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The Importance Of Literature Vs Science Essay

The Importance Of Literature Vs Science Essay

The Importance of Literature vs. Science

If we lived in a world without literature, learning only the sciences,

would we be the same people? Does the human race need literature at all, does

it have any worth whatsoever except as entertainment? Do people actually learn

from literature? These are all questions that divide the human race into two

separate sections, those who believe in the power of literature, and those who

see it as impoverished compared to the social sciences in its ability to teach

us about ourselves. However we need not be so divided on this issue.

Literature is as rich a teacher as science, but merely differs in technique.

Literature offers knowledge to those that seek it, gives experience to those who

understand it, and pleasure to those that love it. Science on the other hand

imparts knowledge, leads to experience, and gives pleasure to the few who love

Literature is just as varied and expansive as Science is. There are

hundreds of styles, millions of authors, and thousands of languages which make

up literature. Instead of different fields, as in science, there are different

genres. Literature is often backed up by research or first hand information,

but can also be fanciful flights of the imagination. They are similar to the

research, observation, and hypothesis found in science. Experiments can be

performed in both. A scientist could ask what if, and logically and

scientifically follow his what if through. A writer could ask the same and use

his imagination, knowledge, and perhaps a little research, to guide his

imagination. Literature and Science are similar.

However they differ in some important respects. Science is an exact

realm of numbers and averages and measurements. The last time you read a

romance novel, were there charts showing the Freudian prediction of the average

persons love life? Literature does not have the same kind of exactitude that is

offered by Science. But it does offer precision in another way. Literature

often is the description of one or a few peoples lives in detail. It is from

these detailed ?case studies? as a scientist would call them, that we can learn.

It is the argument of science that people are similar and thus scientific

averages do have some relevance to humans. Yes people often do share similar

characteristics, and behave similarly if coming from the same society. And thus,

a detailed insight into one persons’ life could give you an insight on the lives

of others. In a way Literature allows you to live thousands of lives in a short

time, and gain a little experience from each of them. Science on the other hand,

offers you charts and tables to which you must apply the situations of daily

life. It is in this fundamental way that literature and science are different.

Literature offers you insight which you apply to life, in science, you apply

life to your theories. It’s just a matter of whether life is the cookie cutter

Imagine a world without literature. All your Literature courses in

school are replaced with social sciences: philosophy, psychology, etc. Would

people be the same? No doubt life would be a great deal less interesting, as

our minds would not be as stimulated. The world would also be a more closed

place, and news, and history would seem less related and more distant. Why?

Because sciences do not show you what something is like, the describe it. For

example, if scien

ce wanted to describe a hit and run it would say ?Yesterday,

7/15/96, one 5′4 Caucasian of birth date 3/16/70, was contacted by a rapidly

moving multialloy compound in the form of a red colored Peugeot 504 on

Libertador 2000-2100, Buenos Aires. The Peugeot 504 maintained its velocity

without regard to the sudden impact of the Caucasian. The human being

controlling the Peugeot 504 was not identified, and neither was the license

plate. However if literature wanted to describe one it would say ?Yesterday

morning a man was struck by a red Peugeot 504, killing him on impact. The

driver of the car, as of yet unidentified, did not bother to stop the car. This

is a sad reflection of some peoples’ inability to face their own mistakes.

Literature could make that last sentence because it does not need to back up

every little thing with two thousand pieces of measurable accurate evidence. It

can think in leaps and bounds with very little touch with hard facts. Science

can describe an incident, but it can’t make you feel anything about it.

Literature on the other hand, gives you insight and feelings into other peoples

minds. For example, it is much more beneficial to read a book about Egypt, than

to read a scientific report on it. Through the characters in the book you can

get a feel for the culture that the scientific report would not have.

A world without literature would also leave science wanting. Many

scientists would agree that without literature, science would not be the same.

It would be colder, and less human. Human’s are not creatures of precision and

logic, or we would have rulers for hands, and calculators for hearts. Most

people would prefer to sit down and pick up a science fiction novel than a book

on astrophysics. Also, writers do not have to be very skilled to be able to

teach. Scientists who teach have had to train and learn for many years before

they can do so. However, Joe Blow could sit down and write a book on life in

the streets of Amsterdam, and we would learn something. Literature can almost

always teach you something, proficiency in it merely accelerates and improves

the teaching process.

