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Performance Appraisel Essay Research Paper PERFORMANCE APPRAISALPerformance

Performance Appraisel Essay, Research Paper

PERFORMANCE APPRAISALPerformance appraisal is defines as evaluating an employee s current and past performance relative to his or her performance standards.Appraisal process:1. Setting work standards2. Assessing the employees actual performance relative to these standards3. Providing feedback to employee with aim at motivating that person to eliminate performance deficiencies or to continue to perform above parWhy appraise performance:1. Appraisal provide information upon which promotion and salary decisions can be made (administrative purpose)2. Provide opportunity for you and your subordinate to review subordinate work-related behaviour, correct any deficiencies + reinforce the things being done right. 3. Career-planning process: provides an opportunity to review the persons career plans in light of his/her strengths and weaknesses.4. Overall help better manage and improve your organization s performance.The supervisor does the appraisal, help and advise from HR departmentAPPRAISAL METHODSGraphic Rating Scale Method:Most simple and most popular technique.A scale that lists a number of traits (ex. Quality and reliability) and a range of performance for each. The employee is than rated by identifying the score that best describes his or her level of performance for each trait. The assigned values (ex from unsatisfactory to outstanding) for the traits are then totalled. Alternative ranking methodRanking employees from best to worst on a particular trait, choosing highest, then lowest until all are ranked. Usually easier to distinguish between the worst and best employees, difficult to distinguish employees rated in the middle.Paired Comparison MethodRanking employees by making a chart of all possible pairs of the employees for each trait and indicating which is the better employee. Can only be used in small organizations.Forced Distribution MethodSimilar to grading on the curve, predetermined percentage of rates are placed in various performance categories. Critical Incident MethodKeeping a record of uncommonly good or undesirable examples of an employee s work related behaviour and reviewing it with the employee at predetermined time. Advantage: provides specific hard examples of good and bad performance though out the year so performance is not only based on recent performance. Disadvantage: not useful in evaluating salary, promotion etc.Narrative Forms1. rate the employee s performance for each performance factor or skill. 2. to write down critical examples and an improvement plan designed to aid the employee in understanding where his or her performance was good or bad, and for improving that performance. Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)An appraisal method that aims at combining the benefits of narrative critical incidents and quantified ratings by anchoring a quantified scale with specific narrative examples of good and poor performance. 5 steps:1. Generate critical incidents. Persons who know the job being appraised (jobholders and/or supervisors) are asked to describe specific illustrations (critical incidents) of effective and ineffective performance.2. Develop performance dimensions. These people then cluster the incidents into a smaller set of performance dimensions.3. Reallocate incidents. Another group of people who also know the job then reallocate the original critical incidents. They are given the clusters definition and the critical incidents and are asked to reassign each incident to the cluster they think it fits best.4. Scale the incidents. This second group is generally asked to rate the behaviour described in the incident as to how effectively or ineffectively it represents performance on the appropriate dimension. 5. Develop final instrument. A subset of incidents is used a behavioural anchors for each dimension. Advantages: 1. A more accurate gauge.2. Clearer standards3. Feedback4. Independent dimensions5. ConsistencyThe Management by Objectives Method (MBO)Involves setting specific measurable goals with each employee and then periodically reviewing the progress made.6 steps:1. Set the organizations goals2. Set department goals3. Discuss department goals. Department heads discuss the goals with subordinates and ask them to develop individual goals, how can each employee contribute to department goals.4. Define expected results (set individual goals). Department heads and their subordinates set short term performance targets.5. Performance reviews, Measure the result. Compare the actual performance or subordinates with expected results.6. Provide feedback.Problem: 1) setting unclear goals. 2) time consuming. 3) subordinates and heads has to agree on the subordinates goals (subordinate: low vs. head: high)APPRAISAL PROBLEMSUnclear standardsAn appraisal scale that is too open to interpretation, instead include descriptive phrases that define each trait and what is meant by standards like good and unsatisfactory .Halo effectIn performance appraisal, the problem that occurs when a supervisor s rating of a subordinate on one trait biases the rating of that person on other trait. Halo effect has been defined as the influence of a rater s general impression on ratings of specific ratee qualities. Central TendencyA tendency to rate all employees the same way, such as rating them all average.Leniency or strictnessThe problem that occurs when a supervisor has a tendency to rate all subordinates either high or low.

