Daandiyo. dated 1 September 1864, first issue)
Narmad was born in Surat on August 24, 1833. [ 1 ] He introduced many creative forms of writing in Gujarati. He wrote pioneering work in such forms as autobiography. poetry. lexicography. historical plays and research in folk literature. He was also an outspoken journalist and a pamphleteer. Narmad was a strong opponent of religious fanaticism and orthodoxy. He promoted nationalism and patriotism - with famous songs like Sahu Chalo Jitva Jang, wrote about self-government and talked about one national language, Hindi. for all of India. nearly five decades before Mohandas Gandhi or Nehru. He wrote a poem Jai Jai Garavi Gujarat in which he listed with a sense of pride all the cultural symbols that go into constituting the Gujarat identity. These symbols include even the things non-Hindu, implying that Gujarat belongs to all the castes, communities, races, religions and sects that inhabit Gujarat. It was this devout poet whose debt Gandhi acknowledged for his philosophy of nonviolence. With the help of some friends, Narmad published a newsletter called Daandiyo. modeled after The Spectator . a weekly British magazine. Daandiyo run from 1 September 1864 to 1869 when it was merged with Sunday Review. He published the first dictionary of Gujarati language in 1873. [ 2 ] He died of arthritis on February 26, 1886. [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] [ 6 ]Works Edit
In 2004, South Gujarat University was renamed Veer Narmad South Gujarat University in his honour.References Edit External links Edit
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Narmad was born in Surat on August 24, 1833. He introduced many creative forms of writing in Gujarati. He wrote pioneering work in such forms as autobiography. poetry. lexicography. historical plays and research in folk literature. He was also an outspoken journalist and a pamphleteer. Narmad was a strong opponent of religious fanaticism and orthodoxy. He promoted nationalism and patriotism - with famous songs like Sahu Chalo Jitva Jang, wrote about self-government and talked about one national language, Hindi. for all of India. nearly five decades before Mohandas Gandhi or Nehru. He wrote a poem Jai Jai Garavi Gujarat in which he listed with a sense of pride all the cultural symbols that go into constituting the Gujarat identity. These symbols include even the things non-Hindu, implying that Gujarat belongs to all the castes, communities, races, religions and sects that inhabit Gujarat. It was this devout poet whose debt Gandhi acknowledged for his philosophy of non-violence. With the help of some friends, Narmad published a newsletter called Daandiyo. modeled after The Spectator . a weekly British magazine. He died of arthritis on February 26, 1886.Works
In 2005, the name of South Gujarat University was changed to Veer Narmad South Gujarat University by the Chief Minister of the state of Gujarat, Narendra Modi .External links
--II Back II-- Indian Poets Writing In Gujarati
Suresh Joshi, Sitanshu Yashaschandra, Labhshanker Thaker, Ghulam Mohammed Sheikh and others
Suresh Joshi (1921-86) --- "The Gujarati literary scene in the �60s and �70s resembled a battleground of sorts, where, amongst others, two major influences could be found pitted against each other", observes Abhay Sardesai --- "an experimental and formalistically oriented literary culture had been ushered in, (mainly by Suresh Joshi, a pioneer figure in post-�60s Gujarati literature), which drew inspiration from European Modernism as well as from indigenous Indian literary traditions" and "a large body of �value-based� literature developed by stalwarts like Umashankar Joshi and Sundaram, who drew on Gandhian moral ideals, nationalistic enthusiasms and traditions of bourgeois literary realism". Suresh Hariprasad Joshi was born in Valod in Surat district of Gujarat. He acquired the Master's degree and Ph. D. from Bombay University and taught in Colleges. He joined the faculty of M S University, Baroda. He edited Phalguni (1945-47), Vani (1947-51), Maneesha (1951-56), Kshitij (1961-67) and Etad. which through the decades, separately and together, helped develop a new generation of writers such as Sitanshu Yashaschandra, Gulam Mohammed Sheikh and other younger writers who eventually emerged as major voices of Gujarati literature. His works include Pratyancha Itara (poetry, 1961), Chhinnapatra (novel), Grihapravesh (short stories, 1957), Na Tatra Suryo Bhati (short stories), Janantike (essays, 1965), Gujarati Kavita No Asvad (literary criticism) and Chintayami Manasa (Essays). The awards and honours he received include Gujarat Government prizes, Soviet Land Nehru award, Ranjitram Gold Medal, Narmad Gold Medal and Nanalal Memorial prize. He declined the Sahitya Akademi award (1983) for a collection of critical essays, Chintayami Manasa. because the award / citation did not recognize his creative writing. He generated a profound modernist enthusiasm in the field and ushered in a new era in Gujrati literature. Joshi was deeply read in Eastern and Western philosophy and literature and drew on a whole repertoire of artistic strategies. "He experimented in Gujarati with cinematic montage and trompe l�oeil ", observes Professor J. Birjepatil and adds, "But Joshi�s more ambitious work defies classification and requires the finely honed skills one brings to the reading of Kafka, Joyce and Borges. The necessity that drove his work was the fashioning of an interiorized private self, reaching out to a community of minds beyond regional and national boundaries. A serious reader will soon discover that because of its self-reflexive urbanity, Joshi�s fiction, not unlike Rushdie�s, generates a diasporic discursive space. And yet Gujarat and India remain the ground and horizon of Suresh Joshi�s writing." In the scenario after "the era of Umashankar Joshi", a major change in Gujarati poetry was brought by a group of the young rebels, inspired by Suresh Joshi and led by Sitanshu Yashaschandra and Labhshankar Thaker.
