Jun 22, 2015. Powell's latest book Terrorists at the Table Why Negotiating is The Only Way. because of conflicting vested interests prior to their conclusion.
Nov 22, 2010. Is terrorism as much of a threat as it is perceived to be. The aim of this essay is to provide, at the very least, a basic definition of terrorism and its. In order to reach a conclusion, an examination of security and the different.
Robert A. Pape, Dying to Win The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism New. Inclusion or exclusion of a few events can thus shape the conclusions that.
Bin Laden viewed his terrorism as a prologue to a caliphate he did not expect to. to the Islamic State—just as uncompromising, but with opposite conclusions.
International Relations Essays - Terrorism Definition Solutions - Terrorism. Finally, a conclusion discussing the results of the literaturereview will be presented.
Dec 22, 2007. In this essay I will argue that torture is always morally wrong. Turner, 2005 15 Thus Kant's logic leads to the conclusion that torture cannot. Dershowitz, A. M. 'Why Terrorism Works Understanding the Threat, Responding.
The main aim of this essay is to arrive at the conclusion that media and terrorism are intrinsically linked and need each other to function. While the use of media.conclusion on terrorism essay
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Terrorism and Globalization: Is Terrorism a Part of Globalization. The intent of this paper is to discuss terrorism and globalization and to find out whether or not terrorism is a part of globalization. Does globalization breed terrorism; is it a means for the survival of terrorism. Counter arguments, if any, will also be addressed. Egoryan"s proposal is based on examples, the following is his argument:"[an] example of Within Continental Globalization procedure is the creation of the Roman empire, when Rome spread the norms of his life in conquered areas/provinces/.2. Terrorism
This essay will discuss the past and present of Terrorism. From the Jewish Zealots of the 1st Century committing incidents of terrorism against the Romans to Hitler"s Germany"s committing atrocities against the people to the acts of terrorism that Ireland"s IRA commit(ed) against the British Government to the ultimate act of Terrorism on the World Trade Centre, Terrorism has always existed. (Terrorism, pg 42)In 1974 Yasser Arafat came to the conclusion that "international" terrorism was not helping the cause. (The Terrorism Reader, pg 89)Indeed then it can be said that terrorism has ha.3. Arguing Terrorism
But to first do this one must be educated on the topic of terrorism, the terrorists groups involved in terrorist attacks, the past of terrorism, and the present and future of terrorism. Ultimately the way we live our lives is at stake due to terrorism. Terrorism is an anti-democratic, anti-law life style and the freedoms Americans have makes them susceptible to terrorist attacks, which is the main argument, America"s weak spot, and a good reason why the government should establish a national ID card system to keep potential terrorists out of our country. A Chicago psychotherapis.4. The Terror of Terrorism
In the paper, "The Terrorism of "Terrorism"aE, written by Tomis Kapitan, the use of the word "terrorismaE as a form of labeling is analyzed into depth. Firstly, it intensifies the fear of citizens affected by the terrorism. Fourthly, those who use terrorism as a label and do nothing to understand the cause of their actions bring more terrorism. After every argument made, there were examples to back it up. The issues that bothered me did not exactly have a lot to do with the argument, but it had something to do with what is expected in the world.5. The World's Response to Terrorism
The concerns about terrorism are providing an argument to change Americans' relationships with their firearms. It seems that social networking has also become a facilitator of terrorism. But the biggest fear he describes is nuclear terrorism. For example, could the fear of terrorism instigate terrorism itself. Other hateful use of terrorism is included through Facebook.6. Terrorism
Terrorism is becoming more and more of a threat to Americans worldwide. The message had to be clear and on Thursday, September 20, 2001, President Bush delivered it: We will pursue you, if you're a terrorist and/or "provide aid or safe haven to terrorism. The New York Times editorial "Afghanistan" specifies another argument pro diplomatic intervention to this crisis. The Bush Administration also contemplated the drawbacks from taking a diplomatic position towards terrorism. In addition, the question still remains; will annihilating the al-Qaeda organization bring an end to.7. Taking Sides Issue #13
I will be reviewing two sides to this argument. Benjamin Netanyahu is for war on terrorism, and Bill Christison is against it. Without support, state terrorism would fall apart, because there would be no one there to supply or protect the terrorists. He explains what he think are the root causes of terrorism. The U.S. and it"s drive to spread American influence and the version of big-corporation and free globalization around the world.I agree with both their arguments however, I am for Netanyahu side.8. international terrorism
