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Silappadikaram (Tamil. சிலப்பதிகாரம் ; IPA: [siləppəd̪iɡɑːrəm] ), [ 1 ] is one of the five epics of ancient Tamil Literature. The poet prince Ilango Adigal. a Jaina monk, is credited with this work. He is reputed to be the brother of Senguttuvan from Chera. As a literary work, it is held in high regard by the Tamils. The nature of the book is narrative and has a moralistic undertone. It contains three chapters and a total of 5270 lines of poetry. The epic revolves around Kannagi. who having lost her husband to a miscarriage of justice at the court of the Pandya king, wreaks her revenge on his kingdom.

Silappatikaram has been dated to belong to the 1st century CE [ 2 ]. although the author might have built upon a pre-existing folklore to spin this tale. The story involves the three Tamil kingdoms of the ancient era, the Chola. the Pandya and the Chera. Silappatikaram has many references to historical events and personalities, although it has not been accepted as a reliable source of history by many historians because of the inclusion of many exaggerated events and achievements to the ancient Tamil kings.

Regarded as one of the great achievements of Tamil genius, the Silappatikaram is a poetic rendition with details of Tamil culture; its varied religions; its town plans and city types; the mingling of Greek, Arab, and Tamil peoples; and the arts of dance and music [ 3 ] .

Contents Historical Importance

It is the first Indian epic written about the life of an ordinary Hindu Chola country man, written by a Jain Chera country Prince who turned to Ascetic, and in a simple understandable literature. It was written during the times,when only complex literature were prevalent for epics and were written only in praise of Religions and Kings, by ordinary poets.

The story evolves in terms of Three, at least of the following

  • Three Kingdoms -Chola. Pandiya. Chera
  • Three Religions - Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism
  • Three Heroines - Kannagi. Madhavi, Manimekalai
  • Three Ways of life - Married (karpiyal) (Kannagi), Unmarried (kalaviyal) (Madhavi), Ascetic (thurau) (Manimekalai)
  • Three Episodes - Puhar, Madurai, Vanchi
  • Three Walks and Types of Land - Seashore (Poompugar), Fertile (Madurai), Mountain (Vanchi)
Structure of Silappatikaram

Silappatikaram contains three chapters:

  • Puharkkandam (புகார்க் காண்டம் – Puhar chapter), which deals with the events in the Chola city of Puhar, where Kannagi and Kovalan start their married life and Kovalan leaves his wife for the courtesan Madavi. This contains 10 sub divisions
  • Maduraikkandam (மதுரைக் காண்டம் – Madurai chapter). is situated in Madurai in the Pandya kingdom where Kovalan loses his life, incorrectly blamed for the theft of the queen's anklet. This contains 7 sub divisions
  • Vanchikkandam (வஞ்சிக் காண்டம் – Vanchi chapter), is situated in the Chera country where Kannagi ascends to the heavens. This contains 13 sub divisions

Each of these chapters are made of several sub chapters called kaathais. Kaathais are narrative sections of the chapters.

Historical and social setting

Ilango Adigal (poet-prince)

At the end of the Sangam epoch (second – third centuries CE), the Tamil country was in political confusion. The older order of the three Tamil dynasties were replaced by the invasion of the Kalabhras. These new invaded kings and others encouraged the religions of Buddhism and Jainism. Ilango Adigal, probably lived in this period and was one of the vast number of Jain and Buddhist authors in Tamil poetry. These authors perhaps influenced by their monastic faiths, wrote books based on moralistic values and illustrating the futility of the materialistic (secular) pleasures. These poets freely borrowed from Sanskrit literature, which had numerous books of didactic nature, as well as narrative plays by Bhāsa and Kalidasa. These authors went beyond the nature of Sangam poems. which contain descriptions of human emotions and feelings in an abstract fashion, and employed fictional characters in a well conceived narrative incorporating personal and social ramifications. Tamil epics were thus invented by these poets.