This is not to say that science is useless however. Social sciences and

literature complement each other well in understanding humans and their behavior.

Science teaches us the ?how. while literature teaches us the ?why.

Literature takes us into peoples’ minds, science takes their minds and

categorizes them. This is why literature will always be perceived as being more

human, because it relates to emotions rather than to logic, and humans are

creatures of emotion. Science cannot describe certain things. How does science

describe love? It can give all the physical ramifications of it, psychology can

give us the probable actions done by a person in love, but it can’t make us

understand what it is to be in love. Literature can give you some experience,

although it be a limited, third person sort of experience. And of course, the

only way to know an emotion is to experience it.

In conclusion I say that we should not pick one or the other, but

continue to let them complement each other. There is a time for hard facts and

evidence, and there is a time for poems and soliloquies. There is a time for

Einstein and Pasteur as there is a time for Shakespeare and Tolkien. Human

beings are a composite of their primal emotions, and their need for structure

and organization. Thus, without one or the other, we would not be humans

Other articles

The Importance Of Literature Vs Science Essay

The Importance Of Literature Vs. Science Essay, Research Paper

The Importance of Literature vs. Science

If we lived in a world without literature, learning only the sciences,

would we be the same people? Does the human race need literature at all, does

it have any worth whatsoever except as entertainment? Do people actually learn

from literature? These are all questions that divide the human race into two

separate sections, those who believe in the power of literature, and those who

see it as impoverished compared to the social sciences in its ability to teach

us about ourselves. However we need not be so divided on this issue.

Literature is as rich a teacher as science, but merely differs in technique.

Literature offers knowledge to those that seek it, gives experience to those who

understand it, and pleasure to those that love it. Science on the other hand

imparts knowledge, leads to experience, and gives pleasure to the few who love

Literature is just as varied and expansive as Science is. There are

hundreds of styles, millions of authors, and thousands of languages which make

up literature. Instead of different fields, as in science, there are different

genres. Literature is often backed up by research or first hand information,

but can also be fanciful flights of the imagination. They are similar to the

research, observation, and hypothesis found in science. Experiments can be

performed in both. A scientist could ask what if, and logically and

scientifically follow his what if through. A writer could ask the same and use

his imagination, knowledge, and perhaps a little research, to guide his

imagination. Literature and Science are similar.

However they differ in some important respects. Science is an exact

realm of numbers and averages and measurements. The last time you read a

romance novel, were there charts showing the Freudian prediction of the average

persons love life? Literature does not have the same kind of exactitude that is

offered by Science. But it does offer precision in another way. Literature

often is the description of one or a few peoples lives in detail. It is from

these detailed ?case studies? as a scientist would call them, that we can learn.

It is the argument of science that people are similar and thus scientific

averages do have some relevance to humans. Yes people often do share similar

characteristics, and behave similarly if coming from the same society. And thus,

a detailed insight into one persons’ life could give you an insight on the lives

of others. In a way Literature allows you to live thousands of lives in a short

time, and gain a little experience from each of them. Science on the other hand,

offers you charts and tables to which you must apply the situations of daily

life. It is in this fundamental way that literature and science are different.

Literature offers you insight which you apply to life, in science, you apply

life to your theories. It’s just a matter of whether life is the cookie cutter

Imagine a world without literature. All your Literature courses in

school are replaced with social sciences: philosophy, psychology, etc. Would

people be the same? No doubt life would be a great deal less interesting, as

our minds would not be as stimulated. The world would also be a more closed

place, and news, and history would seem less related and more distant. Why?

Because sciences do not show you what something is like, the describe it. For

example, if science wanted to describe a hit and run it would say ?Yesterday,

7/15/96, one 5′4 Caucasian of birth date 3/16/70, was contacted by a rapidly

moving multialloy compound in the form of a red colored Peugeot 504 on

Libertador 2000-2100, Buenos Aires. The Peugeot 504 maintained its velocity

without regard to the sudden impact of the Caucasian. The human being

controlling the Peugeot 504 was not identified, and neither was the license

plate. However if literature wanted to describe one it would say ?Yesterday

morning a man was struck by a red Peugeot 504, killing him on impact. The

driver of the car, as of yet unidentified, did not bother to stop the car. This

is a sad reflection of some peoples’ inability to face their own mistakes.