It is said to be the worst act of terrorism in the United States since the Second World War. The United States blame Osama bin Laden for these attacks, but so far, no group or leader admitted this act of terrorism. Terrorism can never be an effective tool to improve anybody"s situation: all it does is to cause even more suffering. Pointing out to books, which have been written thousands of years ago, is not a valid argumentation. I am aware of the fact, that terrorism can never be stopped completely.9. Argumentative Essay - Mass-Transit Terrorism
You might think that terrorism only takes place in a busy airport but the truth is its all around you. Terrorism comes in all forms and you can never be sure where it is or when it is. I think it's a false argument to say we have to give up all of our personal privacy in order to have security," Experts agree that it is a huge issue and we need to change it fast.10. Terrorism
The central notion of terrorism is that violence defines power. The argument of Kant against the notion of terrorism appears well demonstrated by the philosopher"s view of world order and collective governmental responsibility as an extension of man"s movement away from a state of being in nature. Terrorism as a segment of collective action can be supported by Utilitarian arguments. This argument supports the central basis of terrorist actions as an extension of religious necessity. Although, it does not appear that Mill had dire cases in mind, it's in specifically tho.11. Social And Political Bases Of Terrorism
Social and political bases of terrorismIt is important to keep in mind what constitutes the social and political bases of terrorism differ depending what philosophy is being advocated. The type of reform is strongly influenced by the groups" social or political agenda(s), its ideology and the decision whether or not to use terrorism as a modifier. Reform is the social and political premise of terrorism. This brief essay does not claim to do justice to the complexities of terrorism or its psychologies, but to rather attempt to state the argument that, reform is the social and political prem.12. Human Beings Are Inherent Evil
An individual human being faces this argument everywhere, not only in the Bible, stories, and newspapers, but even within himself. Nowadays, peoples all over the world are suffering much more threats from terrorism and war, evil seems to be back on the upswing. Today, the threat of terrorism and war reminds us again that if we lose the capability of self-control, we would destroy ourselves finally.13. Iraq As A Threat
Iraq as a ThreatWhat is argumentation? Argumentation is defined as; a process of making arguments intended to justify beliefs, attitudes, and values so as to influence others. A perfect example of argumentation or an argument occurred on 10/7/02 at 8:02pm, when President George Bush outlined the Iraqi threat and argued that action is necessary. He states, "(Iraq) possesses and produces chemical and biological weapons. seeking nuclear. shelter and support to terrorism. practices terrorism. aE This is a perfect example of factual evidence in that it cites violations to previou.14. Politics
Cynthia deals with a few different arguments in one passage. I do not know if it is possible to say that her argument is both good and bad but I think some aspects of her argument are good and some very bad. The last point that I analyzed about Cynthia"s argument is her claim that this "War on Terrorism,aE is a gateway of rights" violation. People of a certain ethnic group carried out attacks against U.S.These same groups of people"s rights have been violated since the war on terrorism began. Cynthia McKinney"s first argument is unsound because the premise is true and con.15. Cynthia Mckinney
Cynthia deals with a few different arguments in one passage. I do not know if it is possible to say that her argument is both good and bad but I think some aspects of her argument are good and some very bad. The last point that I analyzed about Cynthia"s argument is her claim that this "War on Terrorism,aE is a gateway of rights" violation. People of a certain ethnic group carried out attacks against U.S.These same groups of people"s rights have been violated since the war on terrorism began. Cynthia McKinney"s first argument is unsound because the premise is true and con.16. War Alliances
The alliances formed in World War 1 and the War against terrorism are different because they were formed for different reasons. This was bound to happen because when you create alliances like the Europeans did an argument between two countries could bring in a host of other countries and nations like it did. We are forming alliances to eliminate terrorism and terrorist around the world. That is the major differences between the war on terrorism and World War 1. The alliances we have in the new w.17. a critique of Valls' examinati
