of the breast can be seen in figure 2.1.
(insert diagram from pg 7 breast cancer nursing)
Breast cancer mainly occurs in the epithelial lining of the terminal duct lobular unit. These cancers are termed adenocarcinomas. Depending upon the size and aggressiveness of the tumour, the tissues within and the muscles surrounding the breast can all be affected.
Although breast cancer in men does occur, it is uncommon with only 0.8% of breast cancers affecting males. The rarity of the illness does not detract from its physical severity or psychological effects. The affected male would need the same care as a woman as well as an understanding of the unique situation as a man with the disease.
3.0 Causes of Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is caused by a combination of factors that cause mutation in the DNA. These mutations can be inherited, due to the environment or both. These factors will be discussed individually as follows.
The lifestyle of a person, their diet, the chemicals around them, and their reproductive natures are factors which contribute to whether or not such person is susceptible to the development of breast cancer. Knudson’s ‘Two Hit Hypothesis’ states that for cancer to develop, there needs to be mutations in both functional copies of TSG in a cell. If a mutated allele was inherited, the second allele would have to be mutated due to environmental factors for cancer to develop. Thus both functional copies of the gene are altered.1 Some environmental factors that may cause the mutation both or the second allele in a cell will be discussed.
There are several substances that are known to increase the risk of cancer whether by exerting carcinogenic effects indirectly or acting directly as a carcinogen. Alcohol is such a substance that is known to exert toxic effects on the liver. However, it can also exert a carcinogenic effect indirectly to the breast by cell stimulations. The breasts being affected by hormonal stimulus, especially during the menstrual cycle, can also be affected by hormone replacement therapy after menopause. Studies have shows the risk of cancer was even higher in women who used a combined oestrogen and progesterone therapy. There has been significant evidence of women development breast cancer after they have been treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy for Hodgkin disease. This is especially significant with those who were treated for Hodgkin at a very young age. This is similar to the breast cancer caused by exposure to the radiation from atomic bombs. The aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke is carcinogenic not only causing lung cancer but also other cancers such as breast cancer. The effect of smoking acts in a similar way as the poly-cyclic hydrocarbons in well done meat which is also carcinogenic.6 A correlation was shown between a diet high in animal fat and high fat dairy products in pre-menopausal women causing an increase in the risk of breast cancer. Therefore, exposure to substances such as such as alcohol, tobacco, hormone replacement therapy, high fat diet, chemotherapy and radiotherapy may lead to an increased risk of breast cancer.
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In recent past, breast cancer has toppled communicable diseases in terminating lives. So much attention has been directed towards finding its cure than ever before. All efforts that were previously given to research on HIV/AIDS to find its cure are now geared towards finding a solution to this leading killer. For this reason it has become a scholastic norm to write breast cancer research paper to explore more on this disease. Scholars have directed ample time to this sensitive issue. For this reason of enhancing awareness, many are the times when the students are expected to write a research paper on cancer. Since writing about this issue can take different angles, we have included three ways that can help in approaching a research paper on breast cancer research paper when you are requested to write a project of the same. You will get clear insight in time of what should entail this form of scholastic paper in terms of its contentTake a Self-Stance
When you are requested not to include excessive research facts into the subject matter, you should start your write-ups with what you have experienced at family level to add up to your research work. It is advisable to include what you feel the core of the problems entails, be it the adequacy of efforts directed by doctors and researchers towards revealing details of stem cell research for breast cancer treatment or your perspective on whether there is any possibility of finding the long awaited cure for this devastating ailment. Through this, you place your writing work above the average line that has been set by papers that have been done by others. This component of pouring your views in your cancer research paper will always produce good work and better grades.Attacking the Problem
Since everyone is susceptible to breast cancer, your research paper could simply take on the problem. Tackle what the statistics are showing about the cures and why you think politicians are avoiding the issue. To back up you’re your findings, quote various data sources and current interview from practicing doctors. This approach engages the reader and ensures high grades in your paper.Discuss Treatment Option
It would also be a great idea if you skipped addressing the problem and choose to discuss available treatment options such as chemotherapy, cell therapies, specific treatment centers or anything that might be in the market geared to solve the situation. The treatments options should be coupled with their pros and cons, supported by evidence to give the reader something to consider, especially if they wish to consult any of the option in a near future.Conclusion
Just like any other life-threatening disease, breast cancer is a difficult subject area to write about since many tests, methods and data is continually being updated, added or on tried. Take plenty of time to understand what is being done before you can start writing a breast cancer research paper. This way, you will take an accurate way of the research work.
Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths among women. In the developing world, more and more women are diagnosed with the illness. It is only timely that you write a breast caner research paper .
Writing a breast cancer research paper involves the same steps in writing a regular research article. First, you must select a scope of the breast cancer topic that you wish to write about. You may talk about the possible treatment, how it is contracted and what psychological effects it has to the patients.
You should also write the research proposal. If you are planning to conduct a small experiment, you should also consider having a plan approved by your advisor. This way, you proposal will have a degree of reliability. Moreover, it will serve as the main plan of action in researching.
Look for materials that will support your thesis statement. A breast cancer research paper needs scientific and reliable documents. You should look for resources that are highly credible. In fact, you can use some of our research papers examples as your references. Of course, you should also cite your resources for your paper’s optimum credibility.
Once you have done researching, you can now write the components of a research paper. You must include the following parts: cover page (find a research title example ), table of contents, abstract, introduction, literature review, methods, data, analysis, results, conclusion and bibliography page.
Lastly, a breast cancer research paper should not have any spelling or grammar errors. Make sure that you have proofread your research paper before submitting it. If you need any writing help, our experts are ready to assist you anytime.
This research paper was written by a group of overtly qualified individuals that have received a supreme quality of post secondary education and hold multiple degrees in the field of medicine. Comprised of scholars with prestigious titles such as PhD and Master of Science and those with high level of medical expertise such as registered nurses, the authorship of this research boats a high standard of credibility that assures the reader a quality report. Winnie So, PhD currently serves as the honorary advisor of symptom control and management group at the Tianjin Medical Cancer Institute and received her Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Colorado (ISNCC, n.d). Gene Marsh also has his PhD and Registerd Nurse and has written for many credible journals through out his career, including the Journal of Clinical Nursing and Advances in Nursing Science (Marsh, Prochoda, Pritchett, & Voiir, 2000). The study is conducted in Hong Kong, China and it samples 215 Chinese women who are, at the time, in the process of receiving treatment for breast cancer.
This report discusses the effects of forms of treatment such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy on female breast cancer patients. It examines a cluster of symptoms including fatigue, anxiety and depression and how these symptoms concern the quality of life of these patients. The uniqueness of this study is that it examines a cluster of symptoms and their relationship with one another, rather than focusing on a single symptom, as many studies have done in the past. This study holds importance for many reasons. Not only is breast cancer considered one of the most common forms of cancer in the world, but it is also one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths in the female population where this study was conducted. The treatment of breast cancer comes along with stressing side effects that often cause irreversible damage to the patient. It is crucial to understand the relationship among these symptoms and the patient in order to enhance clinical sensitivity when designing and prioritizing symptom management strategies for patients, especially those in high-risk groups (So. W, et al. 2009).
The report on this study established that patients with breast cancer experience a high rate and intensity of fatigue, pain and anxiety. Although studies have been conducted on each of these symptoms, there has been few studies produced which combine the symptoms into symptom clusters and examine the relationship between symptoms. This study examined the aforementioned three symptoms as a cluster in relation to the psychological disorder of depression in cancer patients. Perhaps the major driving force of this study is a greater understanding of the factors that can manipulate the quality of life of Chinese breast cancer patients. This study considered and analyzed type of treatment, household income, the prevalence of symptoms, social support and family life as factors that affect the quality of life of patients. An elaborate analysis of the effect that the symptom cluster of fatigue, pain and anxiety have on the outcome of the patient is comprised the majority of the report on this study.
Methods of Data Analysis
In order to carry out this study, the researchers used the revised model for symptom management, which consists of three inter-related dimensions including symptom experience, symptom management strategies, and outcomes (So. W, et al. 2009). In determining the level of symptom experience, the Chinese versions of the following methods of measurement were used, The Brief Fatigue Inventory was used to measure levels of fatigue, The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to measure levels of anxiety and depression, The Brief Pain Inventory was used to measure levels of pain, The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy for Breast Cancer was used to measure QOL, and The Medical Outcomes Study- Social Support Survey was used to measure patients’ social support (So. W, et al. 2009).