Literature could make that last sentence because it does not need to back up

every little thing with two thousand pieces of measurable accurate evidence. It

can think in leaps and bounds with very little touch with hard facts. Science

can describe an incident, but it can’t make you feel anything about it.

Literature on the other hand, gives you insight and feelings into other peoples

minds. For example, it is much more beneficial to read a book about Egypt, than

to read a scientific report on it. Through the characters in the book you can

get a feel for the culture that the scientific report would not have.

A world without literature would also leave science wanting. Many

scientists would agree that without literature, science would not be the same.

It would be colder, and less human. Human’s are not creatures of precision and

logic, or we would have rulers for hands, and calculators for hearts. Most

people would prefer to sit down and pick up a science fiction novel than a book

on astrophysics. Also, writers do not have to be very skilled to be able to

teach. Scientists who teach have had to train and learn for many years before

they can do so. However, Joe Blow could sit down and write a book on life in

the streets of Amsterdam, and we would learn something. Literature can almost

always teach you something, proficiency in it merely accelerates and improves

the teaching process.

This is not to say that science is useless however. Social sciences and

literature complement each other well in understanding humans and their behavior.

Science teaches us the ?how. while literature teaches us the ?why.

Literature takes us into peoples’ minds, science takes their minds and

categorizes them. This is why literature will always be perceived as being more

human, because it relates to emotions rather than to logic, and humans are

creatures of emotion. Science cannot describe certain things. How does science

describe love? It can give all the physical ramifications of it, psychology can

give us the probable actions done by a person in love, but it can’t make us

understand what it is to be in love. Literature can give you some experience,

although it be a limited, third person sort of experience. And of course, the

only way to know an emotion is to experience it.

In conclusion I say that we should not pick one or the other, but

continue to let them complement each other. There is a time for hard facts and

evidence, and there is a time for poems and soliloquies. There is a time for

Einstein and Pasteur as there is a time for Shakespeare and Tolkien. Human

beings are a composite of their primal emotions, and their need for structure

and organization. Thus, without one or the other, we would not be humans

Essay on philosophy

Essay/Term paper: The importance of literature vs. science

Free essays available online are good but they will not follow the guidelines of your particular writing assignment. If you need a custom term paper on Philosophy: The Importance Of Literature Vs. Science. you can hire a professional writer here to write you a high quality authentic essay. While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written essays will pass any plagiarism test. Our writing service will save you time and grade.