The central question that Andrew Valls attempts to answer is weather terrorism can be justified. I am in agreement with his conclusion but my defense of his argument relies on acceptance of his definition of terrorism, which seems to me rather broad.Valls defines terrorism as political violence done to persons or property committed by nonstate actors. Of course if this provision were added, it would weaken his argument by disqualifying many cases of nonstate violence. This principle only strengthens Valls" argument. It can be concluded that the argument that Valls presents.18. Rhetorical Essay: Flailing After Muslims
There is nothing wrong with the relentless investigation of terrorism. The use of words such as "intensify" "overheated", and "terrorism" creates tension for Herbert's audience, which makes the argument seem more believable. As the Triangle Center on Terrorism and Homeland Security is known to be as America's effort of preventing terrorism, it shows to be a trustworthy source. Or do we want to stop terrorism?". In addition, the argument becomes illogical when he started to mention the freedom of religion and stopping terrorism because it is appealing to this fallacy.19. The New Face of Domestic Terrorism
Barnett's solid thesis is a rational and plausible argument; countries high in globalization such as England, the United States, other European parties, Japan and China are susceptible to the phenomenon of emergence of domestic terrorism. Domestic terrorism in America has increased exponentially in the last 18 years, with the first sign of an emerging domestic terrorism occurring on April 9, 1995, with the Oklahoma City bombing tragedy. Since 1995, the number of incidents of domestic terrorism have increased significantly. A recent act of domestic terrorism occurred in April, 2013 w.20. Analyzing John Kerry's Speech
Analyzing John Kerry's speech "Fighting a Comprehensive War on Terrorism"John Kerry speech, "Fighting a Comprehensive War on TerrorismaE, may be seen as an art of his campaign for the forthcoming elections in the country. Apart from arguing on his point of view regarding war on terrorism by Bush Administration, one can see good use of speech techniques displayed throughout the text to convey his message to the audience. That argument obviously has no appeal logically, just as the little crimes committed by those people have no linkage to the 9/11 destruction. After readin.21. Identify and critically introduce major terrorist groups in
One of the greatest changes in the recent trends is that terrorism is by no means militants" only strategy. Terrorism has been defined as the threatened violence intended to spread panic in a society, to weaken or even overthrow present monarchy or leaders and to bring about political change (www.foerignaffairs.org ). To support the argument above, experts say the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, for example, were designed to provide billions of television viewers with pictures symbolizing U.S. vulnerability, and they prompted extensive reporting on al-Qaeda and its.22. War on Iraq
The attacks on America caused a fear of terrorism that had to be dealt with. Although arguments can be made about the reasons why we should not have been involved, I strongly feel that it was the right action taken. By this the President meant that terrorism would not be tolerated. We must remember that this was a war inspired by a war on terrorism. But we also have for our argument that Saddam was corrupt.23. Patriot Act
The day terrorism reached our shores. Terrorism could no longer be ignored. We understand how potentially crippling terrorism is. One week to pass Uniting and Securing America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act. h- Senator Russ Feingold, Statement on the Anti-Terrorism Bill (Oct. 25, 2002)The Uniting and Securing America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act, or USA PATRIOT Act, grants the federal government new, obstructive surveillance capabilities.24. 9/11 - What Else it Taught Us
Leon Neyfakh, an esteemed writer for the Boston Globe, in his article, "9/11: What Else it Taught Us" (2011), argues that the September 11th attacks changed America, claiming that terrorism has altered America's psyche in multiple ways. His purpose is to inform readers about the current state of America and its people, even years after the initial attacks in order to illustrate the lasting effects that terrorism in the early 2000s has had on us as a whole. Ethos coincides with pathos in this paper, which ultimately makes a more operative argument. I feel like if Neyfakh included a.25. Terrorism
Some arguments in favor of closing our borders to immigrants are strong and persuasive. Therefore, the only way to protect our citizens is to close our borders to all people in an attempt to, "root out terrorism and assure our homeland securityaE (Cahill, 2).
