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Andre Derain Paintings Analysis Essay

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I chose an oil painting by Andre Derain called At the Suresnes Ball. I chose this painting because as I was walking through the art museum, this picture stood out and struck me as strange. The woman is so much taller than the man, but his gloves make his hands appear larger than hers as if to compensate for his shortness. This painting is not abstract, but representational art.

The materials used in this painting are oil and canvas. Using oil was important for this work because it created light and shade very distinctly. In viewing the painting, it seems that there was some sort of a light shining onto the dance floor, specifically where the couple is dancing. The oil also contributed to the shininess of the dancing man's belt buckle and the other gentlemen's swords.

One noticeable element of design is the gentleman's glove. I still have a hard time determining line from form, but I think the hand is very poorly drawn and almost seems to look one dimensional. The artist used colors which are low in value, except for the gloves, which stand out from the rest of the painting and are much higher in value. This painting is rough in texture and looks almost old and grainy.

This painting includes many principles of design, such as harmonious repetition. This painting appears to join components naturally and comfortably. I would not define the painting as being dissonant just because the glove seems out of sync. It seems like the artist is trying to show us something by making the glove so big and bright. The unity within this picture is definitely closed composition, because the artist's use of line and form direct the eye into the painting and is not allowed to wander off the canvas. The focal area of this painting is the dancing couple. The light is brighter on the man and his face is more distinguished.

The artist uses aerial perspective in this painting by making the men in the backgro

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DirectEssays.com Home » Andre Derain (8 Papers) 1. Fauvism

Artist, such as Henry Matisse and Andre Derain, began creating this style of art from their own ideas and joined them as one to come up with unique and colorful pieces of art that are still admired by many today. Another important artist who helped develop fauvism is Andre Derain. Derain is known as "one of the founding fathers of fauvism, and one of its wildest practitioners" (Sander). Derain's art piece View of Collioure is one of his most well-known paintings. Henry Matisse and Andre Derain were known as the "father founders" of fauvism, but the creation of this style w.

2. "The Backs": Matisse's Most Radical Works in Bronze

A special chapter in the history of modern sculpture could be devoted to artists who are known primarily for their careers as painters, but who have also made groundbreaking contributions to the understanding of three-dimensional form. Henri Matisse, celebrated as one of this century's greatest colo.

3. Paul Cezanne

The way in which he painted light inspired younger artists, such as Henri Matisse and Andre Derain, who searched for similar ways to express themselves.In an abandoned quarry near Aix-en-Provence, studied the huge, jagged rocks, and made this dramatic composition, called Bibemus Quarry by contrasting sizes, shapes, and angles.The painting is a circular composition.

4. The Origins of Modern Art

The 19th and 20th centuries marked the beginning and end of Modernism. Modern art replaced traditional art as individuality replaced academic art and what emerged were four major art movements: Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Cubism, Surrealism, and Abstract Expressionism. From each movement c.

5. The Postimpressionism

Postimpressionism Postimpressionism was a movement in late-19th-century French painting that emphasized the artist's personal response to a subject. Postimpressionism takes its name from an art movement that immediately preceded it: Impressionism. But whereas impressionist painters concentrated on the depiction of a subject's immediate appearance, postimpressionists focused on emotional or spiritual meanings that the subject might convey. Although impressionist artists interpreted what they saw, their approach nevertheless remained rooted in observation of the natural world. Postimpr.

6. A French Artist Henri Matisse

Henri Émile Benoit Matisse was a French artist, leader of the Fauve group, regarded as one of the great formative figures in 20th-century art, and a master of the use of color and form to convey emotional expression. Matisse was born in Le Cateau-Cambresis in northern France on December 31, 1869.

7. Henri Rousseau, The Dounier

In 1905 his success found a foothold at the Salon de Automne where his work, Le lion ayant faim, appeared next to that of Cezanne, Matisse, and Derain. Picasso, Andre Salmon, Maurice de Vlaminck, Jacques Vaillant, Apollinaire, Max Jacob and many more all gathered to celebrate the artist and their friend Henri Rousseau.