BiasIndividual differences among rates in terms of characteristics like age, race and sex can affect their ratings, often apart from each ratee s actual performance. How to avoid appraisal problems:1) Understand the above problems2) Choose the right appraisal tool3) Train supervisors to eliminate errors4) Diary keepingSee table 9-3 page 341 for similarities and difference in the appraisal tools. Legal issues page 342Who should do the appraising?1. Appraisal by the immediate supervisor. 2. Using peer appraisals. 3. Rating committees. Rated by immediate supervisor plus 3-4 other supervisors4. Self-ratings. 5. Appraisal by subordinates upward feedback.How to conduct the appraisal interview.1. Be direct and specific. Objective data, 2. Don t get personal, 3. Encourage the person to talk, 4. Don t tiptoe aroundCOMPENSATION Employees compensation: All forms of rewards going to employees and arising from their employment. Direct payments such as wages, salaries, commissions etc. Indirect payments such as employer-paid insurance and vacations.Establishing pay rates:1. Conduct the Salary Survey. (to help ensure external equity) A survey aimed at determining prevailing wage rates. A good salary survey provides specific wage rates for specific jobs. 2. Determine the worth of each job (internal equity) Job evaluation: A systematic comparison done in order to determine the worth of one job relative to another. Ranking method: The simplest method of job evaluation that involves ranking each job relative to all other jobs, usually based on overall difficulty. Job classification: Jobs are categorized into groups. The groups are called classes if they contain similar jobs or grades if they contain jobs that are similar in difficulty but otherwise different. Classes: Dividing jobs into classes based on a set of rules for each class, such as amount of independent judgement, skill, effort etc. required for each class of jobs. Classes usually contain similar jobs all secretaries etc. Point method: The job evaluation method in which a number of compensable factors are identified and then the degree to which each of these factors is present on the job is determined.Factor comparison method: A widely used method of ranking jobs according to a variety of skill and difficulty factors, then adding up these rankings to arrive at an overall numerical rating for each given job. 3. Group similar jobs into pay grades. A pay grade is comprised of jobs of approximately equal difficulty. 4. Price each pay grade wage curves, shows the relationship between the value of the job and the average wage paid for this job. 5. Fine tune pay rates. Current trends in compensationSkill based pay: With competency or skill based pay, you are paid for the range, depth and types of skills and knowledge you are capable of using rather then for the job you currently hold. LAWFair labor standards act. To provide minimum wages, maximum hours, overtime pay, and child labor protection. Equal pay act. ERISA Employee Retirement Income Security Act. The law that provides government protection of pensions for all employees with company pension plans. It also regulates vesting rights (employees who leave before retirement may claim compensation from the pension plan). Compensating managers1. base salary2. short term incentives (designed to reward managers for attaining short term goals- cash or stock)3. long term incentives (rewarding the person for long term performance stock options)4. executive benefits and perks. (time off with pay, health care, employee services, retirement)Chapter 12: Pay for performanceSpot bonus: A spontaneous incentive awarded to individuals for accomplishments not readily measured by a standard.Variable pay: Any plan that ties pay to productivity or profitability usually as one time lump payments.Piecework plans:Piecework: A system of pay based on the number of items processed by each individual worker in a unit of time, such as items per hour or items per day.Straight piecework plan: Under this pay system each worker receives a set payment for each piece produced or processed in a factory or shop.Guaranteed piecework plan: The minimum hourly wage plus an incentive for each piece produced above a set number of pieces per hour. Advantage by piece plan: simple to calculate and understand by employees. Disadvantages: problem when raising production standards, when attempt is made to revise production standards, it meets considerable worker resistance, even if the change is fully justified. Standard Hour Plan: A plan by which a worker is paid a basic hourly rate but is paid an extra percentage of his or her base rate for production exceeding the standard per hour or per day. Similar to piecework payment only based on a percent premium. Team or group incentive plan: A plan in which a production standard is set for a specific work group, and its members are paid incentives if the group exceeds the production standard.Annual bonus: Plans that are designed to motivate short term performance of managers and are tied to company profitabilityCapital accumulation programs: Long term incentives most often reserved for senior executives. Six popular plans include stock options, stock appreciation rights, performance achievement plans, restricted stock plans, etc. Merit pay (merit rate): Any salary increase awarded to an employee based on his or her individual performance. Profit sharing plan: A plan whereby most employees share in the company s profit. Scanlon plan: 1. philosophy of cooperation 2. identity 3. Competence 4. involvement system 5. sharing of benefits formula. +

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Performance Appraisel Essay Research Paper PERFORMANCE APPRAISALPerformance