Below is an essay on "Terrorism" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.
What is terrorism? Terrorism is violence or the use of violence used to achieve a political goal. This means anyone could be, or become a terrorist. Disbelieving it is, but it is the truth. Not saying that your next door neighbor is a terrorist, but the true definition of one could make anyone a terrorist. Even if it seems that a lot of the reports or terrorist acts come from groups in the Middle East. Does not mean people can assume that everyone from the Middle East is in fact a terrorist. Just because you look different from somebody, or their beliefs or somewhat different from your own, should not make you scared to meet them or have a simple conversation with them. Those people who you are making fun of, or claiming them as a “terrorist”, those people have feelings too.
Another definition of a terrorist is someone who achieves something out of fear, and unlawfully. A possible cause to terrorism is poverty and living in a small income area. Someone who belief’s that America is selfish and doesn’t try to help is Osama Bin Laden; he is the leader of the Terrorist group named Al-Qaeda. This Terrorist organization is cruel and does anything in their power to gain more of that power. Bin laden was the one who orchestrated the 9/11 attacks.
How should Americans react to a terrorist attack? People in America should take an attack where ever it happens seriously, whether it happens in America or not. It sad whether it happens to a fellow country man or someone from another country. But you also have to understand the terrorist mind set. There doing this stuff because they want change and they want people to listen to what they have to say. So in some aspect you don’t blame them, but it’s not the best way to solve the problems of the world, like poverty or world hunger. So in conclusion, the terrorist act in change, and trying to scare people in to getting that change. They are fighting to get what this personally think is.
Bruce Riedel offers a comprehensive look at the evolution of terrorism in the 21st century. Riedel outlines major terrorist activities over the past decade and.
Free Essays on Information Technology And The Effects On Global Terrorism. Get help with your writing. 1 through 30
Terrorism, an issue that plagues our world every minute of everyday. You never know when or where a terrorist organization is going to strike. All groups
Essay, term paper research paper on Terrorism. Steroids Technology Term Papers Terrorism The Great Gatsby Theater Theology Tourism Tutorial US Politics Violence.
Technology term papers paper 12827 on Information Terrorism The introduction of the computer has created a new type of terrorism known as informational terrorism.
Future Trends in Terrorism As a conflict method that has survived and evolved through several millennia to flourish in the modern information age, terrorism continues.
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Terrorism and Border Security
There different governments counter terrorism groups, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has its own counter terrorism wing, Central Intelligence Agency (C.I.A) has its own counter intelligence unit and even the United States Customs and Border Protection are usually involved in counter terrorism operations. To my understanding counter terrorism is an offensive strategy which helps in preventing broader conflicts by the successful use of terrorism tactic (Ishmael, 2010). This should be differentiated from anti-terrorism which is "Defensive measures used to reduce the vulnerability of individuals and property to terrorist acts, to include limited response and containment by local military and civilian forces " while at the same time counter terrorism is simply "a set of techniques used to deny an opponent mostly an enemy the use of terrorism based tactics ". The long Israeli-Palestine conflict is a good example of conflict where participants have used "anti-and counter-terrorism in order to limit the opponents use of terror tactics ( Kuriansky, & Judy, 2006).
Counter terrorism Systems
In terms of dimensions, the capacity of counter terrorism systems is very large since it involves covering long range borders which have to be patrolled plus high volumes of traffic in the cities. In creating these counter terrorism systems other factors like terrorism threats, legal issues, and political plus diplomatic channels have to be considered. With these factors in mind, creating this system is a very hard and challenging task. Correct continuous intelligence and surveillance will be needed thus creating such a system should be a major "Technological project" which should be able to detect and protect against such threats and also play by the rule ( Kuriansky, & Judy, 2006). The hardest part of this system is predicting where, when and what type of terrorism will be taking place and this been the case the threat levels may increase or decrease. With new requirements either technical or legal arising every day, creating a counter terrorism system that work perfectly is very hard. Hence this system has to be able to plan, detect and neutralize any possible threat (James, 2009).