The author of Silappatikaram was Ilango Adigal (lit. Prince- Ascetic). He is reputed to be the brother of Chera king Senguttuvan. however there is no evidence in the Sangam poetries that the famous king had a brother. [ 4 ] There are also claims that Ilango Adigal was a contemporary of Sattanar. the author of Manimekalai . [ 5 ] The prologues of each of these books tell us that each were read out to the author of the other [Silappatikaram, pathigam 90]. From comparative studies between Silappatikaram and certain Sanskrit Buddhist and Jain works such as Nyayaprakasa. the date of Silappatikaram has been determined to be around the fifth and the sixth centuries CE. [ 6 ]

The story of Silappatikaram is set during the first few centuries of CE and narrates the events in the three Tamil kingdoms: Chera. Chola. and Pandya. It also mentions the Sinhala king Gajabahu and the Chera Senguttuvan. [ 7 ] It confirms that the northern kingdoms of Chedi. Uttarakosala. and Vajra were known to the Tamil people of the time. The epic also vividly describes the Tamil society of the period, its cities, the people's religious and folk traditions and their gods.

Objectives

In the pathigam. the prologue to the book, Ilango Adigal gives the reader the gist of the book with the précis of the story. He also lays the objectives of the book:

அரசியல் பிழைத்தோருக்கு அறங்கூற்றாவதும், (Truth will punish the irresponsible erring king) உரைசால் பத்தினியை உயர்ந்தோர் ஏத்தலும், (A women with great morals will be praised by intellects) ஊழ்வினை உறுத்து வந்தூட்டும் என்பதூம், (one has to pay for his acts)(past and present acts of one, will certainly yield its results on him) நாட்டுதும் யாம் ஓர் பாட்டுடைச் செய்யுள்

Main characters

  • Kovalan - Son of a wealthy merchant in Puhar
  • Kannagi - Wife of Kovalan
  • Masattuvan - A wealthy grain merchant and the father of Kovalan
  • Madhavi - A beautiful courtesan dancer
  • Vasavadaththai - Madavi's female friend
  • Kosigan - Madavi's messenger to Kovalan
  • Madalan - A Brahmin visitor to Madurai from Puhar
  • Kavunthi Adigal - A woman ascetic
  • Neduncheliyan - Pandya king
  • Kopperundevi - Pandya Queen
Folk art and music in Silappatikaram Literary value

The Silappatikaram, apart from being the first known epic poem in Tamil, is also important for its literary innovations. It introduces the intermingling of poetry with prose, a form not seen in previous Tamil works. It features an unusual praise of the Sun, the Moon, the river Kaveri and the city of Poompuhar at its beginning, the contemporary tradition being to praise a deity. It is also considered to be a predecessor of the Nigandu lexicographic tradition.

Popular culture

There have been multiple movies based on the story of Silappathikaram and the most famous is the portrayal of Kannagi by Actress Kannamba in the 1942 movie 'Kannagi'. P.U.Chinnappa played the lead as Kovalan. The movie faithfully follows the story of Silappathikaram and was a hit when it was released. And the 'magnum opus' poompugaar, penned by 'Kalaignar' M. Karunanidhi. and the part of 'Kaavunthiyadigal' played by K.P. Sundarambal [ 8 ]

There are multiple dance dramas as well by some of the great exponents of Bharatanatyam in Tamil as most of the verses of Silappathikaram can be set to music.

Further reading Notes References
  • Minatchisuntharan, T. P. History of Tamil Literature. Annamalai University Publications in linguistics, 3. Annamalai University,1965)
  • Krishnamurti. C. R. Thamizh Literature Through the Ages. Vancouver, B. C. Canada (http://www.tamilnation.org/literature/krishnamurti/02sangam.htm )
  • Nilakanta Sastri, K. A. (1955). A History of South India. OUP, New Delhi (Reprinted 2002).
  • Codrington, H. W. A short History of Ceylon, London (1926) (http://lakdiva.org/codrington/ ).
  • R. Parthasarathi, The Chilappathikaram of Ilanko Atikal, Columbia University Press, 1993, ISBN 0-231-07848-X.
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Popular English Phrases and Quotations

English Phrases

By Simran Khurana. Quotations Expert

English phrases are part of everyday speech. They add the necessary zing to our communication. Here are some of the most popular English phrases. Use them to make an impact on your readers or listeners.

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    Work-Life-Balance - Essay by Hl2013

    Work-Life-Balance Essay

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    Abstract
    The absence of a work-life balance is a common occurrence that affects many people. Having a feeling of anxiety about work-related concerns while at home spending time with your family or being inattentive while at work because of family or marital/partner complications are ideal signs that one may have an imbalance in their work and life. An imbalance in life and work can lead to stress that creates an array of complication that can not only affect the mental and spirituality or one’s life, but also the physical condition on one’s body. In this paper the author will discuss the background of work-life balance, the importance of the topic, the primary issues, the findings, the alternative solutions and the best solutions to maintain a work-life balance.