Performance Appraisel Essay Research Paper PERFORMANCE APPRAISALPerformance

Performance Appraisel Essay, Research Paper

PERFORMANCE APPRAISALPerformance appraisal is defines as evaluating an employee s current and past performance relative to his or her performance standards.Appraisal process:1. Setting work standards2. Assessing the employees actual performance relative to these standards3. Providing feedback to employee with aim at motivating that person to eliminate performance deficiencies or to continue to perform above parWhy appraise performance:1. Appraisal provide information upon which promotion and salary decisions can be made (administrative purpose)2. Provide opportunity for you and your subordinate to review subordinate work-related behaviour, correct any deficiencies + reinforce the things being done right. 3. Career-planning process: provides an opportunity to review the persons career plans in light of his/her strengths and weaknesses.4. Overall help better manage and improve your organization s performance.The supervisor does the appraisal, help and advise from HR departmentAPPRAISAL METHODSGraphic Rating Scale Method:Most simple and most popular technique.A scale that lists a number of traits (ex. Quality and reliability) and a range of performance for each. The employee is than rated by identifying the score that best describes his or her level of performance for each trait. The assigned values (ex from unsatisfactory to outstanding) for the traits are then totalled. Alternative ranking methodRanking employees from best to worst on a particular trait, choosing highest, then lowest until all are ranked. Usually easier to distinguish between the worst and best employees, difficult to distinguish employees rated in the middle.Paired Comparison MethodRanking employees by making a chart of all possible pairs of the employees for each trait and indicating which is the better employee. Can only be used in small organizations.Forced Distribution MethodSimilar to grading on the curve, predetermined percentage of rates are placed in various performance categories. Critical Incident MethodKeeping a record of uncommonly good or undesirable examples of an employee s work related behaviour and reviewing it with the employee at predetermined time. Advantage: provides specific hard examples of good and bad performance though out the year so performance is not only based on recent performance. Disadvantage: not useful in evaluating salary, promotion etc.Narrative Forms1. rate the employee s performance for each performance factor or skill. 2. to write down critical examples and an improvement plan designed to aid the employee in understanding where his or her performance was good or bad, and for improving that performance. Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)An appraisal method that aims at combining the benefits of narrative critical incidents and quantified ratings by anchoring a quantified scale with specific narrative examples of good and poor performance. 5 steps:1. Generate critical incidents. Persons who know the job being appraised (jobholders and/or supervisors) are asked to describe specific illustrations (critical incidents) of effective and ineffective performance.2. Develop performance dimensions. These people then cluster the incidents into a smaller set of performance dimensions.3. Reallocate incidents. Another group of people who also know the job then reallocate the original critical incidents. They are given the clusters definition and the critical incidents and are asked to reassign each incident to the cluster they think it fits best.4. Scale the incidents. This second group is generally asked to rate the behaviour described in the incident as to how effectively or ineffectively it represents performance on the appropriate dimension. 5. Develop final instrument. A subset of incidents is used a behavioural anchors for each dimension. Advantages: 1. A more accurate gauge.2. Clearer standards3. Feedback4. Independent dimensions5. ConsistencyThe Management by Objectives Method (MBO)Involves setting specific measurable goals with each employee and then periodically reviewing the progress made.6 steps:1. Set the organizations goals2. Set department goals3. Discuss department goals. Department heads discuss the goals with subordinates and ask them to develop individual goals, how can each employee contribute to department goals.4. Define expected results (set individual goals). Department heads and their subordinates set short term performance targets.5. Performance reviews, Measure the result. Compare the actual performance or subordinates with expected results.6. Provide feedback.Problem: 1) setting unclear goals. 2) time consuming. 3) subordinates and heads has to agree on the subordinates goals (subordinate: low vs. head: high)APPRAISAL PROBLEMSUnclear standardsAn appraisal scale that is too open to interpretation, instead include descriptive phrases that define each trait and what is meant by standards like good and unsatisfactory .Halo effectIn performance appraisal, the problem that occurs when a supervisor s rating of a subordinate on one trait biases the rating of that person on other trait. Halo effect has been defined as the influence of a rater s general impression on ratings of specific ratee qualities. Central TendencyA tendency to rate all employees the same way, such as rating them all average.Leniency or strictnessThe problem that occurs when a supervisor has a tendency to rate all subordinates either high or low.