The Importance of Literature vs. Science


If we lived in a world without literature, learning only the sciences,
would we be the same people? Does the human race need literature at all, does
it have any worth whatsoever except as entertainment? Do people actually learn
from literature? These are all questions that divide the human race into two
separate sections, those who believe in the power of literature, and those who
see it as impoverished compared to the social sciences in its ability to teach
us about ourselves. However we need not be so divided on this issue.
Literature is as rich a teacher as science, but merely differs in technique.
Literature offers knowledge to those that seek it, gives experience to those who
understand it, and pleasure to those that love it. Science on the other hand
imparts knowledge, leads to experience, and gives pleasure to the few who love
it.
Literature is just as varied and expansive as Science is. There are
hundreds of styles, millions of authors, and thousands of languages which make
up literature. Instead of different fields, as in science, there are different
genres. Literature is often backed up by research or first hand information,
but can also be fanciful flights of the imagination. They are similar to the
research, observation, and hypothesis found in science. Experiments can be
performed in both. A scientist could ask what if, and logically and
scientifically follow his what if through. A writer could ask the same and use
his imagination, knowledge, and perhaps a little research, to guide his
imagination. Literature and Science are similar.
However they differ in some important respects. Science is an exact
realm of numbers and averages and measurements. The last time you read a
romance novel, were there charts showing the Freudian prediction of the average
persons love life? Literature does not have the same kind of exactitude that is
offered by Science. But it does offer precision in another way. Literature
often is the description of one or a few peoples lives in detail. It is from
these detailed "case studies" as a scientist would call them, that we can learn.
It is the argument of science that people are similar and thus scientific
averages do have some relevance to humans. Yes people often do share similar
characteristics, and behave similarly if coming from the same society. And thus,
a detailed insight into one persons' life could give you an insight on the lives
of others. In a way Literature allows you to live thousands of lives in a short
time, and gain a little experience from each of them. Science on the other hand,
offers you charts and tables to which you must apply the situations of daily
life. It is in this fundamental way that literature and science are different.
Literature offers you insight which you apply to life, in science, you apply
life to your theories. It's just a matter of whether life is the cookie cutter
or the dough.
Imagine a world without literature. All your Literature courses in
school are replaced with social sciences: philosophy, psychology, etc. Would
people be the same? No doubt life would be a great deal less interesting, as
our minds would not be as stimulated. The world would also be a more closed
place, and news, and history would seem less related and more distant. Why?
Because sciences do not show you what something is like, the describe it. For
example, if science wanted to describe a hit and run it would say "Yesterday,
7/15/96, one 5'4 Caucasian of birth date 3/16/70, was contacted by a rapidly
moving multialloy compound in the form of a red colored Peugeot 504 on
Libertador 2000-2100, Buenos Aires. The Peugeot 504 maintained its velocity
without regard to the sudden impact of the Caucasian. The human being
controlling the Peugeot 504 was not identified, and neither was the license
plate." However if literature wanted to describe one it would say "Yesterday
morning a man was struck by a red Peugeot 504, killing him on impact. The
driver of the car, as of yet unidentified, did not bother to stop the car. This
is a sad reflection of some peoples' inability to face their own mistakes."
Literature could make that last sentence because it does not need to back up
every little thing with two thousand pieces of measurable accurate evidence. It
can think in leaps and bounds with very little touch with hard facts. Science
can describe an incident, but it can't make you feel anything about it.
Literature on the other hand, gives you insight and feelings into other peoples
minds. For example, it is much more beneficial to read a book about Egypt, than
to read a scientific report on it. Through the characters in the book you can
get a feel for the culture that the scientific report would not have.
A world without literature would also leave science wanting. Many
scientists would agree that without literature, science would not be the same.
It would be colder, and less human. Human's are not creatures of precision and
logic, or we would have rulers for hands, and calculators for hearts. Most
people would prefer to sit down and pick up a science fiction novel than a book
on astrophysics. Also, writers do not have to be very skilled to be able to
teach. Scientists who teach have had to train and learn for many years before
they can do so. However, Joe Blow could sit down and write a book on life in
the streets of Amsterdam, and we would learn something. Literature can almost
always teach you something, proficiency in it merely accelerates and improves
the teaching process.
This is not to say that science is useless however. Social sciences and
literature complement each other well in understanding humans and their behavior.
Science teaches us the "how", while literature teaches us the "why".
Literature takes us into peoples' minds, science takes their minds and
categorizes them. This is why literature will always be perceived as being more
human, because it relates to emotions rather than to logic, and humans are
creatures of emotion. Science cannot describe certain things. How does science
describe love? It can give all the physical ramifications of it, psychology can
give us the probable actions done by a person in love, but it can't make us
understand what it is to be in love. Literature can give you some experience,
although it be a limited, third person sort of experience. And of course, the
only way to know an emotion is to experience it.
In conclusion I say that we should not pick one or the other, but
continue to let them complement each other. There is a time for hard facts and
evidence, and there is a time for poems and soliloquies. There is a time for
Einstein and Pasteur as there is a time for Shakespeare and Tolkien. Human
beings are a composite of their primal emotions, and their need for structure
and organization. Thus, without one or the other, we would not be humans
anymore.

Other sample model essays:

Alfarabi and Aristotle: The Four Causes and The Four Stages of The Doctrine of The Intelligence Alfarabi was raised as a young boy in Baghdad. His early life was spent studying the art of.

Academic and Professional Writing: Scientific Reports

Formatting Science Reports

This section describes an organizational structure commonly used to report experimental research in many scientific disciplines, the IMRAD format: I ntroduction, M ethods, R esults, A nd D iscussion.

Although the main headings are standard for many scientific fields, details may vary; check with your instructor, or, if submitting an article to a journal, refer to the instructions to authors.

When and when not to use the IMRAD format

Although most scientific reports use the IMRAD format, there are some exceptions.

This format is usually not used in reports describing other kinds of research, such as field or case studies, in which headings are more likely to differ according to discipline. Although the main headings are standard for many scientific fields, details may vary; check with your instructor, or, if submitting an article to a journal, refer to the instructions to authors.

Use the menu below to find out how to write each part of a scientific report.