Ghulam Mohammed Sheikh (b. 1937) --- Ghulam Mohammed Sheikh is a painter and a poet. His collection of surrealistic poems is titled Athwa. He has also written a prose series, Ghar Jatan. and edited a special number of Kshitij. His sensibility and artworks belong very much to the Baroda School of arts. He has held many successful exhibitions in India and abroad. He was awarded the Padmashri, among other awards.
Labhshanker Thaker --- Labhshankar Thaker. Labhshanker has published several works of poetry. He received the Sahitya Akademi award (1991) for his work of poetry, Tolan Aawaz Ghunghat .
Chandrakant Sheth (b. 1938) --- Chandrakant T. Sheth has published several works of poetry and prose. He is a recipient of the Gujarat Government Prize. He received the Sahitya Akademi award (1986) for his work, Dhoolmani Paglio (Reminiscences).
Ramesh Parekh (1940-2006) --- Ramesh Parekh was born in Amreli. Parekh's first collection of poems, Kyan. was released in 1970. Other collections of poetry include Khading. Twa. Sanann. Khamma Ala Bapune. Mira Same Paar. Vitan Sud Bij and Chha Akhshar Nu Naam. He is a recipient of the Sahitya Akademi award (1994) for his work Vitan Sud Bij. Other awards include Kumar Chandrak (1970), Gujarat Sahitya Akademi award (1979), Narmad Suvarnchandrak (1982), Ranjitram Suvarnchandrak (1986), Sansakar Award (1988), Kala Gaurav Suvarnchandrak (1989) and Gujarat State Best Film Lyricist award (1983).
Sitanshu Yashaschandra (b. 1941) --- Sitanshu Yashaschandra was in the academic profession and served as Vice Chancellor of Saurashtra University. He received the Sahitya Akademi award (1987) for his work of poetry, Jatayu. the National Harmony award for poetry and drama in 1996 and the Kabir Samman in 1998.
Bharat Naik (b. 1944)--- Bharat Naik holds a degree of Ph. D. He writes poetry, essays, review-articles and plays. He has edited Laghu Naval Katha. a collection of essays. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, he was associated with Yahom. a little magazine that devoted itself to cutting-edge creative writing.
Chandrakant Shah (b. 1956) --- Chandrakant Shah is a Boston-based Gujarati poet and playwright. He is the author of two books of poetry, Ane Thoda Sapna and Blue Jeans. and several plays, including Master Phoolmani. Kabro. Khelaiya. Ek Hati Rupli and Eva Mumbai Ma Chal Jaiye. He has also written an English play, Mahatma.Gandhi.Com. His work of poetry, Ane Thoda Sapna (And Some Dreams), was awarded the best collection of New Gujarati Poems published in 1992-1993 by Gujarati Sahitya Parishad.
Vir Narmad Saraswati Mandir in Surat Gujarat India
One of the famous poets of all times born in the Gujrati soil was Poet Vir Narmad who lived from 1833 to 1886. He is very famous and is most famously remembered for his authoring of ‘Jai Jai Garvi Gujarat’ and also many other famous Gujarati poems. The saraswati mandir is the abode that Vir Narmad lived in.