8. Modernism Period

Introduction[ ]Print section[ ]Modern Art. painting, sculpture, and other forms of 20th-century art. Although scholars disagree as to precisely when the modern period began, they mostly use the term modern art to refer to art of the 20th century in Europe and the Americas, as well as in other regions under Western influence. The modern period has been a particularly innovative one. Among the 20th century's most important contributions to the history of art are the invention of abstraction (art that does not imitate the appearance of things), the introduction of a wide range of new arti.

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This paper discusses the life and works of Andre Derain, who was one of the most interesting artists of the 20th century. The paper discusses Derain's various painting styles, but describes him as best known as one of the fathers of fauvism, which was the first movement of the modern period which developed in France. The paper specifically focuses on analyzing his artwork entitled "Charing Cross Bridge."

Table of Contents:
Introduction
Charing Cross Bridge
Conclusion

Sample of Sources Used:
  • Andre Derain. Retrieved May 16, 2006 from: http://artchive.com/artchive/D/derain.html
  • Bazin G. S. Beguin, M. De Gesne, Diehl, G. Frost, R. Leclerc M. Loge M. Moss F. (!951) History of Modern Painting. Hyperion Press: New York.
  • Gloeckner, A. Vaughan M. (1941) Derain. The Hyperion Press. New York. Publication
  • "Fauvism". Retrieved May 16, 2006 from: http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/tl/20th/fauvism.html
  • Matisse, Henri. Retrieved May 16, 2006 from: http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/matisse/
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Painting Expressionism and Ernst Ludwig Kirchner - Essay - 1713 Words

Painting: Expressionism and Ernst Ludwig Kirchner

As part of the Places and Spaces unit you will paint an image of the College in the style of the Fauves. Before we get started, it is a really good idea to observe and analyse the work of the Fauves. Reading a little more about their stylistic approaches and aims will help inform and enhance your own artmaking.

Task One
1.View the PowerPoint presentation on Fauvsim, taking brief notes as you go. 2. Then, write an analysis of Derain's "London Bridge,Winter" from the Frames. Do a Google search to find a clear image of the artwork. Use the Frames analysis sheet that has been provided in class. Write your analysis in your Visual Arts Process Diary.

André Derain: London Bridge, oil on canvas, 66×99.1 cm, 1906 (New York, Museum of Modern Art); © 2007 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York/ADAGP, Paris, photo © The Museum of Modern Art, New York

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner: Street, Dresden, oil on canvas, 150.5×200.4 cm, 1908 (New York, Museum of Modern Art); photo © The Museum of Modern Art, New York, © Artists Rights Society, NY
Jacques-Henri Lartigue: Paris, Avenue du Bois de Boulogne, gelatin silver print, 29.5×40 cm, 1908 (New York, Museum of Modern Art); photo © The Museum of Modern Art, New York

The late nineteenth century saw the rise of the modern city shaped by industry, innovations in transportation, and shifting politics. During this period and throughout the early twentieth century, the urban experience became an important artistic subject.

LESSON OBJECTIVES

Students will learn to broaden their descriptive and analytical vocabulary through comparisons and close analysis of works of art.


Students will discuss changes taking place in the modern world and the psychological effects on the artists discussed in this guide.

IMAGE-BASED DISCUSSION

Take a close look at André Derain’s London Bridge and describe what you see, using a variety of different words. How would you describe it to someone who has never seen it? Make a list of five to ten adjectives that apply to this painting.


What kind of city do you think this painting is depicting? Think about industry, population, and atmosphere (the “feel” of a place). What do you see in the painting that supports your ideas?

In 1905, André Derain, a French Fauve painter, was commissioned by his art dealer Ambroise Vollard to paint views of London. Derain stayed in London for about two months, painting about thirty pictures. All of these paintings depict activity on or around the Thames, the wide river flowing directly through the heart of the city that was (and still is) both a tourist attraction and an essential part of London’s industry. Derain set up his easel outdoors, and painted what was directly in front of him.

Nineteenth-century London underwent a huge growth in population following industrial developments, especially the building of the railways, beginning with the 1836 London and Greenwich line. London’s population rose from about one million in 1800 to over six million a century later. Grand new architectural projects had been built in the city center, including several bridges over the River Thames, such as London Bridge, depicted in this painting. In 1905, the year before Derain painted this image, London Bridge had been widened to accommodate pedestrians.