Last updated: August 29, 2014

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Chinese Language and Literature Essay

Chinese Language and Literature Essay

Chinese Language and Literature

The value of Chinese Language The knowledge of Chinese language opens many new perspectives for the people who have good command of this language. First of all, Chinese language opens the way to different important fields. These include: Chinese politics, economy, history or archaeology. The knowledge of Chinese language can help to study the unique culture of the ancient civilization. At the heart of Chinese civilization is its rich heritage of novels, short stories, poetry, drama, and other pieces of literature.

One should also not to forget about the fact that language itself reflects the values, the struggles, the sensibility, the joys and the sorrows of this great people. Also, it offers insights even into the most intimate feelings of people. The same happens to people who know the Chinese language. The knowledge of the language enables them to read books. Such an exposure to the historical heritage gives many changes for personal development of the people. The analysis of literary works may help you understand what stands behind the language, and what makes it powerful.

Some things that point to the value of Chinese language:

  • China is one of the world’s oldest and richest continuous cultures that have been existing for about 5000 years old.
  • China can be also regarded as one of the most populous nation in the world, with a population that has amounted to 1.28 billion people.
  • Mandarin Chinese is the language that is being spoken by 873 million speakers what makes Chinese one of the most widely spoken first languages in the world. The estimations show that about one fifth of the planet speakers speak Chinese.

The dominant language in the country is Mandarin language. This language is spoken by the most influential Chinese communities of Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, the Philippines, and Mongolia. At present, China has achieved the major dominance in the world.

In this part of my paper I want to draw your attention to some surprising facts that pertain to the Chinese language. The research shows that the Chinese language has a relatively uncomplicated grammar. Contrary to French, German or English, Chinese has no verb conjugation (in other words tense inflection). Also, this language has no noun declension, including gender and number distinctions. While learning Chinese you do not have to memorize different verb forms of “tell/told/told.” Under such circumstances, all you have to remember is just one word: kan. Also, while learning English a person has to distinguish between “hat” and “hats”. In Chinese we have a totally different situation. The only form that is present in this language is the word mao.

The basic word order of Chinese is subject is the verb object. The object exists just in the same form as it exists in English. The research proves that there is quite a number of the key terms. These are concerned with Mandarin Chinese. The terms are generally used for state, health, science, party, inflation, and even literature. These have been formed in the course of translations of key English concepts. When you are entering a different culture, you instantly get the opportunity to familiarize yourself with the modern key concepts. In this case you have to remember the following facts: Currently Mandarin Chinese is spoken by over 1 billion people around the world what constitutes about one fifth of the global population. Many students who are eager to familiarize themselves with the other cultures are learning Mandarin. Being comparatively easy, the language is studies with much enthusiasm and success. The study of Chinese literature can be used to bridge the cultural gap that can help humans understand their Chinese counterparts, thus creating a platform that would sustain knowledge and understanding of the terms that are crucial for effective communication.

In this part of my paper I will try to summarize briefly the key features of Chinese language and literature. The major focus of the discussion will be the ways in which which China's language and literature would be able to reflect other aspects of China's culture. These include: kinship, art, politics, religion, economics, and the Chinese world view in general. The fist and the foremost thing about each language and literature is that fact that both of these reflect and express social attitudes and values.

The most typical things about Chinese literature is the prevailing sexism. In fact, sexism exists both in languages and literatures. This can be regarded as not a mere feminist fabrication. In case there were no sexism, there would be no need for feminism. Sexism can be regarded as a thing that is more apparent for thecountries of the Near and Far East. The situation was especially true for Communist China.

A better understanding of the Chinese customs and traditions comes with the knowledge of the prehistoric major tendencies that have been governing China for quite a long time. During those times, the communities were led by matriarchs, what led to the discovery of Banpo near Xian evinces. (Singh, M. 1998, p.65)

Even the Chinese character for family name, xing can be regarded as the one that is composed of the graphs that are symbolizing a woman and birth or life. Consequently, these two symbols can be regarded as the ones that refer to the matriarchal origin of the family. The last years have been marked by the fact that China has been under a patrilineal system. Eventually it meant the society that has been dominated by males. The fact prove that males have dominated every aspect of social and political activity including Chinese literature and language. (Singh, M. 1998, p.77)

The classic canon, illustrates the other attitudes that exist within the society. While analysing the Book of Changes. one can see that male is being equated with the yang principle. This one is symbolized by the sun. The facts like these imply on the dominant role of males in the Chinese society. The book shows that man embodies everything that is good and positive, thus implying on the fact the status of man is identified with heaven.