Vir Narmad Saraswati Mandir was the quaint little house where Vir Narmad lived after he built it in 1866. Hence after his demise, the house has been used as a memorial. The land on which the house has been built is quite massive and therefore it also houses a library which has a very impressive collection of books.
Vir Narmad Saraswati Mandir in Surat place is also well known for having a section where even the blind and visually challenged people can come and learn or read the books.
Vir Narmad Saraswati Mandir Timing
8:30am to 1:00pm and 2:30pm to 7:00
Accomodation of Vir Narmad Sarswati Mandir The house is simple and beautiful from inside with pristine white walls which depicts the simplicity of the man who resided in that house. The house is the place where a man lived who was regarded as an accomplished poet with great views and ideas.
Vir Narmad had during his lifetime always advocated to have a nation, which is united and spoke one language. He was indeed a noble man who died fighting for his cause. He was a man who believed in simple living and that too without any opulence or shows put-up.
¤ Gujarati Literature Divided Mainly Into Prose and Poetry
In the medieval period, poetry was actually the means of expressing religious sentiments and the first poetry of the language was Bharateswara Bahubali Rasa.
It was composed by Shalibhadrasuri, a 7 th century Jain monk. A number of Jain Sadhus followed his example and composed short story poems called Rasas till the end of the 18 th century.
All this while in the 15 th century, Narsingh Mehta was bringing in a new era of Vaishnava poetry. His poems portray Krishna as a playful child, a lover, a friend and the poets muse. He became a source of inspiration for his successors in composing not only similar poetry but also philosophical poems.
¤ The Great Writers
Raje, Raghunathdas, Pritam, Ratno and Muktananda were some of the great contributors to devotional poetry. In the 18 th century, Vallabh left his artistic touch in devotional songs like Garbo and Garbi. They are popular even in todays age.
Premananda, the greatest medieval poet introduced the famous Akhyana. He had a wonderful command over the language, treated the subject in an outstanding way and moreover had a great understanding of human nature. Jains and non-Jains have written narrative poems using Sanskrit as well as Prakrit fiction as the source. Nayasundar among the Jains and Samal amongst the non-Jains were popular narrators.
¤ Narmad and Dalpat --The Poets Know During British Rule
With the advent of the British in the 19 th century, poetic literature soared to new heights. Narmad and Dalpat were the pioneers of this age. In 1886, Narsingharaos collection of lyrical poems Kusummala, was published.
Poetry was getting restricted to the elite class and Mahatma Gandhi urged poets to write for the masses. The noted poets of this century like Kalapi, Kant, Nanalal and Balavantrai Thakor were all greats in their respective style of writing. Literature produced under Gandhis influence is known as Gandhian literature and the era as Gandhian era.
¤ Poetry Inclined Towards Patriotism
Poets of this time wrote about social order, the struggle for independence and especially about Gandhi himself. Umashankar, Sundaram, Shesh, Snehrasmi, Betai and many more were the principal poets of this era.
During the 40s, there was a rise in communistic poetry and this inspired a movement for progressive literature. Meghani, Bhogilal Gandhi, Swapnastha and others preached class conflict and hatred of religion through their writings.
Highly inspired by Tagores dialogue poems, Umashankar Joshi enriched the existing Gujrati literature by writing in the same manner. His two such poems are Prachina and Mahaprasthan.
Poetry of post-independence era is more subjective and brutal, discarding old imageries and symbols and replacing them with new ideas. The main representatives of this age are Suresh Joshi, Gulam Mohamed Sheikh, Harinder Dave, Chinu Modi, Nalin Raval, Adil Mansuri and others.
¤ The Beginning of The Gujarati Literature
Gujarati literary prose in the real sense begins from the 19 th century. Narmad was the leader in this field and began by writing essays meant to be read before an audience. His essays dealt mainly with social revolution, but he also wrote on literary, social, political and religious subjects.
Narmad coined new words and phrases, using them to explain his ideas. His contemporary was Dalpat, an essayist and dramatist. The era starting from Narmad is called the social reform era.
Naval Ram of this age was a critic of distinction besides writing literary essays and book reviews.