Despite London’s intense activity, Derain sought to create images of calm and tranquility. That same year, he wrote a letter to Matisse, which said:

I sincerely believe that we ought to aim for calm. This calm is something of which we can be certain. Beauty, then, ought to be an aspiration towards this calm. [--André Derain, January 1906, quote in Judi Freeman, The Fauve Landscape (Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1990), 85.]


How do you think Derain evokes the “calm” he was aiming for?


Now that you know more about London during this time, comment on the aspects of the city Derain chose to focus on. How do you think.

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Fauvism Essay

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�wild beasts.� But this still was not the official beginning of the school, for the name never caught on until years later. In this paper I will compare and contrast three prominent Fauves, by the names of: Henri Matisse, Georges Braque, Andre Derain, differentiating their respective differences and similarities in their works ;analyzing color, and detail, and how each comes into play in the fine masterpieces which these men have donated with their talents to the world. GEORGES

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BRAQUE, (1882-1663)- He served military service for only one year, then returned to his love of art in the art university in Paris, called the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. A year later he painted the canvas which is here, the 1907 work, Landscape at La Ciotat. (See plate 1.) If one notices the semi-pointillist manner in which Braque uses to bring out the flowing sense of the shore, also the bright pastel colors in which the composition owns, They would think

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it to be reminiscent of Henri Matisse�s Fauve opuses. Braque did two paintings of this scene, the other one he called the plain, �The Harbor at La Ciotat.� Yet this work preserves the flavor as still being an impressionist idea, as well as retaining it�s landscape value. It is a real accomplishment as being a fauvist period success. In some spots it is somewhat like Andre Derain in dark/light values, and in richness of the strokes. Overall,

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most of his work shows yellows and reds, and the blues and greens that calm them. He leaves these words of the Fauvist years: �For me Fauvism was a momentary adventure in which I became involved with when I was young�.I was freed from the studios, only twenty four, and full of enthusiasm. I moved toward what for me represented novelty and joy, toward Fauvism.� ANDRE DERAIN, (1880-1954)- Entering the art scene in 1905, Derain made a huge impact

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on the Fauvist landscape part of the school in his work. He did a cornucopia of different paintings from London, England, to the stretches of France�s borders. Derain, was in the least to say a pointillist painter. He used dabs of color in his canvases to simulate movement, and to sometimes create various colors without even mixing paint. The painting I have chosen to represent the pointillist and diverse ways that Derain paints is called, �Big Ben,� done in 1906.

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(See plate 2.) One of the first things that struck me as I first looked at this landscape was the overall oddness of the lighting and the color choice to depict this �daytime� scene. The darkness of the blue does not seem like it belongs right by the sun, but it proves for a nice effect of a calm sky in the artwork. I like how the light splashes down on the water of the Thames river right over the

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boat gliding gently through her water. In its entirety, this piece is a very flowing description of Big Ben, and reminds me of the time I looked over the same water and saw the Parliament in all it�s glory when I was in London, just like Andre Derain, almost ninety years ago. His work holds a strong parallelism to