Counter Terrorism Measures
In order to make counter terrorism a working mechanism, different measurement have to be put in place to ensure that counter terrorism is a success and not a failure. Some of these measurements have been a huge success in the fight against terrorism while some of the measurements have come under a lot of criticisms and backlash especially from the human rights groups around the globe (James, 2009). For this fight against terror to be a success we will realizes how cooperation and sharing of information between agencies is vital in making the counter terrorism mechanisms work. Below we will be looking unto how these measurement have been put in place and have aided the governments agencies involved in the fight against terrorism do their work efficiently.
The Patriot Act and Related Law s
Even before the September 11 attacks, the United States federal law supported sanctions of any persons or organization who had been found to have provided any form of support 'either material or financial' to terrorism. By signing of the Patriot Act by President George Bush into law it granted the federal government more power to fight terrorism and terrorist sponsoring organizations. Through the Patriot act the federal law now has the power to impose fines and even imprison any persons who has provided support to terrorism intentionally or knowingly. Material support can be, weapons: this involves guns, missiles, bombs and grenades, tactical and technical support (James, 2009). If any of these materials are to be used by any Foreign Terrorist Organization or individuals performing terrorist activities one shall be deemed to have supported terrorism.
With the passing of the Patriot act into law the federal law got a major boost in that "financing of terrorism" was criminalized. These new provisions has the power to punish any persons who provide funds that knowingly were or are used to support Foreign Terrorist Organizations to carry out their terrorist activities. One failure of this counter terrorism measure is that grant makers may be faced with legal suits since they are not accountable for the funds they decide to provide to organizations. By the Patriot act providing "a civil cause of action against those who provide material or financial support for terrorism" organizations that depended on grants to run their activities have had to run out of funds due to the fear of accountability when it comes to terrorism. Other related Laws involve the Executive Order which aid the Federal government in its fight against terrorism function properly.
Embargoes and Trade Sanctions
Even before the September 11 terrorist attacks on the United States soil, trade sanctions has been the greatest weapon available to the United States in its fight against terrorism. With specific provisions varying embargoes have been extensive enough encompassing grants to non-profit organizations that can provide the transfer of goods and services to the "embargoed countries". At the same time enforcements have been increased to an extent that those who violate these set sanctions cannot be overlooked. Any persons who violate these set U.S embargoes shall be subjected to criminal penalties that are unless the activities felled under emergency relief and the transaction of information materials. During special situations or circumstances one is required to get a license from the Department of Commerce or the Treasury (James, 2009).
The IRS is the main organization in the US that is allowed to collect taxes from the country's citizens. Any diversion of "charitable assets to any charitable purpose inform of materials or finance in support of terrorism " is prohibited under the US tax laws. When this law is violated the charity organization risks its tax exemption status been revoked. After the Tax Code was amended in 2003 by the congress, any charity organization used to sponsor terrorism can be automatically suspended and face Civil and Criminal suits (Marc, 2004). The only failure of this form of counter terrorism measurement has not been changed or amended to meet the new measures aimed at fighting terrorism.
Treasury Guidelines - "Voluntary Best Practices"
These guidelines were set by the US Treasury Department in order to assist the nonprofit organization plus the grant makers comply with the Patriot Act and the Executive Order. These guideline help set out how internationally foundations are organized and must have an anti terrorism financing structure. The major setback with these guidelines does not have the power of law and the Department of Treasury can do nothing to those organizations which do not comply. Unlike the IRS rules and the Patriot Act where persons and organization can lose their assets, lose tax exemption and even face criminal liability the Treasury Guidelines cannot guarantee to this form of action against violators (Marc, 2004).