Nand Shankar was the first novelist of his time and wrote Karanghelo a historical fiction. Govardhanram is another great novelist whose Saraswati Chandra is a classic not only in Gujarati literature but also in Indian literature.
It was the first social novel, which mentioned contemporary problems and their solutions.
During this period, the Gujarat Vidyapith became the centre of all literary activities where new values emerged and more emphasis was given on Indianisation.
Novels, short stories, diaries, letters, plays, essays, criticisms, biographies, travel books and all kinds of prose began to flood Gujarati literature.
However, Kanhaiyalal Munshi was absolutely untouched by this change and made a mockery of the Gandhian principles, whereas Ramanlal Desai, novelist, dramatist, literary critic and short storywriter all rolled into one is the true representative of the Gandhian era.
His works include Divya Chakshu and Bharelo Agni. Kaka Kalelkar was a voluminous writer and subjects included travel, culture, nature, sociology and biography. Other pioneers of this era were Kishorelal Mashruwala (essayist), Ramnarayan Pathak (critic and short story writer), and Darshak (dramatist).
¤ Post Independence Prose Literature
The post independence prose literature had two distinct trends that of traditional and modern.
The former deals more with ethical values and its main writers were Gulabdas Broker, Mansukhlal Jhaveri, Vishnuprasad Trivedi and others. While existentialism, surrealism and symbolism have influenced the latter. The modernists want to do away with moral values and religious beliefs.
The eminent writers of this trend are Chandrakant Baxi, Suresh Joshi, Madhu Rai, Raghuvir Chowdhury, Saroj Pathak and others.
Gujarati prose has recorded growth and literary feats quite rapidly in less than two hundred years and now can be counted among the front benchers in Indian literature.
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Veer Narmad South Gujarat University is a public university located in the city of Surat, Gujarat, India, the 4th fastest growing city in the world. Previously known as South Gujarat University, it was renamed to its present name in the year 2004. This name is in honour of the famous scholar and Gujarati poet, Narmad. Incorporated in 1967.
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Gujarati literature in the nineteenth century reflected the trends and outlooks that had developed in Gujarat with the coming in of British rule. Similar to the rest of the country, British rule aroused a mixed reaction in Gujarat. For some people, it was like a blessing as it had apparently brought stability and introduced modern means of transport and communication and the benefits of scientific and industrial development. For some others, though they were happy to have contact with the West through English education, were dissatisfied with alien rule and had started thinking in terms of individual and national freedom. It was this divided thought process that was reflected in the literature of Gujarat in the nineteenth century. It was the beginning of modern Gujarati literature. and the foundation was laid for all literary developments in the latter half of the nineteenth century and all through the twentieth century.
The divergent views are best seen in the works of the poets Dalpatram (1820-98) and Narmad (1834-86). Though products of the same age, they were poles apart in their attitudes towards British rule. Dalpatram, who knew no English, was encouraged in his literary efforts by an Englishman, Alexander Kinlock Forbes, the magistrate in Ahmedabad. who was interested in the development of the Gujarati language. The Gujarat Vernacular Society was his brainchild. Thus for Dalpatram, British rule was a blessing. But Narmad, who had the advantage of English education, was possessed with the ideas of freedom and liberation from British rule. It is a point to note that both of them shared certain common views on some issues, such as the need for social reforms like opposition to child marriages, encouraging widow remarriages, protecting Indian culture, and education etc. However they still differed rather markedly in their views. In the case of social reforms Dalpatram favored slow change whereas Narmad was more radical.
Prose in Nineteenth Century literature of Gujarat
As regards the prose-writing of the two, they wrote quite substantially even in this field in the nineteenth century. Dalpatram, an authority on meters, wrote a treatise called Pingal (Prosody) a sourcebook for scholars for many decades. Narmad's prose writings included essays, history, autobiography and even a play. Single-handedly, he prepared a Gujarati dictionary (Narmakosh). He wrote profusely on education and social reform in the weekly Dandiyo, published at his own expense, to propagate his reformist ideas. He was completely devoted to the pen, facing hardships and poverty with the courage of a warrior.
Dalpatram and Narmad, in their different ways, pioneered new literary trends into Gujarati literature. Poets and writers of the later period did not necessarily imitate them but picked up their literary strands to which they added their own improvements. In the next few years, a number of writers particularly cultivated prose, setting the stage for its further development. The growing influence of the English language, far from subduing the Gujarati language, added new dimensions to it. Efforts were made to evolve appropriate expressions to effectively convey thoughts and human emotions appropriate to Gujarati sensibility.