BiasIndividual differences among rates in terms of characteri

stics like age, race and sex can affect their ratings, often apart from each ratee s actual performance. How to avoid appraisal problems:1) Understand the above problems2) Choose the right appraisal tool3) Train supervisors to eliminate errors4) Diary keepingSee table 9-3 page 341 for similarities and difference in the appraisal tools. Legal issues page 342Who should do the appraising?1. Appraisal by the immediate supervisor. 2. Using peer appraisals. 3. Rating committees. Rated by immediate supervisor plus 3-4 other supervisors4. Self-ratings. 5. Appraisal by subordinates upward feedback.How to conduct the appraisal interview.1. Be direct and specific. Objective data, 2. Don t get personal, 3. Encourage the person to talk, 4. Don t tiptoe aroundCOMPENSATION Employees compensation: All forms of rewards going to employees and arising from their employment. Direct payments such as wages, salaries, commissions etc. Indirect payments such as employer-paid insurance and vacations.Establishing pay rates:1. Conduct the Salary Survey. (to help ensure external equity) A survey aimed at determining prevailing wage rates. A good salary survey provides specific wage rates for specific jobs. 2. Determine the worth of each job (internal equity) Job evaluation: A systematic comparison done in order to determine the worth of one job relative to another. Ranking method: The simplest method of job evaluation that involves ranking each job relative to all other jobs, usually based on overall difficulty. Job classification: Jobs are categorized into groups. The groups are called classes if they contain similar jobs or grades if they contain jobs that are similar in difficulty but otherwise different. Classes: Dividing jobs into classes based on a set of rules for each class, such as amount of independent judgement, skill, effort etc. required for each class of jobs. Classes usually contain similar jobs all secretaries etc. Point method: The job evaluation method in which a number of compensable factors are identified and then the degree to which each of these factors is present on the job is determined.Factor comparison method: A widely used method of ranking jobs according to a variety of skill and difficulty factors, then adding up these rankings to arrive at an overall numerical rating for each given job. 3. Group similar jobs into pay grades. A pay grade is comprised of jobs of approximately equal difficulty. 4. Price each pay grade wage curves, shows the relationship between the value of the job and the average wage paid for this job. 5. Fine tune pay rates. Current trends in compensationSkill based pay: With competency or skill based pay, you are paid for the range, depth and types of skills and knowledge you are capable of using rather then for the job you currently hold. LAWFair labor standards act. To provide minimum wages, maximum hours, overtime pay, and child labor protection. Equal pay act. ERISA Employee Retirement Income Security Act. The law that provides government protection of pensions for all employees with company pension plans. It also regulates vesting rights (employees who leave before retirement may claim compensation from the pension plan). Compensating managers1. base salary2. short term incentives (designed to reward managers for attaining short term goals- cash or stock)3. long term incentives (rewarding the person for long term performance stock options)4. executive benefits and perks. (time off with pay, health care, employee services, retirement)Chapter 12: Pay for performanceSpot bonus: A spontaneous incentive awarded to individuals for accomplishments not readily measured by a standard.Variable pay: Any plan that ties pay to productivity or profitability usually as one time lump payments.Piecework plans:Piecework: A system of pay based on the number of items processed by each individual worker in a unit of time, such as items per hour or items per day.Straight piecework plan: Under this pay system each worker receives a set payment for each piece produced or processed in a factory or shop.Guaranteed piecework plan: The minimum hourly wage plus an incentive for each piece produced above a set number of pieces per hour. Advantage by piece plan: simple to calculate and understand by employees. Disadvantages: problem when raising production standards, when attempt is made to revise production standards, it meets considerable worker resistance, even if the change is fully justified. Standard Hour Plan: A plan by which a worker is paid a basic hourly rate but is paid an extra percentage of his or her base rate for production exceeding the standard per hour or per day. Similar to piecework payment only based on a percent premium. Team or group incentive plan: A plan in which a production standard is set for a specific work group, and its members are paid incentives if the group exceeds the production standard.Annual bonus: Plans that are designed to motivate short term performance of managers and are tied to company profitabilityCapital accumulation programs: Long term incentives most often reserved for senior executives. Six popular plans include stock options, stock appreciation rights, performance achievement plans, restricted stock plans, etc. Merit pay (merit rate): Any salary increase awarded to an employee based on his or her individual performance. Profit sharing plan: A plan whereby most employees share in the company s profit. Scanlon plan: 1. philosophy of cooperation 2. identity 3. Competence 4. involvement system 5. sharing of benefits formula. +

Law Essays

Law Essays

As distinct from other subjects, this is by definition a career based essay, whatever the topic.

It therefore needs much more thought about addressing the aspects of a legal career, personal goals, and your understanding of the profession.

You might well be asked to do 500 words on your intended career path. It’s a pretty relevant subject, in law.

Some sites and consultants will provide generic fixes for what are actually case-specific essays.

Things like the “personal statement”, an identifier of the candidate’s motives for a career, are common enough.

In law school scholarship essays, emphasis is rightly put on quality of expression, use of grammar, clarity, and ideas.

This is a hazard of using services of this kind. The purpose of the question, and the importance of the essay aren’t “generic”.

Some questions don’t have “answers”.

What’s expressed is information or an opinion. That’s what the examiners want, not a shopping list.

A classic case of the uses of a service is essayedge.com. a commercial consultancy dealing with legal scholarship essays. Everything from editing, to letters of recommendation, to proofreading, is covered.

Can it write the essay for you?

Users are advised to seek professional help from qualified lawyers, career counselors, and other firsthand assistance prior to attempting any actual writing of an essay. Exactly like law itself: Check your facts.

In any profession, mistakes are costly.

You need to be as sure of your approach to your scholarship essay, as you are of your career choice.

Law School Admission Essay Tips

Law School Admission Essay Tips

Content provided by EssayEdge.com.

Put Harvard-Educated Editors to Work for You!

Law School Personal Statement Secrets
EssayEdge.com contains thousands of pages of free admissions essay advice by Harvard-educated editors.