However, they do offer insightful info into government's interpretation of other Rules of Law provided in the constitution and its fight against terrorism regardless of parties involved. These guidelines have four sections which mainly deal with financing procedures and dealing with counter terrorism though they have proved to be more controversial and challenging (Marc, 2004). These guidelines propose that international active foundations and nonprofit organizations should attempt to comply with these programs which meet the set Federal laws.
Border Security and Counter Terrorism
Physical materials like drugs and diamonds have generated a lot of finance for Foreign Terrorist Organizations which in turn have been used in sponsoring terrorism. The country's borders have been used as an entry point to smuggle these drugs and blood diamonds which have been for a long time find their way to the black markets thus posing a great danger to the country's internal security. The Mexico United States border has been the major entry point of the terrorist groups who have been using drug money to fund their activities (Marc, 2004). The war against terrorism and its connection to the Mexico drug lords has cost the government more than $115 million in the year 2009-2010 in order to combat these activities.
Through these borders, government agencies have had to take strong measures in order to prevent movement of individuals thought to be terrorists. Different mechanisms have been employed to strengthen border controls; this involves frequent and continuous border patrols, controls on how identification papers and travelling document are been issued to. This has seen a reduction in the rate at which forgery and counterfeit papers are been produced and used by illegal immigrants some who are thought to be terrorist. At the same time while ensuring that asylum seekers and refugees are not denied their legitimate right to cross in to the US, government agencies are under high alert to ensure such individuals with intention to participate in any act of terrorism do not take advantage of such international laws granting refugees right to enter the US.
Border Security and Counter Terrorism Measures
There several reasons as to why the war against terrorism has a long a way to go before the government can say it has won the war against terrorism (Amy, 2007). Below is a list of reason as to why the government agencies have not been able to effectively implement the counter terrorism measures and border security;
Lack of Cooperation From Other Agencies
The CIA Counter Terrorism Intelligence organization is mandated with duty and responsibilities of providing sufficient intelligence as to when terrorist attacks may take place. Due to jurisdiction and technicalities difference between these two agencies it has created no good working environment for both teams, leading to the intelligence organ denying the other intelligence support about terrorism (Ishmael, 2010). This un-harmonized working relationship has made it hard for the Federal Bureau of Investigation to implement most important counter terrorism measures thus failing to guarantee the nations safety against terror attacks. Without strengthened internal cooperation among the government agencies and services the counter terrorism units cannot win the war against terrorism (Ishmael, 2010).
Availability of Sophisticated Technology
Foreign terrorist organizations with the use of latest available technologies have been able to know their anti terrorism counterpart's logistics thus making them capable of beating the traps set for them. Terrorist groups have been able to scan military and police scanner thus giving them an edge in determining their where bouts and what they are planning (James, 2009). Only by cutting the terrorist link with the availability of sophisticated technologies to them then and thus can the counter terrorism measurement undertaken be able to function properly (Diana, 2002).
This is the major reason why counter terrorism measurements cannot be easily implemented by the F.B.I. The constitution fifth and fourth amendment's guarantees every civilian whether a citizen or not of the United States a protection of his rights. Measures created by the Counter Terrorism unit to tighten security have been seen as a violation of human rights and abuse of power (Judith, 2010). Examples of these measures are the detention of persons without judicial review, extraditions of people from their countries, subjection to torture and including prolonged detention. In 2003 a lot of human rights alarms rang after Mr. Maher Arar a Syrian claimed to be tortured by in the Syrian prisons after been handed over by the US authorities (Ishmael, 2010). The Malaysian human rights claimed that the 100 alleged militants were been hold unfairly without trials. Further example is when "China used the war on terror to justify its policies in the predominantly Muslim Xinjiang Uighur Region to stifle Uighur identity". These examples of measurements undertaken have been under a lot of scrutiny thus making the implementation of anti terror measures by the FBI to be hard job for them.
Most people will argue that violation of such magnitude can aggravate terror rather than counter terrorist threats. With suggestions by the Amnesty International that respecting human security can help the government to gain security. With combating terrorism international efforts and resources have been used to enhance cooperation and human rights activists 'wanting the inclusion of human rights protection as a crucial element in that cooperation'. As they argue that failing to respect human rights in one state may lead in undermining the fight against terrorism in another state. Thus it should be noted that human rights have no borders or boundary (James, 2009).