A notable attempt was the first Gujarati historical novel, Karanghelo (1866) by Nandshankar Tuljashankar Mehta (1835-1905). Gujarati prose had not yet developed to suit that genre, but the novel is important as a first step. His contemporary, Navalram Pandya (1836-88), an educationist and social reformer who edited the then-prestigious journal Shalapatra, wrote, in more cultivated prose, Narmad's biography translated Kalidasa's Meghaduta. Moliere's play 'The Mock Doctor' as 'Bhatnun Bhopalun' (1867), and wrote an original play, Virmati Natak (1869). He molded Gujarati prose as a vehicle for creative writing and criticism.
Several writers of that period and succeeding decades further developed Gujarati prose with their novels, essays, travelogues, biographies, autobiographies, and journalistic writings. Periodicals like the Buddhiprakash Satyaprakash, Rastgoftar also promoted such writing in Gujarati. Durgaram Manchharam (1809-76), a renowned teacher and social reformer, kept a record of his public activities and also wrote his autobiography. Some time later, Nanilal Nabhubhai Dwivedi, a social reformer and an upholder of women's education, started the monthly Priyamvada (1864), later changed into Sudharshan (1890), to propagate his ideas about women's education. He recorded his personal experiences in Atmanimajjan (1895). But Kanta Natak (1882), as the first attempt of a well-structured play, is said to be his most important contribution. He also found the essay form a convenient medium to express his views about education and social reform. His graceful prose bears the mark of his vast learning.
Poetry in Nineteenth Century literature of Gujarat
Dalpatram and Narmad were the first to introduce into Gujarati poetry subjects related to common life, a far cry from the predominantly religious and occasionally romantic and narrative poetry of the earlier period. However, their differences were still rather marked. Dalpatram's poetry had commonplace subjects like "trees in a college compound," English law, or even how to write an essay and was replete with his typical sense of humour. But Narmad's poetry, written in a serious strain, had subjects of direct social relevance, reflecting his impatience and recklessness Influenced by English poetry, he also wrote poems about personal love, patriotism, freedom, nature, and so on.
During the nineteenth century, apart from the works of Dalpatram and Narmad, Gujarati poetry made further strides. Balashankar (1858-99), a bohemian by nature, wrote erotic poetry, combining the Shakta and Persian influences. Balashankar's brief and stormy career has remained a subject of curiosity and criticism. His freer diction stands apart from the general tone of Gujarati poetry of his time.
Balashankar's contemporary Kant (1867-1923) was also an innovative poet, but in a different way. He wrote khandakavyas (narrative poems) depicting with intensity sentiments of love and friendship in a picturesque and fluent style. He also wrote highly subjective lyrics. Purvatap (1923), the collection of his poems, was published on the day he died. Kant, who experienced a long period of religious conflict, remained a Christian at heart. He is remembered most for his metrically perfect and emotionally rich khandkavyas and lyrics.
A highly sensitive and romantic poet of this time was Kalapi (1874-1900), who died young but left behind a fairly large number of poems collected as Kalapino Kekarav (1931). He started under the influence of Dalpatram and Narmad but was later fascinated by English romantic poets, Narasinghrao's nature poems and lyrics, Balashankar's ghazal (verse) and Kant's khandakavyas. His highly subjective poetry, full of delicate emotions, reflects anguish of love in his own life. He wrote some ghazals, too, combining Sufism and Advaita philosophy. His Kashmirno Pravas (1912) is the first "creative travelogue" in Gujarati, a specimen of good prose.
Thus the nineteenth century literature of Gujarat saw both attitudes adopted towards British rule- of acceptance as well as the call for change.
(Last Updated on. 16/07/2010)
Narmad was born 24th August 1833, in Surat to Lalshankar and Naavdurga. At the age of 5 years little Narmad joined 'Nana Mehta's School' in Bhuleshwar, Mumbai. At the age of 8 years, Narmad started learning the 'Vedas'. He was very shy and timid, as a child. He did higher education in Balgovind School, but left education half way in 1850, from Elphinstone Institute.
Narmad married Gulabgauri in 1844, at a young age of 11 years, but she expired in the year 1853 during childbirth. Due to parental pressures Narmad married Daahigauri in 1856.