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Text from Edward Lucie-Smith, "Lives of the Great 20th-Century Artists" "Of all the major figures in the Ecole de Paris, André Derain's reputation has sunk into the deepest trough. It is doubtful if it will ever again stand as high as it did between the two World Wars. "Derain was born in 1880 at Chatou, which was then a kind of artists' colony at the gates of Paris. His father was a successful patissier (pastry chef) and a town councillor and Derain was given a middle-class education. He disliked school - much later, he said that 'the teachers, ushers and pupils were a far more bitter memory for me than the darkest hours of my military career.' He left 'with few regrets and the reputation of being a bad, lazy and noisy scholar', but with a prize for drawing. He took his first lessons in painting in 1895 from an old friend of his father's and of Cézanne's (but who nevertheless thoroughly disliked Cezanne's work), and in 1898 he went to the Académie Carriere in Paris, where he met Matisse. In June 1900 he met Maurice de Vlaminck, and formed a close friendship with him. The two young artists rented a disused restaurant in Chatou which they used as a studio, and often shocked their neighbours with their antics. Meanwhile, Derain pursued his studies, copying in the Louvre and visiting exhibitions of contemporary art. In igoi he was extremely impressed by the Van Gogh retrospective at the Bernheim-Jeune Gallery, and it was here that he introduced his two friends, Vlaminck and Matisse, to one another. "In the autumn of that year Derain was called up for military service. He could do little work, but carried on a lively correspondence with Vlaminck until his release in September 1904. He returned to Chatou, and it was at about this time that he got to know the poet Guillaume Apollinaire. The following year, 1905, was an important one for him. The dealer Ambroise Vollard, to whom he had been introduced by Matisse, bought the entire contents of his studio (he did the same with Vlaminck). Derain exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants and sold four pictures, and then at the Salon d'Automne where he, Matisse, Vlaminck and others were hung together as a group, in a space which was promptly dubbed the 'Cage aux Fauves' ('Cage of Wild Beasts') by a facetious critic, and Fauvism was officially born. "Following his success at the Salon d'Automne, Vollard commissioned some views of London from him, and he visited England for the first time, returning in 1906. The summer of 1906 was spent painting at L'Estaque, where he met Picasso, and in the next year he signed a contract with Daniel-Henri Kahnweiler, Picasso's dealer. He married on the strength of this new financial security, and with his wife, Alice, went to live in Montmartre, where his friendship with Picasso continued. Fernande Olivier, Picasso's mistress at that time, has left a vivid description of him: Slim, elegant, with a lively colour and enamelled black hair. With an English chic, somewhat striking. Fancy waistcoats, ties in crude colours, red and green. Always a pipe in his mouth, phlegmatic, mocking, cold, an arguer. "Alice Derain at this period was so calm and beautiful that she was nicknamed 'La Vierge' - 'the Holy Virgin'. Her husband's ties with Picasso and his circle were strengthened when he supplied the illustrations for Apollinaire's first book of poetry, L'Enchanteur pourissant (1909), and illustrated a collection of poems by Max Jacob in 1912. "With the outbreak of war in 1914, Derain was mobilized and remained in the army throughout the conflict, fighting on the Somme, at Verdun and in the Vosges mountains. There was little opportunity to paint, but his career did not come entirely to a halt. The dealer Paul Guillaume gave him his first one-man show in 1916, with a catalogue preface written by Apollinaire; and he provided another set of illustrations, this time for André Breton's first book, Mont de Piete. He was forced to remain in the army until 1919, serving with the French occupation forces in Mainz, but when he was finally released the French art world received him with open arms. In 1919 he designed the ballet La Boutique fantasque for Diaghilev (the first of many ballet designs), which scored a major success, and in 1920 he signed another contract with Kahnweiler, replaced by a contract with Paul Guillaume in 1923. Four books were published about his work between 1920 and 1924, and he began to move in fashionable circles. The aristocratic patron Count Etienne de Beaumont, who had set himself up as Diaghilev's rival, offered him further theatrical commissions in 1924 and 1926. His reputation rose to new heights when he was awarded the Carnegie Prize in 1928 and began to exhibit extensively abroad - in London in 1928; in Berlin, Frankfurt and Düsseldorf in 1929; in New York and Cincinnati in 1930; and once again in London and New York in 1931. "By now, Derain's art had evolved considerably since his Fauve days. First, he had passed through a period when he showed the influence of African art (of which he was a pioneer collector), and also of Picasso's Cubism. After the war, like many other artists, he felt the renewed appeal of Classicism. He went to Italy in 1921, for the Raphael centenary celebrations held that year, and was deeply impressed by High Renaissance