The advance in technology has provided terrorist networks with new electronic and wire communication systems to carry out their activities without been detected by the governments counter terrorism agency(Ishmael, 2010). This lead to the responsible government agencies finding means which play by the national laws and human rights laws to counteract such form of criminal activity. The counter terrorism agencies need to assume efficient domestic laws and regulations that can govern illegal manufacture, trade and transportation of firepower and explosives that can cause aggressive injuries and damages on innocent civilians when used in terrorist activities. At the same time a need to review and amend homeland counter terrorism laws in order any one found to be involved in such activities can be well punished.
Persons involved in participation, planning and preparation of terror activities should be able to be brought to justice. These agencies should be allowed to be capable to place sanctions on organizations found to providing any form of support to the terrorist groups. The truth been that terrorist pose a great danger against today's world's peace and without terrorism been properly counteracted a peacefully world shall never be witnessed in the coming years. Lastly, in order to win the war against terrorism consultations, cooperation's among different nation's agencies should be ensured. With this the government will be well capable of accessing important data and communication linked to terrorist while at the same time protecting all legitimate form of communications (Marc, 2004).Buy Counter Terrorism essay paper online Related essays
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Published: 23, March 2015
The United States of America law defines terrorism as predominated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents” (U.S. Code Title 22, Ch.38, Para 2656f (d). Hoffman has defined a terrorist act as an act of violence vested upon a given people so as to attract the attention of the opponents and the general public which is followed by communication of a message from the terrorists (Hoffman 2003, p. 118). A terrorist Group on the other hand is a group of people which indulges in international terrorism. On the other hand mass media can be defined as any form of communication that is reaching a large and heterogeneous audiences, it may include the use of Television, Radio, the internet, or written literature such as books, flayers, newspapers, periodicals and magazines. The terrorist groups have employed the use of mass media as one of their most effective approaches to scaring the citizens to comply with the terrorist demands; U.S citizens have also not been spared.
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Among the most renowned terrorist groups of the world is the Al Qaeda. The U.S States department considers the Al Qaeda a leading terrorist group that has been very active in the last five years. The group which was started by Osama bin Laden has been operational from late 1980's. The group aims a establishing a pan-caliphate in the entire world through working with allies Islamic extremist groups in the endeavor to overthrow the non Islamic regimes in the west as well as eliminating non-Muslims in Islamic states (Hellman 2010, para. 3).
The new archetype of terrorism is partly an outcome of a sudden development in information technology, particularly evident in the fact that terrorist groups have recognized the value mass media has on the execution of their aims. It has been noted that between mass media and terrorism there is a very interactive or symbiotic relationship; this is because media industry's patterns and trends for media contents making head towards preference of impression seeking contents, while terrorist organizations can, owing to their actions, make sure that they get the maximum attention of the media. In so doing, terrorist organizations such as the Al Qaeda are constantly trying to maneuver and exploit free media for their own use. Yes we may conclude that it's the mass media that provide global reach to terrorist groups since it influences the manner in which the public perceives terrorism and hazards that arise from it, it influences political verdicts used to act in response to terrorism, but also the dealings formed through countrywide and international politics. Nevertheless, media does not have to turn out to be an instrument of terrorism as Al Qaeda has been using the media. Through a considerate approach the media can be used as a kind of weapon which can then be used as an imperative device in overpowering terrorists, and the constructive benefits certainly exceed adverse consequences that results from irresponsible actions by a part of media companies and journalists (Perešin 2007 p. 1-3).
Despite the massive resources that the U.S government has employed in attempt to combat terrorism after the September 11th attack, the primary terrorist target; Al Qaeda has mutated becoming more dangerous. Al Qaeda today has ceased to be perceived as an organization or a net work of networks, but by leveraging new technological and information and communication approaches Al Qaeda has been transformed by its stakeholders to a social movement which makes its virulent ideologies accessible to the entire world through the internet (Brachman, 2006 p. 149-151).