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    Cilappatikaram: The Book of Vanci- Ilanko Atikal

    Cilappatikaram: The Book of Vanci- Ilanko Atikal

    The Round Dance of the Hill Dwellers

    The Canto begins with a narrative interlude. As suggested by the title of the canto, the hill dwellers gather for a sacred dance in the mountains. They find Kannagi under a “kino” tree standing alone and they ask her why she has been standing there, she had lost her husband and had brought ruin to Madurai. Kannagi reunited with her husband in heaven and became a goddess for the people who had witnessed her power and glory. The people of the town start dancing and celebrating the goddess, Kannagi.

    Two town’s girls are bathing in the “mountain waterfall,” then they perform a dance in praise of the “lord of the fierce spear” who had slain the demon in the form of a mango tree. One of the girls then mention about her mother believing of her being possessed by “Katampan,” “from the cool mountain on which peppercorns grow.” But she laughs on the matter, dismissing all lords from coming down and performing the ritual to help her rid of the man of the mountain.

    The first girl prays to the lord of mount “Kailasa” to come and bless their marriage and to reveal their love to everyone else. They declare to sing of Kannagi and her glory, about how she burned down Madurai and pray for their marriage to the man from the mountain. They consider it an honor to sing about Kannagi and her glory, to sing about the marriage of the “woman with gold bangles” (one of the two girls) and so they dance and sing, praising the Gods, Kannagi and their king.

    The Choice of a Stone

    King Cenkuttuvan of the Cheral kingdom had “engraved his bow-emblem on the Himalaya,” his journey through Vanci and the river of Periyar is glorified, his figure is magnified. He comes across the hill dwellers, dancing and singing, carrying gifts with them, (animals and other natural resources that they could carry). The king is addressed by the hill dwellers, he is told about Kannagi, who was ascended to heaven for her glory in their land.

    The Tamil poet, Cattan steps forward and tells Cenkuttuvan the tale of Kannagi’s fate, as to how because of an anklet her husband was killed with no justice and when in rage Kannagi threw her anklet to show that it was fake and not the same as the queen’s, the king died and soon the queen of Madurai followed.

    The king after listening to the account of the poet denies envying the king of Madurai and pities him for not being a just king. He then asks his wife as to who is chaster a woman, Kannagi or the queen of Madurai who for the sake of their husbands took such advanced measures. The queen prays for both the wives, and wishes for Kannagi to be honored for her glory.

    The king orders for a statue of Kannagi to be made from the stone from Himalaya or Potiyil hills and then bathed in the holy water of Kaviri and Ganga. He exclaims that in case he is denied to take the stone from the Himalaya, he will “rob the Himalaya of his crown.” He asks his men to wear their battledress; he is offered the title, “Great King” due to his bravery and glorious victory after finishing the enemy.

    Then spoke his minister, Villavan Kotai. He informs him that the news has reached the four ends of the earth and glorifies the king for his grandeur. He claims of the king being brave and unstoppable. Then speaks Alumpivel, he suggests that the news will spread through the spies of other kings if they set out the news in their city itself. Towards the end of the Canto, the announcement is made to the city of Vanci, the Northern kings are expected to pay the king tribute and defying him would not be a wise decision.

    Removing the Stone

    When Cenkuttuvan mounts the “lion throne” of his ancestors, the royal priest and ministers around him praise him glory and pray for his life. He, when asked about his intensions speaks about asking the Northern kings to carry the stone on their heads or face his sword and he vows to fight but not get humiliated.

    The priest then speaks, he points out to the king that no one can dare defy his command and stand against him. He is blessed by the astrologer as well, everyone cheer for him as he sends his parasol and sword north ways. Before leaving for battle, he visits the holy shrine to pray and bows his head which never bows down in front of anyone. The Brahmans appear with offerings from Vishnu and bless the king, dancing girls came and spoke about his glory and how he enchants them. He was prasied my every single person, the king rode until he heached the foothills of the Blue Mountain.