painting. He also drew on more directly 'classical' sources, such as Fayum portraits and Roman mosaics. The increasing conservatism of his work was not challenged until 1931, when a book called Pour et Contre Derain (For and Against Derain), containing essays by various hands, was published. A particularly damaging verdict came from the veteran painter and critic Jacques-Emile Blanche, who wrote: 'Youth has departed; what remains is a highly cerebral and rather mechanical art.' "Derain's work now divided informed opinion - and those who defended him began to make him the pretext for a general condemnation of Modernism. During the 1930s he gradually lost touch with many of his old friends. He bought a large house at Chambourcy near Saint Germain-en-Laye, though he also maintained a pied-a-terre in Paris. The latter served several purposes: he found it difficult to find good models at Chambourcy, where he lived with Alice, his wife, her sister, and the latter's daughter; it also provided a convenient place to meet his mistresses. "Despite the animosity which some of the avant-garde now displayed towards him, he continued to receive plenty of official recognition. He was given a retrospective at the Kunsthalle in Bern in 1935, and was included in the important 'Exposition des Artistes Indépendants' held at the Petit Palais in connection with the Paris Exposition Universelle in 1937. "The Second World War was the beginning of Derain's long catastrophe. in 1940 he fled from his house in Chambourcy and returned to find that it had been requisitioned by the Germans; 1941 saw the birth of an illegitimate son, the child of a favourite model. During the Occupation he lived mostly in Paris, dividing his time between several households - his own studio, the house he had provided for his wife, and the apartment of his mistress. He was much courted by the Germans, since he belonged to a group of artists who could not be dismissed by Nazi theoreticians as 'degenerate' (as was the case with the Cubists and Surrealists), but who, on the contrary, represented the prestige of French culture, with which the Nazis wished to identify themselves. Hitler's Foreign Minister Ribbentrop wanted him to come to Germany and paint his whole family: Derain rejected this offer, but accepted an invitation to make an official visit to Germany in 1941. Vlaminck also agreed to accompany the party, and the tour was preceded by a series of official receptions designed to reconcile the two men, who had quarrelled some time previously. The German propaganda machine naturally made much of Derain's presence in the Reich, and after the Liberation he was branded as a collaborator and ostracized by many people. "Derain continued his public activity as an artist to some extent: he did book illustrations, including a splendid series for an edition of Rabelais's Pantagruel published in 1944. He executed more theatre commissions, notably the ballet Mam'zelle Angot for the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, in 1947; Mozart's Seraglio for the Aix-en-Provence Festival in 1951; and Rossini's Barber of Seville for the same festival in 1953. But gradually he became more and more reclusive. He, his wife and her relations had returned to Chambourcy, together with his illegitimate son, whom he had now formally adopted. His wife gave the necessary consent for this, but the relationship between the couple was otherwise very bad; they were reputed to speak to one another only on rare occasions, and then about money (they had married under the French law of 'community of property' and Alice Derain was determined to protect her financial interests). He had another affair with a model, and a second illegitimate child was born, whom he dared not acknowledge. Derain was now increasingly filled with doubts about his own art. He once said ruefully: I concentrate too much and too effectively on my painting and am in too close contact with it. I can visualize the shapes I want to portray and it is these shapes that are killing me. When I try to disengage myself from a choice between two known shapes, everything falls apart. "In 1953 Derain fell ill, and his sight was seriously affected. His wife made an attempt to seize control of his affairs and to keep certain old friends (and the mothers of his two children) apart from him. As soon as he was well again he and Alice separated. But he was not to enjoy his freedom from her for long. In 1954 he was knocked down by a truck in Chambourcy. He was taken to hospital, and at first it was thought he was not seriously injured, but the shock was too much for a man now in his seventies. He failed to recover, living only long enough to effect an official reconciliation with his wife." Books on Andre Derain: Derain Andre Derain, by Natalia Brodskaya. Derain, by Gaston Diehl. Andre Derain Images on the Web Buy Andre Derainposters onlineClick here! * Links to other Derain images online can be found at Artcyclopedia. Bathers Bouquet de Fleurs (Long Foundation for the Arts) Charing Cross Bridge Grove Houses of Parliament at Night On the Thames London Bridge The Pool of London Road in the Mountains The Table Tete de Femme (Long Foundation for the Arts) The Turning Road, L'Estaque Mountains at Collioure mharden@texas.net [Home] [Juxtapositions] [Galleries] [Theory and Criticism] [Art CD-ROM Reviews] [Artchive] [Links]