The female, on the other hand, is equated with the yin principle. This principle is symbolized by the moon. The symbol of man is attributed to everything that is negative, evil and lowly. In general, the concept of the Chinese myth is based on the idea of creation that has become the basis of the Chinese literature of the past. The creation is represented as the process that is being achieved as the outcome of two elemental forces, yin and yang. These two forces were placed on an equal footing. This fact has already been proved by the cosmological emblem (of the Taoists). (Singh, M. 1998, p.102)

The other male-biased interpretations seems to stem from a patriarchal airier. Under such circumstances, sexism became firmly entrenched. The Confucian commentaries help to further define the status of the male in the Chinese society. The evidence proves that the Chinese male was attributed a governing role in the society. Yijing principle shows that man had a proper function are the society of the world. As for the role of women, its duty is to remain within the household. The identification of the sexual roles helped to solidify the sexism.

Sexism can be clearly detected in fiction. Here women are frequently depicted as immoral temptresses or adulteresses creatures that are not able to express true feelings. The example may serve the character of Pan Jinlian. The women eventually appear to be the murderer of her husband. In Jinping mei the women is represented as partially nymphomaniac creature. (Singh, M. 1998, p.65)

The final idea of the whole essay is that Chinese language and culture are unique in their own. Chinese language is quickly spreading around the world. As for the Chinese literary traditions, these have been much defined by the prevailing dogmas and sexist. Sexism tradition has established a clear role division.

Singh, M. (1998). Gender Issues in Children’s Literature. http://www.kidsource.com/ education/gender.issues.L.A.html Accessed on 23 October 2002.

Spender, D. (1993). Language and Reality: Who Made the World? In Jackson, S, et al. (Eds)

Women’s Studies: A Reader. Herfordshire: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Business Essay Format

Business Essay Format

Is there really such a thing as a business essay format. Actually, all types of essays conform only to a single set of instructions when it comes to writing. Now, if you are required to compose a business essay, then you can easily take note of the simple and basic format that we have been teaching you before.

Many students can write a custom essay based on their preference or based on the instructions of the teacher. However, all of these articles are only formatted in a way that is truly acceptable. This means that the essay should have a three-stage format in paragraph arrangement and content.

Introduction. It is the first paragraph that involves presenting what the business essay format is all about. It contains the thesis statement which is the primary idea of the entire business essay. So whether you are writing a technology essay or a literature article, you need to have an introductory paragraph.

Body. The body may be a single paragraph or a set of multiple paragraphs. Actually, you are allowed to write a good number of paragraphs for the body as long as you think it is necessary. Depending on your topic and the intention of the article, you can modify this part by having one to unlimited number of segments.

Conclusion. This is the last paragraph of any essays. For your business essay format. try to summarize all your discussions in the remainder of the essay. Also, you may put an answer or a resolution to your problem statement here.

We can provide many good essay examples for you. Simply browse through our Samples page for more reference materials.

Characteristics Of Science Fiction Literature English Literature Essay

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About Us More About Us Characteristics Of Science Fiction Literature English Literature Essay

Published: 23, March 2015

Introduction

Science fiction is one of the most popular branches in the modern literature. At the same time, the origin of science fiction literature dates back to ancient times, when ancient writer attempted to represent their ideas in fictional forms and unite these fictional forms with their knowledge of the real life. In the course of time, the science fiction literature evolved consistently but it remained always focused on the representation of ideas, concepts and beliefs of writers, which were different from those that dominated in the real life but which were often closely intertwined with the real life or represented an alternative to various real life issues, problems and beliefs. As a result, the science fiction is an extremely rich genre of literature, which allows writers to develop new concepts and ideas and present them in the literary form as an alternative vision of the real life presented by the writers. In this respect, it is possible to refer to science fiction literary works created by outstanding writers, such as George Orwell or Robert Sheckley, who created numerous science fiction literary works, which proved to be not only routine science fiction books but they were also a sort philosophic works created by writer to convey their ideas and warn the mankind about risks that accompanied the development of the contemporary civilization.