    To witness the king’s glory, sages flying in the air visited the king’s tent and blessed him, people from Konkana country, Kataku country, the panegyrists, blessed him and prayed for his victory. They were rewarded by the king. The guard later enters the king’s tent and informs him that hundredns of people with their offerings have come from the northern country have come from the door guarded by Samjaya. Samjaya enters and informs the king about king Satakarni who had agreed to help them get the stone. The king talks of Kanaka and Jijaya along with other kings who have decided to battle and mocked the Tamil kings.

    The king, Cenkuttuvan asks Samjaya to inform Satakarni to get boats ready, in order to cross Ganga. After being presented with gifts by people, the king travels with his troop, crosses Ganga and there he is greeted with joy. He sets up camp, near the battlefield. The kings who dared question the strength of the Tamil kings marched towards Cenkuttuvan as he cheered and made himself ready for battle, the battle became furious and there was extreme violence and force involved.

    At last the Arya kings fell apart drank blood and Cenkuttuvan appeared as a God to the kings. Afraid of Cenkuttuvan’s wrath, everyone fled and pretended to play innocent. The Goblins remembered such battles and praised Cenkuttuvan, he orders for the northern kings to be informed that he would like to offer aid to anyone who knows the Vedas and choose to live a flawless life.

    Cenkuttuvan had fought bravely for seven hours and had defeated the Arya kings who challenged him, “the image of the goddess Pattini (Kannagi)…was engraved” on the Himalayan stone and Kanaka and Vijaya were made to carry the image on their crowns. Cenkuttuvan turned towards Ganga and had the image bathed in it ritually, he set up camp on the South of the river and called his soldiers to honor them and their bravery with which they had fought for him by offering them a “Sirissa” flower which was more than he could do for them, Matalan stepped forward and spoke of Madhavi and Kovalan who when lovers had sang the songs of the seaside grove which made them drift apart.

    Matalan tells the king about the time he had entered Madurai and had seen Matari, the guardian of the couple and she killed herself after the death of the two. Later, Kavunti, the Jaina nun who had travelled with the two to Madurai also starves herself to death, Matalan went back to Pukar and when Kovalan’s father heard about his son and daughter in law, he gave away and renounced the world to become a monk. Kovalan’s mother however, died soon after she heard about her son. Kannagi’s father also chose penance and her mother gave up her life. Madhavi had however decided to lead a “virtuous life” and so she became a nun after hearing about Kovalan and Kannagi.

    The king after rewarding Matalan for bringing him news about the happening he asks the Northern kings to go back to their lands, Cenkuttuvan approaches his land as the town sings in joy for he has come back to his beloved queen who had been upset in his absence.

    The Dedication of the Memorial stone

    There is a celebration going on in Vanci, for the victory and success of Cenkuttuvan. Various forms of dances and songs are being performed for the king who sits in the audience hall, several dance forms (Kotticcetam) are presented in front of the king and queen by professional dancers (Cakkaiyan). Soon Nilan and Matalan enter, Nilan informs the king how they had went to the kings in order to retrieve those who flee from battle, he also informs him of the king of Madurai who mocked Cenkuttuvan which makes the king angry.

    Matalan steps forward and speaks of the glorious king, of his achievements and victories, he reminds him of the deeds which governs the fate of a person in this birth as well as the next. Matalan suggests that Cenkuttuvan performs a great sacrifice so that he “may attain the path the gods approve,” and so the king obeyed and the ritual was performed with priests. The king speaks of how Kannagi has made him realize that a king has to be just to his people and only then can they lead a virtuous life, the temple for Kannagi is made and everybody is guided to worship the goddess every day.

    In the preface, the deed of Cenkuttuvan is retold, how he fought the Arya kings and made some of them carry the stone for the image of the goddess. The foster mother of Kannagi, her close friend and Tevanti visit the temple made for Kannagi. They introduce themselves in front of the image of the goddess; they retold the deaths of Kannagi’s loved ones to the goddess’ image.

    Kannagi descends from heaven and speaks; she speaks of not holding a grudge against anyone and asks everyone to see her play on Venvelan’s hills. The girls of Vanci sing in praise of Kannagi, they pray for the king, a series of songs are sung in recognition of the king and the goddess.