The Symptom Cluster
The research found that out fatigue, pain, anxiety, and depression, severe levels of fatigue was the most common symptom, experienced by 36% of the respondents. Furthermore, patients undergoing radiotherapy experienced lower levels of fatigue than those undergoing chemotherapy. Furthermore, high levels of anxiety and depression indicate a correlation between breast cancer treatment and negative effects on the psychological well being of patients. Since it is a Chinese cultural norm to internalize emotions, detection of psychological symptoms is vital in order to receive proper psychological relief. The research explained that pain and fatigue had both direct and indirect effects on psychological symptoms, which supports the existence of a symptom cluster (So. W, et al. 2009).
Factors Affecting the Quality of Life
The study found that the type of treatment and social support were the greatest influencers on the quality of life of patients. In regard to type of treatment, the results indicate that those undergoing chemotherapy rather than radiotherapy, possibly due to the severity of treatment side effects experienced lower quality of life. The coupling of the subjected symptom cluster with covariates of social support and type of treatment explained 66% of the variance associated with QOL (So. W, et al. 2009). Cultural norms in regards to family life such as the importance of marital status and extended versus immediate family were considered but not explored, leaving room for further research to be conducted.
Critical Analysis – Positives
The research conducted is clearly a fundamentally important issue for society today. Cancer is primarily considered a physical disease and the majority of research conducted focuses on treating the physical ailments associated with the disease. However, treatment can often leave patients with psychological scars that will affect them for the rest of their lives. For this reason, research studies like these are crucial in the holistic sense of patients’ well being. The research design and process was thought out, receiving approval from the ethics committees of the institutions at which they were conducted. Furthermore, a specialized training program was administered for the research nurses partaking in the study, which included an introduction to the study, mock patient-interviews, relationship building exercises, and performance feedback.
The presentation of the study utilizes a comprehensive, easy-to-scan, and easy-to-read structure of information flow. The inclusion of tables, flowcharts, summaries, and diagrams throughout the report maintain a refreshing aura of logical consistency while managing to refrain from becoming an eyesore.
The study was conducted at only one particular time. Furthermore, the study was conducted at different stages of treatment for radiotherapy patients and chemotherapy patients. This means that reported symptom levels may not be completely indicative of the situation of that patient. It would be unsafe to assume that the physical and psychological state of each patient would remain the same throughout his or her treatment. Should this study have undergone the same process at multiple instances and stages of treatment, it would possibly present a more intricate and accurate result.
It can be also argued that the sample used to produce this study is insufficiently diverse for utilization with wider populations and/or misrepresentative of the Hong Kong community. The research study focuses on the ethnic Chinese female population, which may limit the future applications of this study due to cultural differences and norms between the Chinese populations (such as those in other cities and areas of China, as well as those elsewhere in the world). The sample also includes only 48 females who are employed. This most certainly can skew the reported results of levels of the symptom cluster, seeing as a lack of employment often causes feelings of lessening self-worth and depression. However, as the aim of the research was to provide an analysis of the Chinese breast cancer patient population, the sample generally provides an acceptable reference tool for such a study.
The notion that symptoms can be viewed and studied as symptom clusters has been proven to be a valid point. The authors of this research study have successfully raised awareness of the relationship between fatigue, pain, anxiety and depression and these symptoms’ lasting effects on breast cancer patients. The study also indicates multiple instances where requirements and recommendations for further study are applicable. The researchers have done a good job making sure that this study did not duplicate other studies and served its own unique purpose. The things that have been overlooked in this study do not outweigh the significant findings presented. However, the stated conclusion that “The findings supported that the existence of the symptom cluster that had detrimental effects on QOL”(So. W, et al. 2009) can be argued to be rather palpable by mere observation, questioning the necessity for such a general conclusion. Perhaps this type of study could be used as a basis for further, more specified research including an emphasis on the mentioned cultural differences of Chinese versus patients of other ethnicities.