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AndreDerain.net is a tribute to Andre Derain (1880-1954), a French Fauvist Painter and Sculptor.

"Of all the major figures in the Ecole de Paris, Andr� Derain's reputation has sunk into the deepest trough. It is doubtful if it will ever again stand as high as it did between the two World Wars.

"Derain was born in 1880 at Chatou, which was then a kind of artists' colony at the gates of Paris. His father was a successful patissier (pastry chef) and a town councillor and Derain was given a middle-class education. He disliked school - much later, he said that 'the teachers, ushers and pupils were a far more bitter memory for me than the darkest hours of my military career.' He left 'with few regrets and the reputation of being a bad, lazy and noisy scholar', but with a prize for drawing. He took his first lessons in painting in 1895 from an old friend of his father's and of C�zanne's (but who nevertheless thoroughly disliked Cezanne's work), and in 1898 he went to the Acad�mie Carriere in Paris, where he met Matisse. In June 1900 he met Maurice de Vlaminck, and formed a close friendship with him. The two young artists rented a disused restaurant in Chatou which they used as a studio, and often shocked their neighbours with their antics. Meanwhile, Derain pursued his studies, copying in the Louvre and visiting exhibitions of contemporary art. In igoi he was extremely impressed by the Van Gogh retrospective at the Bernheim-Jeune Gallery, and it was here that he introduced his two friends, Vlaminck and Matisse, to one another.

"In the autumn of that year Derain was called up for military service. He could do little work, but carried on a lively correspondence with Vlaminck until his release in September 1904. He returned to Chatou, and it was at about this time that he got to know the poet Guillaume Apollinaire. The following year, 1905, was an important one for him. The dealer Ambroise Vollard, to whom he had been introduced by Matisse, bought the entire contents of his studio (he did the same with Vlaminck). Derain exhibited at the Salon des Ind�pendants and sold four pictures, and then at the Salon d'Automne where he, Matisse, Vlaminck and others were hung together as a group, in a space which was promptly dubbed the 'Cage aux Fauves' ('Cage of Wild Beasts') by a facetious critic, and Fauvism was officially born.

"Following his success at the Salon d'Automne, Vollard commissioned some views of London from him, and he visited England for the first time, returning in 1906. The summer of 1906 was spent painting at L'Estaque, where he met Picasso, and in the next year he signed a contract with Daniel-Henri Kahnweiler, Picasso's dealer. He married on the strength of this new financial security, and with his wife, Alice, went to live in Montmartre, where his friendship with Picasso continued. Fernande Olivier, Picasso's mistress at that time, has left a vivid description of him: Slim, elegant, with a lively colour and enamelled black hair. With an English chic, somewhat striking. Fancy waistcoats, ties in crude colours, red and green. Always a pipe in his mouth, phlegmatic, mocking, cold, an arguer.

"Alice Derain at this period was so calm and beautiful that she was nicknamed 'La Vierge' - 'the Holy Virgin'. Her husband's ties with Picasso and his circle were strengthened when he supplied the illustrations for Apollinaire's first book of poetry, L'Enchanteur pourissant (1909), and illustrated a collection of poems by Max Jacob in 1912.

"With the outbreak of war in 1914, Derain was mobilized and remained in the army throughout the conflict, fighting on the Somme, at Verdun and in the Vosges mountains. There was little opportunity to paint, but his career did not come entirely to a halt. The dealer Paul Guillaume gave him his first one-man show in 1916, with a catalogue preface written by Apollinaire; and he provided another set of illustrations, this time for Andr� Breton's first book, Mont de Piete. He was forced to remain in the army until 1919, serving with the French occupation forces in Mainz, but when he was finally released the French art world received him with open arms. In 1919 he designed the ballet La Boutique fantasque for Diaghilev (the first of many ballet designs), which scored a major success, and in 1920 he signed another contract with Kahnweiler, replaced by a contract with Paul Guillaume in 1923. Four books were published about his work between 1920 and 1924, and he began to move in fashionable circles. The aristocratic patron Count Etienne de Beaumont, who had set himself up as Diaghilev's rival, offered him further theatrical commissions in 1924 and 1926. His reputation rose to new heights when he was awarded the Carnegie Prize in 1928 and began to exhibit extensively abroad - in London in 1928; in Berlin, Frankfurt and D�sseldorf in 1929; in New York and Cincinnati in 1930; and once again in London and New York in 1931.