The law school personal statement, more so than essays for other graduate programs, resembles the kind of essay you wrote for your college applications. The topic is often completely open-ended. This freedom intimidates many students who prefer to have guidance and a clear notion of what admissions officers are looking for. Your goal must be to avoid depending too heavily on preconceptions and to focus instead on what you have to offer. In sum, law school admissions committees want interesting, confident, and successful people.

When writing your law school personal statement, you should reflect on two fundamental questions:

1. Why do I want to be a lawyer?
2. What are my qualifications?

As the founder of EssayEdge.com, the Net\'s largest admissions essay prep company, I have seen firsthand the difference a well-written application essay can make. Through its free online admissions essay help course and 300 Harvard-educated editors, EssayEdge.com helps tens of thousands of student each year improve their essays and gain admission to law schools ranging from Harvard to State U.

Having personally edited over 2,000 admissions essays myself for EssayEdge.com, I have written this article to help you avoid the most common essay flaws. If you remember nothing else about this article, remember this: Be Interesting. Be Concise.

Why Do I Want to Be a Lawyer?

In the tired eyes of an admissions officer, nothing is more tedious than an essay that starts off, "I have always wanted to be a lawyer," and then cites a list of trite reasons. One obvious mistake is to focus on your parents\' experiences as lawyers without demonstrating any independent, mature thinking about your own goals. A less obvious, more common mistake is to write about how you want to help people. The fact is that most law school graduates, especially from the top schools, go on to work in the private sector. Law school admissions officers are well aware that most of their graduates will go on to seek financially rewarding careers, so applicants who mention clich\u00E9s about wanting to "improve society" usually sound disingenuous.

If you have a specific goal, such as working for a particular disadvantaged group that lacks advocates, then the situation is different: It\'s always good to showcase a unique, focused commitment. Even better would be if you had a track record of community service to back up your objectives. For example, you may have worked with handicapped people for several years, and this exposed you to certain injustices that you want to correct. The same approach would work for topics that are not about public service. For example, one might describe a background in science and connect this to current interests in intellectual property law.

How Am I Qualified to Be a Lawyer?

Unlike medical schools, which want to assess specific personal qualities in their applicants, law schools use academic achievement as the primary criterion in evaluating your ability to succeed in law. Thus, you need not be concerned if nothing in your essay directly addresses the issue of why you\'re qualified for a legal career. However, if you have substantive points to make within this area, you can certainly help your case.

It\'s most essential to discuss your background and qualifications when these overlap with your current goals. For example, you might discuss your interest in international law, tying it to a multicultural background or global work experiences. As always, the details you provide will make or break your discussion. But the strength of an "Experiences in Law" essay depends more than usual on the originality of your experience. The fact is that many people will have similar experiences and even perform the same level of duties. While such an essay can establish your competence, it will be unlikely to make you stand out. Less conventional experiences, however, are certainly worth highlighting.

TOP 10 LAW SCHOOL STATEMENT WRITING TIPS

1. Don't Write in Legalese.
As a prospective law student, you may be tempted to try to impress your reader with an already tight grasp of legal writing. Resist this temptation! You will have plenty of time to produce the labyrinthine sentences and sophisticated vocabulary for which legal briefs are famous. Your reader will have seen too many essays to appreciate bewilderingly advanced prose. Law schools are looking for unique individuals who want to learn about the law, not ready-made lawyers. Write clearly and personably.

2. Don't Bore the Reader. Do Be Interesting.
Admissions officers have to read hundreds of essays, and they must often skim. Abstract rumination has no place in an application essay. Admissions officers aren\'t looking for a new way to view the world; they\'re looking for a new way to view you, the applicant. The best way to grip your reader is to begin the essay with a captivating snapshot. Notice how the blunt, jarring "after" sentence creates intrigue and keeps the reader\'s interest.

Before: I am a compilation of many years of experiences gained from overcoming the relentless struggles of life.

After: I was six years old, the eldest of six children in the Bronx, when my father was murdered.

3. Do Use Personal Detail. Show, Don't Tell!
Good essays are concrete and grounded in personal detail. They do not merely assert "I learned my lesson" or that "these lessons are useful both on and off the field." They show it through personal detail. "Show, Don't tell" means that if you want to relate a personal quality, do so through your experiences without merely asserting it.

Before: If it were not for a strong support system which instilled into me strong family values and morals, I would not be where I am today.

After: Although my grandmother and I didn\'t have a car or running water, we still lived far more comfortably than did the other families I knew. I learned an important lesson: My grandmother made the most of what little she had, and she was known and respected for her generosity. Even at that age, I recognized the value she placed on maximizing her resources and helping those around her.

The first example is vague and could have been written by anybody. But the second sentence evokes a vivid image of something that actually happened, placing the reader in the experience of the applicant.

4. Do Be Concise. Don't Be Wordy.
Wordiness not only takes up valuable space, but also confuses the important ideas you\'re trying to convey. Short sentences are more forceful because they are direct and to the point. Certain phrases, such as "the fact that," are usually unnecessary. Notice how the revised version focuses on active verbs rather than forms of "to be" and adverbs and adjectives.