    The Granting of a Favor

    Cenkuttuvan asks Tevanti about Manimekalai, daughter of Madhavi for whom she had cried. She tells him how she was considered to be one magnificent dancer and a beautiful young woman but she had become a nun and it had displeased a lot of people. After addressing the king, she suddenly freezes as she gets possessed by the god Pacantan who speaks through her to the people present. The god had appeared before Matalan earlier and had given him a pot of water for later, the God thus asks Matalan to sprinkle the water on the girls. As Matalan sprinkles water on them, they recall their past births.

    The women start to grieve for whom they had lost, they wish for them to come back. Matalan then informs the king how these women had not done any other virtuous deeds other than favoring Kannagi and so they were not in heaven with her. Matalan speaks of the concept of rebirth and how death can never be the end.

    The king ordered for the people to worship Kannagi every day and gave Tevanti the responsibility of offering the goddess flowers. Other kings prayed for their kingdoms to be blessed with her presence and a voice grants their wish from heavens. The god through Tevanti then speaks of governing and leading their life in goodness, under the law and gives the people present a moral conduct to abide by.

    The Concept of Dharma, Karma and Rebirth in Cilappatikaram:

    Dharma can be said to the “right” way of leading one’s life, it becomes a cosmic principal which is difficult but not impossible to defy. It is the core concept of Hindu philosophy and has been the power governing all the deeds and misdeeds in the Indian Classical texts like, Mahabharata, Ramayana, Abhigyana Shakuntalam. Dharma cannot be translated but it can be said to be a code of conduct which becomes a responsibility to follow like a universal law.

    Dharma can be of different kinds for instance, Raja Dharma which is particularly what Cilappatikaram’s Book of Vanci talks about. Adigal brings the reader from the king of Madurai whose injustice and neglect makes the entire city suffer and not just him to the king of Vanci who honors the woman who has the power to burn down the city, a woman who was lifted to heaven in his land. Cenkuttuvan is a people loving king, he gives his people more than he can, for instance after the battle he offers the soldiers more than what he had ever offered to his people. Cenkuttuvan’s responsibility towards the city, his people and the goddess is reflected in the Book of Vanci and how he gets offended when insulted by the northern kings and accepts the challenge.

    The concept of Karma is an organic concept which governs everyone’s life, it can be described as the cause and effect revolving and coming back to each other. A good deed will come back as a good deed through someone else and a bad deed and its outcome will comeback through someone or something else. Kovalan’s bad deeds from his previous life becomes the reason of his death in Cilappatikaram which brings in the concept of rebirth which is later spoken about in detain in the book of Vanci.

    The Concept of Chastity and Power in Adigal’s Cilappatikaram

    Adigal in his Tamil Epic, Cilappatikaram brings to light not just the rich Tamil culture but also some misconceptions and concepts of the society. Adigal gives his female characters a rich cultural and ancestral background which is not just relevant for Kannagi but also for Madhavi who is a learned dancer and knows many forms of dances, Adigal gives her knowledge to become her power and strength even if she is a courtesan. Just like Madhavi, Kannagi’s character develops to be a powerful woman who later becomes a goddess.

    The epic by Adigal is the unfortunate yet glorious journey and fate of Kannagi who fulfils her duty as a daughter as well as an honest and chaste wife, she remains faithful to her husband Kovalan despite him already being unfaithful to her with Madhavi, the courtesan. Kannagi never complains or says a word against what kovalan does to her until before they decide to start a new life in Madurai. This typical and orthodox Brahmana Patriarchal notion of suppressing the woman and not giving her the liberty to speak for the injustice in her marriage is what Adigal brings to light. However, Kovalan’s extra marital affair doesn’t come in Kannagi’s way and her love stays the same even though she confesses that she had been hurt deeply.

    As mentioned in the Sangam text, Tolkappiyam the concept of Karpu or “chastity” has been brought up by Adigal over and over again in Cilappatikaram. Kannagi qualifies the characteristics of a Karpu which becomes a power of conduct of life for women, their devotion towards their husband, and the qualities of a “good” wife. Kannagi is also compared to Arundati, the star who was also a chaste woman. It gave an idea of becoming an ideal woman, someone who is honest, chaste, devoting, and religious and someone with qualities like modesty and self-sacrifice. Karpu governs the way women behave; it becomes the ultimate source which denotes women to remain silent and non-rebellious in order to fulfil their duty as a chaste wife.