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Breast Cancer Essay, Research Paper
Diet and Breast Cancer Breast cancer is an unforgivable disease. It attacks a highly visible and sensitive organ. An organ that is closely associated with femininity and nurturing. When this disease strikes a breast, the risk is very great that it will strike again, either in the same breast, or at other sites such as bones or lungs. Once the disease has recurred, the only available treatments are drugs and radiation. An estimated 207,000 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer this year (Lohr 42). By the year 2000, it is expected that there will be 1.5 million new cases of breast cancer in America, and the National Cancer Institute now estimates that 1 out of 8 women will develop breast cancer over her lifetime (Casten 68). These finding have only added to women’s anxieties concerning breast cancer. Unfortunately, most of the known risk factors for breast cancer are things women can do little or nothing about: being female, advancing age, strong family history of breast cancer, and problem reproductive history. Fortunately, however, current research is showing that outside environment and lifestyles can be key in determining cancer, too. According to many experts, diet holds the secret to preventing this disease that women fear most. In the United States, breast cancer rates are 4 to 7 times higher than in Asia (93). But when Asian women move to the US, their breast cancer risk doubles in 10 years, and reaches our national rates in several generations, says nutritional epidemiologist Regina Ziegler, Ph.D. MPH, of the National Cancer Institute (176). Why? “Their diets and other lifestyle factors,” Dr. Ziegler says, “They start eating more calories, fat and meat, and stop eating many fruits, vegetables, and grains that they did in Asia.” (177). According to Dr. Ziegler, genetics and family history may explain only a small fraction of breast cancer. The majority of cases are due to something in our daily environment-like diet. In this paper I would like to focus on how a high fat diet is suspected to contribute greatly to this disfiguring disease. I will name 2 of the major contributing factors in predicating breast cancer, and will then suggest a few ways to reduce one’s chances of getting breast cancer. Finally, I will briefly cover some recent research done in this area. For breast cancer, the two major determents for American women appear to be obesity and diet. Some experts rate the risk for an obese woman at around twice that of a normal woman, especially after menopause. Obesity is generally defined as being 20 percent or more above desirable body weight (Byrne 28). Since estrogen is produced in fat cells, obese women have higher circulating levels of estrogen. The most presumable culprit in the breast cancer mystery would seem to be diet. The possibility that a high-calorie diet, with a particularly high consumption of fat, is connected to breast cancer and has been supported by the kinds of studies that I will be discussing. It has been supported by lab experiments with animals and epidemiological studies that compare large populations of people. A special communication from the Journal of the American Medical Association in 1989 said, “Data from animal experiments and human correlation studies strongly support the dietary fat-breast cancer hypothesis. Animals fed a higher-fat, higher-calorie diet have a substantially higher incidence of mammary tumors than animals fed a lower-fat and calorie-restricted diet” (Chan 65). The link between a high fat diet and breast cancer is still controversial, but many international population studies have found a strong association between high fat consumption and incidence of breast cancer. 3 out of 5 studies comparing breast cancer risk and fat intake have found a modest relationship between the two (68). A study done in 1995 suggested that a high fat diet might affect growth of an existing breast cancer tumor also (Uzzle 29). Countless studies, including the one conducted at Tufts University School of Medicine and the New England Medical Center in Boston, support this conclusion. American’s have far higher rates of breast cancer than women do in most other nations in the world. Based on available evidence, the differences appear to be caused by the two factors that I have mentioned. By changing diet, women can significantly reduce the risk of breast cancer. Many experts believe that you can reduce your risk of this disease by as much as 50 percent by following a healthy diet plan (Ryker 69). Here are some key points to remember. The first thing that you need to do is cut your calorie intake. Study after study confirms that the more overweight the woman, the higher her risk is. According to a brand new study of Asian-American women from Dr. Ziegler, women who gained 11 pounds within the previous 10 years had twice the risk of developing breast cancer comp
ared with the women who had now weight change (76). In the same new study, losing weight in the previous decade was associated with a 30 percent decrease in the risk of developing breast cancer (77).