Before: My recognition of the fact that the project was finally over was a deeply satisfying moment that will forever linger in my memory.

After: Completing the project at last gave me an enduring sense of fulfillment.

5. Do Address Your Weaknesses. Don't Dwell on Them.
The personal statement may be your only opportunity to explain deficiencies in your application, and you should take advantage of it. Be sure to explain them adequately: "I partied too much to do well on tests" will not help your application. The best tactic is to spin the negatives into positives by stressing your attempts to improve; for example, mention your poor first-quarter grades briefly, then describe what you did to bring them up.

Before: My father encouraged me to go to _______ Law School, but I did not realize at the time that _______ Law School was not the law school I wanted to attend to obtain a legal education. I experienced both personal and academic problems, which affected my grades and my performance in law school.

After: Discontent with _______ Law School and my performance there, I withdrew and instead went on to attain a master\'s degree in Library and Information Science. But I have never abandoned my aspiration to become a lawyer. My work in the law library at _______ University has allowed me to learn more about the law, and now I plan to return to law school with renewed dedication.

6. Do Vary Your Sentences and Use Transitions.
The best essays contain a variety of sentence lengths mixed within any given paragraph. Also, remember that transition is not limited to words like nevertheless, furthermore or consequently. Good transition flows from the natural thought progression of your argument.

Before: I started playing piano when I was eight years old. I worked hard to learn difficult pieces. I began to love music.

After: I started playing the piano at the age of eight. As I learned to play more difficult pieces, my appreciation for music deepened.

7. Do Use Active Voice Verbs.
Passive-voice expressions are verb phrases in which the subject receives the action expressed in the verb. Passive voice employs a form of the word to be, such as was or were. Overuse of the passive voice makes prose seem flat and uninteresting.

Before: The lessons that have prepared me for my career as a lawyer were taught to me by my mother.

After: My mother taught me lessons that will prove invaluable in my career as a lawyer.

8. Do Seek Multiple Opinions.
Ask your friends and family to keep these questions in mind:

Does my essay have one central theme?
  • Does my introduction engage the reader? Does my conclusion provide closure?
  • Do my introduction and conclusion avoid summary?
  • Do I use concrete experiences as supporting details?
  • Have I used active-voice verbs wherever possible?
  • Is my sentence structure varied, or do I use all long or short sentences?
  • Are there any clich\u00E9s, such as "cutting-edge" or "learned my lesson"?
  • Do I use transitions appropriately?
  • What about the essay is memorable?
  • What\'s the worst part of the essay?
  • What parts of the essay need elaboration or are unclear?
  • What parts of the essay do not support my main argument?
  • Is every single sentence crucial to the essay? This must be the case.
  • What does the essay reveal about my personality?

  • 9. Don't Wander. Do Stay Focused.
    Many applicants try to turn the personal statement into a complete autobiography. Not surprisingly, they find it difficult to pack so much information into such a short essay, and their essays end up sounding more like a list of experiences than a coherent, well-organized thought. Make sure that every sentence in your essay exists solely to support one central theme.

    10. Do Revise, Revise, Revise.
    The first step in an improving any essay is to cut, cut, and cut some more. EssayEdge.com\'s free admissions essay help course and Harvard-educated editors will be invaluable as you polish your essay to perfection. The EssayEdge.com free help course guides you through the entire essay-writing process, from brainstorming worksheets and question-specific strategies for the twelve most common essay topics to a description of ten introduction types and editing checklists.

    My interest in the law began with donuts. As a child, I developed early persuasive skills during family disagreements on how to divide boxes of the treats. My parents belonged to the "the biggest people deserve the most donuts" school of thought; while as the youngest family member, I was a devout believer in the "one person, one donut" principle. The debates were often cutthroat, but when it came to donut distribution, I sought justice at any cost.

    As my family grew older and more health-conscious, we stopped eating donuts, and for many years I forgot our childhood debates. However, some recent life decisions have brought to mind those early explorations of justice. When I first arrived at the American International School of Rotterdam, I quickly learned that my colleagues were a diverse and talented group of people. Unsure of how to establish my own place among them, I tried phrases that had always worked to impress college friends. "When I work for the UN. " I told the second-grade teacher, and she answered with an erudite discussion of the problems she faced as a consultant for that organization. I told the kindergarten teacher, "When I\'m in law school. " only to hear about his own experiences in law school. By the time I discovered that even many grade-school students were better travelled than I, I learned to keep my mouth shut!

    Living alone in a new country, removed from familiar personal and cultural clues to my identity and faced with these extraordinary co-workers, I started to feel meaningless. How, I wondered, could I possibly make a difference in a place as vast as our planet? To my own surprise, I found that answer at church. Although I was raised in the Bah\u00E1\'\u00ED Faith, I have only recently understood the essential place that religion plays in my identity. Bah\u00E1\'\u00ED social beliefs include the need to work against extreme poverty, nationalism, and prejudice; and I now realize that I cannot hold those beliefs without doing something about them. My identity rests on these convictions; I cannot see the need for help and just move on. I have to help; it\'s who I am.