In the year 1850, Narmad established 'Buddhiwardhak Sabha', and took up teaching as a profession. His first poetry was titled 'Aatmabodh'. He wrote poetries on Nature, Love, Independence, patriotism etc. In 1858 he resigned from his job and devoted his time, solely for his writings. He wrote the first ever biography of Gujarati language titled 'Mari HakiKat'. He also published the first ever dictionary in Gujarati titled 'Narmakosh', Apart from this he also wrote essays, Historical articles, Drama, and Characterizations.
Narmad was a reformer he could not bear to see the plight of poor in those days. He rebelled against the old decadent norms and blind faith of rigid Hinduism. It was due to these reforms that lead him to fight, a Vaishnav Pandit called 'Jadunath Maharaj', but he never gave up his beliefs; he went on fighting against corruption, dogmatic faith, extortion, exploitation of the poor etc. His writings successfully exposed the so called great God Men, Brahmins etc. who exploited people in the name of religion. Narmad saw the plight of the widows in those times and was absolutely devastated and shocked by the torture they bore in the hands of the society. He worked relentlessly for their emancipation. However the Orthodox Brahmins and rigid blind followers of religion could not stand the changing society emerging as a result of Narmad's strong teachings and thus to break him they banished him from their caste. But this did not deter Narmad, In fact this gave him a new zeal to fight. He started publishing a monthly named 'Dandiyo'. It became a weapon against these rigid followers of religion; corrupt, beurocrats, money lenders and torturous inspectors. He made the society aware of the corruption and educated them to the new ways of life. He married a young widow named Narmadagauri in 1869, to set an example in the society.
Due to immense economic crisis, in his life Narmad had to break his vow of not doing a job, and started working at the 'Tejpal Dharmakhata'. His immense hard life, full of frictions and fights broke Narmad at a young age of 53, however he never bowed down.
On 26th February' 1886 'Veer Kavi Narmad breathed his last at Surat.
Indicative List of Books Written by Veer Kavi Narmad
1. Mari - Hakikat
2. Mevadni Kakikat
3. Stree Kelavni
4. Kul Motap
5. Udyog tatha Vruddhi
6. Ramayanno Sar
7. Narma Kathakosh
8. Premanankrut Dasham Skandh
9. Ram Janaki Darshan
10. Desh Vyavahar Vyavastha
11. Arya Darshan
12. Shree Draupadi Darshan Natak
13. Kathiawad Sarva Sangrah
14. Gujarationi Sthiti
15. Diadno Sar
17. Nayika Vishay Pravesh
19. Premanandkrut Nalakhyan
20. Balkrishna Vijay Natak
21. Kelavni Vishe
22. Shreemad Bhagvad Geeta
23. Dharma Vichar
24. Nagar Streeoman Gavatan Geet
25. Seetaharan Natak
26. Rajyarang – Vol.2
27. Mahadarshan (Jagatna Pracheen Itihasnun Samagra Darshan)
28. Shree Sarshakuntal
29. Krishna Kumari Natak
30. Mahabharatno SAR
31. Gujarat Sarva Samgrah
32. Narma Kosh
34. Pingal Pravesh
35. Guru ane Stree
38. Narma Kosh-1
41. Kavi ane Kavita
42. Mandaii Malvathi Thata Labh
43. Vyabhichar Nishedhak
44. Narma Kosh -3
46. NarmaKavita – 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10.
47. Narmakavita - Book 1
48. Narma Kosh - 2
49. Narma Vyakaran Vol.2. Part 1
50. Narma Vyakaran Vol.1
51. StreeNa Dharma
53. Muvan Pachhvade Rova Kutvani Ghelai
54. Alamkar Pravesh
55. Nirashrit Pratye Shreemantna Dharma
56. Rasa Pravesh
57. Hinduoni Padhati
58. Garibai Vishe Bhikharidasno Samvad
60. Ranman Pachhan Pagian Na Karva Vishe
61. Vishayi Guru
62. Guruni Satta
64. Suratni Mukhtesar Hakikat
65. Dayaramkrut Kavya Sangrah
66. Lagna tatha Punarlagna
67. Dayaramkrut Kavyasangra
68. Manhar Pad
70. Tulji Vaidhvya Chitra