The second thing that you need to do is eat more fruits and vegetables. A goal of 5 fruits and vegetables a day is a good start. Many studies show that women who eat lots of fruits and vegetables are less likely to get breast cancer. In one recent study, women in New York State who ate more than 5 servings of vegetables a day had half of the risk of developing breast cancer than those who ate fewer than 5 servings (Journal of the National Cancer Institute, March 20, 1996). The same study showed that eating a wide variety of produce had the same effect. A third way to greatly reduce your risk of breast cancer is to eat more fiber. 30 grams or fiber a day is optimal. David Rose, MD, of the American Health Foundation in New York reported that 30 grams of fiber a day dropped women’s estrogen levels by 20 percent, thus reducing the risk of breast cancer. Finally, keeping fat intake to about 20 percent of your total calorie consumption will reduce your risk of developing breast cancer. There is new research that is reporting lower rates of breast cancer in countries around the world where fat consumption is lower. Even with the same country, take Japan for example, breast cancer risk rises as women consume a larger bulk of calories from fat. In one experiment that was conducted, Dr. Sherwood Gorbach and Dr. David Zimmerman were researching the differences in estrogen levels between women who consumed a rich, typically American diet, and others that consumed less fat and more fiber. For the study they chose women between the ages of 20 and 30. The subjects could not take any drugs or have any illnesses that would affect their hormone levels. They also had to be very close to their ideal body weight and not be dieting. The aim was to find women with these characteristics who ate either a typical American diet, or were strict vegetarians. The non-vegetarians ate all major food groups of animal food. The vegetarians followed a special diet that excluded meat but allowed milk, eggs, and fish. Ten omnivores and ten vegetarians were finally included in the study. The collection of data took 2 years. Analysis by nutritionists, biologists, and various specialists took and additional 2 years. The most important discovery was this: Diet has a major influence on estrogen levels. Higher levels of estrogen in the bloodstream lead to a greater exposure of breast tissue to these circulation hormones, which thereby increases the risk of breast cancer. Vegetarian women excreted more estrogen than did omnivores. These findings were consistent during the 2-year period in which these women were observed. Besides learning about estrogen’s importance in this experiment, they also learned a lot about the eating habits of American women. A typical American woman eats about 12 grams of fiber a day, and 40 percent of calories consumed are from fat. This study indicated that diet is a major factor in determining the estrogen levels in a woman’s body. Another study similar to the one just mentioned was done in Hawaii. It showed that a low-fat diet is associated with significantly lower levels of estrogen in the bloodstream also. Several theories have been developed to explain how diet influences these differences in the body’s disposal of estrogen. One theory focuses on the high amount of fiber consumed by vegetarians and Asian women. Another possibility is that some properties of a vegetarian diet (probably the low fat content), slows down the metabolic activity of the intestinal bacteria. These bacteria act on estrogen in the small intestine to prepare it for reabsorption into the bloodstream. Without this bacterial activity, the estrogen simply is excreted into the stool. Around this point in the study, things got very complex and scientific. I gleaned that the main finding of this study was that there is strong scientific evidence suggesting that the most protective step women can now take to prevent breast cancer is to eat less fat and more fiber. Study after study showed that a low-fat and high-fiber diet lowers the levels of estrogen in the bloodstream, and a woman can break the deadly chain of events linking estrogen to breast cancer by altering her pattern of eating. In conclusion, I would like to say that researching for this paper really opened my eyes to how our surrounding environment affects us. Article after article talked about all of the things you could do to reduce the risk of breast cancer-A low-fat diet being the major one. My aunt died of this horrible disease, and I only wish that she had known all of the information in this paper back then. I am grateful that studies are being done on this women’s health issue, because so much more that we can learn.
The Nigerian Society of Engineers is the umbrella organization for the Engineering Profession in Nigeria. The Society looks after the professional needs of members through well structured programmes and regular interactions among the different cadre of membership, enhancing high professional standard and ethical practices.
The Organisation was Founded on 16th February, 1958 major challenge by a group of young Nigerian graduate engineers and students in the UK, the Society was inaugurated at the Nigerian House in London. The NSE is registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as a company Limited by guarantee.
It was incorporated as a Company limited by guarantee and not having a share capital in 1967. The original Memorandum and Articles of Association were amended on 1st December 1998. Like some of its counterparts in other professions, the Society has distinguished itself through progressive and imaginative programmes to become the avenue for the professional development of its members as well as technological development of the country.
Engr. Otis Oliver T. Anyaeji is the 30th President of the Society, Fellow of the Society and a winner of many distinguished awards for service to the Society.
The following are guidelines for persons aspiring to become members of the Nigerian Society of Engineers. There are six grades of membership namely:
Fellow, Honorary Fellow, Corporate Member, Graduate Member, Associate and Student Member. The education and training required for each grade of membership are listed hereunder:
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