The major characteristics of science fiction literature

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In actuality, science fiction is a very popular branch in the contemporary literature. In this respect, it is worth mentioning the fact that the emergence of science fiction literature is closely intertwined with the technological progress of the world, which stimulates science fiction writers to create new works, where they depict fictional worlds that derive from the ongoing progress of science and technology. At the same time, science fiction literary works do not necessarily involve a solid scientific basis on the ground of which a science fiction book is written. What is meant here is the fact that science and technology are not necessary for the creation of a science fiction literary work. Instead, the desire of a writer to present an alternative view or concept is crucial because it is through the creation of a fictional, science fiction story, the writer can express his or her alternative view or concept.

In this respect, it is important to lay emphasis on the fact that science and technology are important for the development of science fiction literature but they are not crucial. What is meant here is the fact that science and technology rather give science fiction writers an insight, an idea to create the form in which writers put certain content or message, which they want to convey to the audience. In fact, they use scientific discoveries and technologies as tools with the help of which they construct their science fiction stories and write their books, in which they convey their ideas and concepts.

In fact, science and technology is not the core of science fiction books. Instead, science fiction writers use science and technology to foresee the further development of the world or to present their alternative vision of the development of the world, as well as potential threats the mankind can face in the future. In this respect, it is possible to refer to the genre of anti-utopia in science fiction literature, which impact is particularly strong on works of Orwell and Sheckley as well.

In such a way, science fiction literary works focus mainly on the development of alternative ideas, views, and concepts. Science fiction writers attempt to pose and answer the question what if and in the course of their works they suggest their ideas on the alternative development of the world, society, technologies and so on. Thus, science fiction literary works represent a kind of blend of fact and fancy, where science and technology are facts that lay the foundation on the ground of which writers develop their fancies and create their fancied world, which are different from the real world and the real life.

Orwell's 1984

On analyzing the development of science fiction literary works in the 20th century, it is hardly possible to ignore works created by George Orwell, whose contribution in the development of science fiction literature at large and anti-utopia in particular can hardly be underestimated. In this respect, it is possible to refer to one of the most popular and renowned works written by George Orwell, "1984". "1984" by George Orwell may be viewed as a classical example of a science fiction literary work because the entire work represents the vision of the new world fancied by George Orwell on the premise that the entire world has entered a new stage of its development, when the totalitarian regime establishes and rules the world. In fact, the author shows how the technologically advanced society is doomed to moral degradation, when the totalitarian regime establishes the rules of the life of the entire society, when people are not able or willing to learn the truth, where they cannot speak freely and they cannot express their ideas and share them with each other.

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In this regard, George Orwell does not create just a fictional world. Instead, he constructs the new world on the ground of the totalitarian regimes that existed in Europe during World War II and in the post-war time. In such a way, his science fiction story is based on the analysis of the current situation, past and forecasts concerning the future society made by the author in his book. What is meant here is the fact that George Orwell created his "1984" as a warning to the society concerning the risk of neglecting democratic rights and liberties and oppression of individuals by the state. The fancied world created by George Orwell depicts vividly horrors of the totalitarian regime and total control over the life and behavior of individuals. The author shows clearly that the total surveillance and control lead to the degradation of the society, deprivation of basic humanistic values and the establishment of a severe regime, where individuals play the role of puppets, mechanisms performing a set of functions conditioned by the state. In such a context, the equality and happiness promoted by the ruling elite are ironic, taking into consideration the privileged position of the ruling class depicted by the author in his book. At this point, it is important to lay emphasis on the fact that this fictional book implies the real world and the existing social injustice and inequality, which the author criticizes and condemns in his science fiction book through the image of the Big Brother and the ruling party.

On the other hand, the book depicts Great Britain, London ruined by the war which goes on permanently. In this regard, the author attempts to forecast the effects of World War III on the world and the life of the society. No wonder he reminds that "who controls the past controls the future, who controls the present controls the past" (Orwell, 2). Therefore, the author depicts his vision of the alternative development of the world, if the world slips toward totalitarianism and oppression of basic human rights and liberties.