    The lessons I\'ve learned from my international colleagues have channeled my desire for service into the field of international development. I still wish to fight the "\'Biggest Get the Most\' Theory of Donut Distribution," but now on an international scale.

    About EssayEdge.com - EssayEdge.com offers all users free access to the most extensive Admissions Essay Help Course on the Internet and over 300 Free Sample Admissions Essays accepted by the United States' top undergraduate, graduate, and professional programs. Named "the world's premier application essay editing service" by the New York Times Learning Network and "one of the best essay services on the Internet" by the Washington Post.

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    Реферат - Performance Appraisel Essay Research Paper PERFORMANCE APPRAISALPerformance - Иностранный язык

    Performance Appraisel Essay, Research Paper

    PERFORMANCE APPRAISALPerformance appraisal is defines as evaluating an employee s current and past performance relative to his or her performance standards.Appraisal process:1. Setting work standards2. Assessing the employees actual performance relative to these standards3. Providing feedback to employee with aim at motivating that person to eliminate performance deficiencies or to continue to perform above parWhy appraise performance:1. Appraisal provide information upon which promotion and salary decisions can be made (administrative purpose)2. Provide opportunity for you and your subordinate to review subordinate work-related behaviour, correct any deficiencies + reinforce the things being done right. 3. Career-planning process: provides an opportunity to review the persons career plans in light of his/her strengths and weaknesses.4. Overall help better manage and improve your organization s performance.The supervisor does the appraisal, help and advise from HR departmentAPPRAISAL METHODSGraphic Rating Scale Method:Most simple and most popular technique.A scale that lists a number of traits (ex. Quality and reliability) and a range of performance for each. The employee is than rated by identifying the score that best describes his or her level of performance for each trait. The assigned values (ex from unsatisfactory to outstanding) for the traits are then totalled. Alternative ranking methodRanking employees from best to worst on a particular trait, choosing highest, then lowest until all are ranked. Usually easier to distinguish between the worst and best employees, difficult to distinguish employees rated in the middle.Paired Comparison MethodRanking employees by making a chart of all possible pairs of the employees for each trait and indicating which is the better employee. Can only be used in small organizations.Forced Distribution MethodSimilar to grading on the curve, predetermined percentage of rates are placed in various performance categories. Critical Incident MethodKeeping a record of uncommonly good or undesirable examples of an employee s work related behaviour and reviewing it with the employee at predetermined time. Advantage: provides specific hard examples of good and bad performance though out the year so performance is not only based on recent performance. Disadvantage: not useful in evaluating salary, promotion etc.Narrative Forms1. rate the employee s performance for each performance factor or skill. 2. to write down critical examples and an improvement plan designed to aid the employee in understanding where his or her performance was good or bad, and for improving that performance. Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)An appraisal method that aims at combining the benefits of narrative critical incidents and quantified ratings by anchoring a quantified scale with specific narrative examples of good and poor performance. 5 steps:1. Generate critical incidents. Persons who know the job being appraised (jobholders and/or supervisors) are asked to describe specific illustrations (critical incidents) of effective and ineffective performance.2. Develop performance dimensions. These people then cluster the incidents into a smaller set of performance dimensions.3. Reallocate incidents. Another group of people who also know the job then reallocate the original critical incidents. They are given the clusters definition and the critical incidents and are asked to reassign each incident to the cluster they think it fits best.4. Scale the incidents. This second group is generally asked to rate the behaviour described in the incident as to how effectively or ineffectively it represents performance on the appropriate dimension. 5. Develop final instrument. A subset of incidents is used a behavioural anchors for each dimension. Advantages: 1. A more accurate gauge.2. Clearer standards3. Feedback4. Independent dimensions5. ConsistencyThe Management by Objectives Method (MBO)Involves setting specific measurable goals with each employee and then periodically reviewing the progress made.6 steps:1. Set the organizations goals2. Set department goals3. Discuss department goals. Department heads discuss the goals with subordinates and ask them to develop individual goals, how can each employee contribute to department goals.4. Define expected results (set individual goals). Department heads and their subordinates set short term performance targets.5. Performance reviews, Measure the result. Compare the actual performance or subordinates with expected results.6. Provide feedback.Problem: 1) setting unclear goals. 2) time consuming. 3) subordinates and heads has to agree on the subordinates goals (subordinate: low vs. head: high)APPRAISAL PROBLEMSUnclear standardsAn appraisal scale that is too open to interpretation, instead include descriptive phrases that define each trait and what is meant by standards like good and unsatisfactory .Halo effectIn performance appraisal, the problem that occurs when a supervisor s rating of a subordinate on one trait biases the rating of that person on other trait. Halo effect has been defined as the influence of a rater s general impression on ratings of specific ratee qualities. Central TendencyA tendency to rate all employees the same way, such as rating them all average.Leniency or strictnessThe problem that occurs when a supervisor has a tendency to rate all subordinates either high or low.