"By now, Derain's art had evolved considerably since his Fauve days. First, he had passed through a period when he showed the influence of African art (of which he was a pioneer collector), and also of Picasso's Cubism. After the war, like many other artists, he felt the renewed appeal of Classicism. He went to Italy in 1921, for the Raphael centenary celebrations held that year, and was deeply impressed by High Renaissance painting. He also drew on more directly 'classical' sources, such as Fayum portraits and Roman mosaics. The increasing conservatism of his work was not challenged until 1931, when a book called Pour et Contre Derain (For and Against Derain), containing essays by various hands, was published. A particularly damaging verdict came from the veteran painter and critic Jacques-Emile Blanche, who wrote: 'Youth has departed; what remains is a highly cerebral and rather mechanical art.'

"Derain's work now divided informed opinion - and those who defended him began to make him the pretext for a general condemnation of Modernism. During the 1930s he gradually lost touch with many of his old friends. He bought a large house at Chambourcy near Saint Germain-en-Laye, though he also maintained a pied-a-terre in Paris. The latter served several purposes: he found it difficult to find good models at Chambourcy, where he lived with Alice, his wife, her sister, and the latter's daughter; it also provided a convenient place to meet his mistresses.

"Despite the animosity which some of the avant-garde now displayed towards him, he continued to receive plenty of official recognition. He was given a retrospective at the Kunsthalle in Bern in 1935, and was included in the important 'Exposition des Artistes Ind�pendants' held at the Petit Palais in connection with the Paris Exposition Universelle in 1937.

"The Second World War was the beginning of Derain's long catastrophe. in 1940 he fled from his house in Chambourcy and returned to find that it had been requisitioned by the Germans; 1941 saw the birth of an illegitimate son, the child of a favourite model. During the Occupation he lived mostly in Paris, dividing his time between several households - his own studio, the house he had provided for his wife, and the apartment of his mistress. He was much courted by the Germans, since he belonged to a group of artists who could not be dismissed by Nazi theoreticians as 'degenerate' (as was the case with the Cubists and Surrealists), but who, on the contrary, represented the prestige of French culture, with which the Nazis wished to identify themselves. Hitler's Foreign Minister Ribbentrop wanted him to come to Germany and paint his whole family: Derain rejected this offer, but accepted an invitation to make an official visit to Germany in 1941. Vlaminck also agreed to accompany the party, and the tour was preceded by a series of official receptions designed to reconcile the two men, who had quarrelled some time previously. The German propaganda machine naturally made much of Derain's presence in the Reich, and after the Liberation he was branded as a collaborator and ostracized by many people.

"Derain continued his public activity as an artist to some extent: he did book illustrations, including a splendid series for an edition of Rabelais's Pantagruel published in 1944. He executed more theatre commissions, notably the ballet Mam'zelle Angot for the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, in 1947; Mozart's Seraglio for the Aix-en-Provence Festival in 1951; and Rossini's Barber of Seville for the same festival in 1953. But gradually he became more and more reclusive. He, his wife and her relations had returned to Chambourcy, together with his illegitimate son, whom he had now formally adopted. His wife gave the necessary consent for this, but the relationship between the couple was otherwise very bad; they were reputed to speak to one another only on rare occasions, and then about money (they had married under the French law of 'community of property' and Alice Derain was determined to protect her financial interests). He had another affair with a model, and a second illegitimate child was born, whom he dared not acknowledge. Derain was now increasingly filled with doubts about his own art. He once said ruefully: I concentrate too much and too effectively on my painting and am in too close contact with it. I can visualize the shapes I want to portray and it is these shapes that are killing me. When I try to disengage myself from a choice between two known shapes, everything falls apart.

"In 1953 Derain fell ill, and his sight was seriously affected. His wife made an attempt to seize control of his affairs and to keep certain old friends (and the mothers of his two children) apart from him. As soon as he was well again he and Alice separated. But he was not to enjoy his freedom from her for long. In 1954 he was knocked down by a truck in Chambourcy. He was taken to hospital, and at first it was thought he was not seriously injured, but the shock was too much for a man now in his seventies. He failed to recover, living only long enough to effect an official reconciliation with his wife."

Text from Edward Lucie-Smith, "Lives of the Great 20th-Century Artists"

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