Orwell's "Animal Farm"

"Animal Farm" by George Orwell is another science fiction literary work which is, to a certain extent, similar to "1984" in terms of the critical analysis and condemnation of the totalitarian regime and society. At this point, it is worth mentioning the fact that "Animal Farm" is the allegoric representation of the rise and establishment of Communist in the world in terms of the particular farm where animals rise against the rule of humans and establish their own state. In actuality, the allegory was not a mere fancy of George Orwell. Instead, the book was based on the analysis of the Communist regime in the USSR conducted by George Orwell. He analyzed critically the utopian ideals of communism and represented it as animalism in his novel. In such a way, his science fiction book represents a combination of facts and fancy for the actual totalitarian regime and ideology influencing the development of the contemporary world was depicted critically, if not to say sarcastically, by the author in his "Animal Farm".

Similarly to "1984", George Orwell depicts the slip of the society toward totalitarianism. In fact, the author shows the negative impact of totalitarianism on the life of an individual. In this respect, it is important to lay emphasis on the fact that his allegoric society in "Animal Farm" as well as the fancied society in "1984" mirror actual totalitarian regimes existing in the world, when both novels were written.

Sheckley's "Status Civilization"

George Orwell was a representative of the anti-utopian trends in science fiction literature in the 20th century. At the same time, his ideas influenced works of other writers. In this regard, Robert Sheckley was, to a certain extent, similar to George Orwell because he used science fiction literary works to depict his vision of the life of the society in the future. His "Status Civilization" is a particularly noteworthy science fiction literary work in terms of the depiction of the new type of society by the author.

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Unlike George Orwell, who depicts drawbacks and horrors of the totalitarian state, Robert Sheckley shows two sides of the worlds which exists next to each other. In fact, in his book "Status Civilization", Robert Sheckley juxtaposes two antagonistic poles, two societies established on the similar ground but with a different inclination. To put it more precisely, Sheckley depicts Omega, where people has developed the cult of Evil, where they have to kill, steal and commit other crimes to make sense of their life and to worship the cult of Evil, whereas the Earth is a degrading planet, where people live in a presumably just world, where all people are equal and happy. In this regard, the Earth depicted by Robert Sheckley in his "Status Civilization" reminds George Orwell's "Animal Farm" with its fundamental principle: "All animals are equal but some are more equal than others". In "Status Civilization", people inhabiting the Earth are not really equal and the society is not really just because people may live in poverty and believe that they belong to the middle-class, which they define as the low-middle class, for instance. At the same time, the society depicted by Sheckley is not a mere fancy of the writer but it mirrors the actual society, divided into distinct classes, where a few people rule, whereas the majority represents the middle class and many live in poverty. In other words, similarly to Orwell's science fiction literary works, Sheckley's fancied world has the ground in the real life. Thus, his work is based on facts, which are backed up with fancies Sheckely brings in to show readers prospects of the contemporary society which may slip to degradation and to the life in the world conditioned by robots or to the life in the world where people makes cult of Evil. In such a way, as a science fiction literary work, "Status Civilization" combines facts and fancy.

Sheckley's "Journey beyond Tomorrow"

The idea of the absurd society, like the society worshiping Evil, can be traced not only in "Status Civilization, but in other works written by Robert Sheckley as well, such as "Journey beyond Tomorrow". "Journey beyond Tomorrow" is another science fiction work, which depicts the future society, where technologies have reached a high level of development but the society depicted by the author is still full of absurd extremes. For instance, the main character is imprisoned by the existing justice system but freed on the ground of the decision taken by the electronic oracle. In such a way, "Journey beyond Tomorrow" is another science fiction work which shows the alternative view of the writer on the society and the development of the mankind. Sheckley takes facts from the contemporary life and uses his fancy to modify and create the future society, which is totally different from the contemporary one.

Conclusion

Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is important to lay emphasis on the fact that science fiction literary works represent a combination of facts and fancy, where science and technology serve as tools with the help of which science fiction writers depict new worlds and new societies. Often writers depict their vision of the future society. Anyway, they create a fictional world, where the fancy is closely intertwined with some real facts taken from the real life but they are modified to the extent that the outcomes of writers' fancies make the society and world described unique and different from real ones. At the same time, science fiction literary works represent views and ideas of science fiction writers, who attempt to create alternatives to the real world, where impossible is possible. On the other hand, many science fiction works, like "1984" and "Animal Farm" by George Orwell or "Status Civilization" by Robert Sheckely, warn the public against the development of negative trends in the contemporary society and the prevention of potential risks and threats to the normal life of individuals in the future.

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