    BiasIndividual differences among rates in terms of characteristics like age, race and sex can affect their ratings, often apart from each ratee s actual performance. How to avoid appraisal problems:1) Understand the above problems2) Choose the right appraisal tool3) Train supervisors to eliminate errors4) Diary keepingSee table 9-3 page 341 for similarities and difference in the appraisal tools. Legal issues page 342Who should do the appraising?1. Appraisal by the immediate supervisor. 2. Using peer appraisals. 3. Rating committees. Rated by immediate supervisor plus 3-4 other supervisors4. Self-ratings. 5. Appraisal by subordinates upward feedback.How to conduct the appraisal interview.1. Be direct and specific. Objective data, 2. Don t get personal, 3. Encourage the person to talk, 4. Don t tiptoe aroundCOMPENSATION Employees compensation: All forms of rewards going to employees and arising from their employment. Direct payments such as wages, salaries, commissions etc. Indirect payments such as employer-paid insurance and vacations.Establishing pay rates:1. Conduct the Salary Survey. (to help ensure external equity) A survey aimed at determining prevailing wage rates. A good salary survey provides specific wage rates for specific jobs. 2. Determine the worth of each job (internal equity) Job evaluation: A systematic comparison done in order to determine the worth of one job relative to another. Ranking method: The simplest method of job evaluation that involves ranking each job relative to all other jobs, usually based on overall difficulty. Job classification: Jobs are categorized into groups. The groups are called classes if they contain similar jobs or grades if they contain jobs that are similar in difficulty but otherwise different. Classes: Dividing jobs into classes based on a set of rules for each class, such as amount of independent judgement, skill, effort etc. required for each class of jobs. Classes usually contain similar jobs all secretaries etc. Point method: The job evaluation method in which a number of compensable factors are identified and then the degree to which each of these factors is present on the job is determined.Factor comparison method: A widely used method of ranking jobs according to a variety of skill and difficulty factors, then adding up these rankings to arrive at an overall numerical rating for each given job. 3. Group similar jobs into pay grades. A pay grade is comprised of jobs of approximately equal difficulty. 4. Price each pay grade wage curves, shows the relationship between the value of the job and the average wage paid for this job. 5. Fine tune pay rates. Current trends in compensationSkill based pay: With competency or skill based pay, you are paid for the range, depth and types of skills and knowledge you are capable of using rather then for the job you currently hold. LAWFair labor standards act. To provide minimum wages, maximum hours, overtime pay, and child labor protection. Equal pay act. ERISA Employee Retirement Income Security Act. The law that provides government protection of pensions for all employees with company pension plans. It also regulates vesting rights (employees who leave before retirement may claim compensation from the pension plan). Compensating managers1. base salary2. short term incentives (designed to reward managers for attaining short term goals- cash or stock)3. long term incentives (rewarding the person for long term performance stock options)4. executive benefits and perks. (time off with pay, health care, employee services, retirement)Chapter 12: Pay for performanceSpot bonus: A spontaneous incentive awarded to individuals for accomplishments not readily measured by a standard.Variable pay: Any plan that ties pay to productivity or profitability usually as one time lump payments.Piecework plans:Piecework: A system of pay based on the number of items processed by each individual worker in a unit of time, such as items per hour or items per day.Straight piecework plan: Under this pay system each worker receives a set payment for each piece produced or processed in a factory or shop.Guaranteed piecework plan: The minimum hourly wage plus an incentive for each piece produced above a set number of pieces per hour. Advantage by piece plan: simple to calculate and understand by employees. Disadvantages: problem when raising production standards, when attempt is made to revise production standards, it meets considerable worker resistance, even if the change is fully justified. Standard Hour Plan: A plan by which a worker is paid a basic hourly rate but is paid an extra percentage of his or her base rate for production exceeding the standard per hour or per day. Similar to piecework payment only based on a percent premium. Team or group incentive plan: A plan in which a production standard is set for a specific work group, and its members are paid incentives if the group exceeds the production standard.Annual bonus: Plans that are designed to motivate short term performance of managers and are tied to company profitabilityCapital accumulation programs: Long term incentives most often reserved for senior executives. Six popular plans include stock options, stock appreciation rights, performance achievement plans, restricted stock plans, etc. Merit pay (merit rate): Any salary increase awarded to an employee based on his or her individual performance. Profit sharing plan: A plan whereby most employees share in the company s profit. Scanlon plan: 1. philosophy of cooperation 2. identity 3. Competence 4. involvement system 5. sharing of benefits formula. +

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