The Al Qaeda has been very effective in the use of the internet to threaten the citizens of the United States, the employ very high technologies to track the citizens' personal information. The group uses this information to siphon money from the subject. Combating of the internal working of the groups becomes even more complex for the victims are threatened not to betray the subject to the authorities otherwise they will be in for trouble (Brachman 2006, 149-151). The Al Qaeda uses the internet in dissemination of propaganda, training materials and educating its members. They also identify information of the opposition groups such as the government and exploit it for their own benefit.
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Today every terrorism activity is given the first priority over the media coverage. If the Al Qaeda sends a message either by video tape, internet, TV or radios people will not have peace until they get to know ‘what are the demands this time around' and where is the terrorist's target? (Soriano 2008, p. 1-20). The use of the media by terrorist group has been successful in manipulating the activities of the citizens. No one is willing to place his/her life at stake hoping that the information was just but a threat, the citizens are not willing to jeopardize their lives in the hope that the government will take care of the situation. After the various threats to the U.S government and the fateful hit of 11th September 2001 not many citizens will bet their lives on the government's protection.
The news coverage by the media on many events takes just some key events hence people are never fully informed of what takes place but when it comes to a terrorism attack, most Medias will alter the program for the day so that a thorough coverage of the occurrence may be done. The Al Qaeda group uses this understanding to ensure that the citizenly absorbs the power of the groups. The personification role of the media makes such terror groups to be very successful in their endeavor to make their subject to fear them. Personification makes the news watchers and listeners to become more personally involved even in situations where they are buying into a cliché. The terrorist groups such as Al Qaeda perceives the media as an important tool of furthering their message hence a friend but also as an enemy if the media fails to do so or distorts the message (Soriano 2008, p. 1-20).
The Americans conception of the terror war generally perceives the battle of ideas as a confrontation between the Al Qaeda and the United States. In fact the United States is relatively marginal and seen to be self defeating player in the actual ideological struggle among the Muslims and the Arabs. The struggle by the Americans to overcome those activities of Al Qaeda is seen to enforce the Islamic agenda of portraying the Islamic religion as under siege (Lynch 2006, p. 1).
The government's response to the media effort of Al Qaeda has been evolving with the evolution of home grown terrorism. The government has employed coordinated and comprehensive tactical communication and outreach efforts. The government has been alert on all the information delivered through the Aljazeera and other Arabic media channels to ensure that the information is contained. Though to some extent those medias have been successful in disseminating their information creating fear, the government has most of the time been successful in convincing the people that the threats are not valid assuring them that the mechanisms of overcoming terrorist attacks are sound. The government has been keen to control the information from Al Qaeda disseminated to the general public to keep people from unnecessary worries (Leslie 2008, p. 1).
The government has managed to intercept many internet threats to individuals, groups and the general public through its vast developed technology. The government has not been very effective in its protection role. Robert Gates observed that the Al Qaeda surpasses the US government in the use of communication since the Al Qaeda manages to air all they have to their subject and victims while US government fails in this duty (Leslie 2008, p. 1).Conclusion
The information revolution reached its crest in the last centuries 2nd half. It exerted influence in all the spheres of life in the global society hence bringing a vast transformation. This opened the societies access to information form all aver the world. Terrorism found an opportunity to expand its impacts with the information and technology expansion. The mass media has allowed the terrorist activities to gain momentum. Terrorists' activities revolve around the use of violent activities to attract attention; after the attention is obtained the mass media provides a very opportune platform for the terrorists to air their views to the target group.
The Al Qaeda has used this tool to reach out to the citizenly and hurt the government. The United States of America's government has been on toes especially from September 11th attack to provide optimum security to the citizens. Threat Information that is aired from Arabic Medias is taken care of before it causes anxiety to the general public. The government has also been keen to uncover all the illegal Medias that are used as tools for the terror groups (Perešin 2007, p. 1-7).References