    The concept of the ‘silent’ wife or the ‘chaste’ wife who’d dharma was to follow her husband and devote her entire life to their marriage, to forgive regardless of the crime, she was expected to forget and move on because she had been completely faithful and honest to the man she was married to and loved. Kannagi’s silence becomes the symbol of her chastity and sexuality which was shielded with her strength and devotion for her husband which unleashes after Kovalan’s death. Kannagi lashes out and pleads for justice, her rage becomes her strength, and her breaking of the anklet becomes a symbol of breaking her silence and ritually desexualizes herself:

    Kannagi’s breaking of her anklet in the presence of the king is perhaps the most inauspicious omen of all. It is an acknowledgement of the end of her married life. She releases her sexual energy that had so far been contained by the anklets on her person. The anklet, the symbol of her stern chastity, turns into an instrument of vengeance. ” [1]

    • Cilappatikaram, Introduction, R. Parthasarathy

    The prevalent concept of Patriarchy has been running down as a tradition in most of the Indian literature and just like that Cilappatikaram remains to be one such works, Kannagi’s silence and all these concepts of that of a ‘chaste’ wife oppresses their identity. Kovalan’s unfaithfulness becomes a blot on his persona but still Kannagi has to forgive him for the devotion and faithfulness of her own self but even if she does rebel against the wrong done to her, she has nowhere to go. Kannagi is that way quite helpless, her identity without her husband remains to be nothing but her chastity and faithfulness becomes her weapon while Kovalan chooses to stray from the right and obvious marital path. However, as pointed out by R. Parthasarathy, Kannagi becomes “as avenging Fury outside the law,” she becomes an outlaw and questions the king’s authority and injustice; she has to step outside the system which runs the entire kingdom of Madurai. As written by Vijaya Ramaswamy in his essay:

    The Karpu of Kannagi blazes forth as she confronts the kings with the truth. The fire of her chastity burns up the city of Madurai” [2]

    Kannagi’s fury, her hair undone is compared by Parthasarathy with Medusa who had the power to turn anyone who looked at her, into stone. Just like her, Kannagi’s fury becomes her ultimate weapon of destruction, her power was such that the king, “saw her, and died of terror.” Kannagi throws her breast and burns down Madurai, such extreme power in her body rages out of the injustice done to her. She is left alone in the world to perish hence her fury becomes justifiable along with the fact that she has nowhere to go after all the hardship and pain that she had gone through to be able to live with her husband in peace but at the end she gets nothing but misfortune. However, her goodness which becomes her power is also what ascends her to heaven to finally meet her husband and also become a goddess for the next generations to know the power of Karpu which enabled Kannagi to bring wrath to an entire city and the royalty. Here, the concept of karma also comes in, the king dies for the injustice done by him to Kovalan and Kovalan’s past misdeeds had brought him misfortune in this life, Adigal makes sure that justice and law is followed by the kingship as well as the commoners of the city.

    The acknowledgement of both the chaste women mentioned in the book, both the queen ad Kannagi who became widows and died after their husband’s death can be seen by the Cela king, Cenukuttuvan:

    One chaste woman

    Gave up her life the moment her husband died.

    Another in a rage came to our kingdom.

    Good woman, tell us who is the better of the two

    • Cilappatikaram, The book of Vanci (25. 108-111)

    The women are loyal and chaste, the queen cannot imagine a life without her husband and so she dies. Kannagi’s journey becomes a spiritual journey and awakening where in the end she is rewarded with immense power and wisdom. Later, she is worshiped as the ‘chaste’ goddess as Ramaswamy writes:

    The virtue of Karpu imbued the wife with immense spiritual powers and transformed her into Pattini-daivam, literally, “Wife-Goddess.” [3]

    He also points out how chastity as a theme runs through not just the Sangam texts but also in other devotional movements. The concept of chastity and power go hand in hand in Cilappatikaram by Adigal who gives his female protagonist the power to bring down a city and death to those who had done her injustice. Cilappatikaram through Kannagi’s character shows the purity and spiritual aspect of chastity and the concept of Karpu which govered a woman’s fate.

    1. Cilappatikaram: Introduction by R. Parathasarathy
    2. “Chaste Widows, Cunning Wives, and Amazonian Warriors: Imaging of woman in Tamil Oral Traditions” by Vijaya Ramaswamy
    3. “Chaste Widows, Cunning Wives, and Amazonian Warriors: Imaging of woman in Tamil Oral Traditions” by Vijaya Ramaswamy

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