Alfred Hitchcock Essay, Research Paper
Alfred Hitchcock: 50 Years of Movie Magic
Alfred Hitchcock is among the few directors to combine a strong reputation for high-art film-making with great audience popularity. Throughout his career he gave his audiences more pleasure than could be asked for. The consistency of quality plot-lines and technical ingenuity earned him the recognition of being one of the greatest filmmakers of all time. His films earned him the reputation of being the “master of suspense”, and after viewing two of his more popular films, Psycho and The Birds, it is evident why. There is a distinction between surprise, which lasts only a few seconds, and suspense which captivates one?s attention the entire length of a film. This is something that Hitchcock realized early on, and applied into his movies. He is one of the few directors whose name on a marquee is as important, if not more so, than any actor who appears in the film itself. Both his style of directing, and that of the movies that he has directed are very unique, making him stand out in the film industry. He pioneered the art of cinematography and special effects, which along with his cameos, are what he is most often associated with. Hitchcock led a long and prosperous life in the movie industry, starting as a teenager and making movies up until his death in 1980, while working on the 54th of his career (Sterrit 3).
Alfred Joseph Hitchcock was born on August 13, 1889 in London, England. As a child his parents were very strict with him and they imposed severe and unusual punishments upon him, as what they considered to be discipline. One of these incidents scarred him for life. As punishment for arriving home late one night, young Alfred?s father had a policeman friend lock the boy up in a cell for five minutes, “in order to teach him where naughty little boys who come home after 9 o?clock would eventually end up.” (Phillips 27). Throughout his career he used the innocent man being arrested and imprisoned in his films, and claimed that forever after he had a fear of the police (Spoto 16). Fear was also a big part of his childhood, which later was evident in many of his movies. “Fear? It has influenced my life and my career.” (18) explains Hitchcock, he also had a fear of being alone and of darkness which once again appeared in many of his movies. “…fear you see is an emotion that
people like to feel when they know they are safe.” (39).
Hitchcock led a life of fantasy, and spent much of his time alone, entertaining himself because he did not have many friends growing up. He lived life as if he was on the outside looking in. Much like a person watching television or a director directing a picture. Reading was also a part of Hitchcock?s life from a young age. The novels Bleak House and Robinson Crusoe were two that stuck with him over the years. He also really enjoyed Edgar Allan Poe, stating that “Very likely it?s because I was so taken by the Poe stories that I later made suspense films.” (39). In 1915 he started work for the Henley Telegraphy Company. He soon began to study art at the University of London, which led to being promoted to Henley?s advertising department to design cable ads. But Hitchcock?s true love was the movies. He hunted all over the famous Wardour Street trying to obtain a position in film-making. In 1920 a co-worker at Henley?s helped him put together a portfolio and he was hired instantly by The Famous Players-Lasky as a title designer for silent films. For two years Hitchcock wrote and designed for popular British movie directors. The hard working Hitchcock was recognized by his employers as well as leading actors of the day. In 1922 the director of Always Tell Your Wife, a film in progress, got very sick and had to leave the movie. The lead actor Seymore Hicks had to take over the duties of direction, but was stumped on ideas. The young Hitchcock assisted him with the rest of production, and a legacy had been born (Rohmer 4).
Hitchcock?s solo directorial debut, The Pleasure Garden was released in January of 1927, but it was not until three weeks later that the illustrious career of Alfred J. Hitchcock really took off. In February of 1927 The Lodger was released and it attracted mass audiences because of the rave reviews it received early on. It marked the first time in British film history that a director got more praise than did any of his stars (Kapsis 20). Besides being Hitchcock?s first acclaimed motion picture, The Lodger is also note worthy because it was the movie in which one of the greatest movie traditions of all time would begin; the famous Hitchcock cameo appearance, a unique trademark of his films for the next fifty years. In April of 1926, Michael Balcon told Hitchcock he wanted to make a movie of the 1913 mystery novel The Lodger, and felt that Hitchcock?s sense of character and narrative would be perfect (Spoto 84). So early in his career, Hitchcock already had a reputation for the true art of film-making.
Hitchcock always prided himself as being the total film-maker, planning and having total control over every aspect of his films, from casting to publicity. Hitchcock loved to be publicized, and some critics feel that the original intent of his unusual camera shots were no more than a publicity stunt at first. Regardless, Hitchcock brought cinematography to new levels, pioneering the point-of-view shot, which among other things was recognized for its ability to bring about viewer-character identification (Sterrit 11). Hitchcock?s cameos, which he admitted to have borrowed from Charles Chaplin in A Woman of Paris (Kapsis 21), was just another example of Hitchcock?s personalization and perhaps little “gimmicks” of his films. He did not just become characters like did colleagues Orson Welles or Woody Allen, but his presence and style was always recognized.
During the first decade of his career Hitchcock toyed with a variety of formats including theatrical adaptation, romance, musical, and of course, thrillers. It was not until 1934 when Hitchcock filmed The Man Who Knew Too Much that Hitchcock started making thrillers on a regular basis. That film marked the first is a secession of six thrillers which would become known as the classic “thriller sextet”. Following the 1938 release of The Lady Vanishes, Hitchcock was voted to be the best director of that year by New York film critics (23).
Throughout the 1940?s his reputation continued to flounder with the hit movies Spellbound (1944 [in which artist Salvador Dali painted some scenery]), and Notorious (1946). The 1950?s was the beginning of Hitchcock?s most productive and popular era. Movies like Dial “M” for Murder (1954), Rear Window (1954), The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956), and North By Northwest (1959) were on the big screen and the Hitchcock name was everywhere. In 1955 the television program “Alfred Hitchcock Presents” was also released. The style and reputation that came with the Hitchcock name was visible in every movie, in every scene. North By Northwest to this point had gone where no other film had gone before. The airplane chase in the cornfield became one of the most famous sequences in movie his
tory, and really identified Hitchcock as a cinematographer and a director. Well, it is only fitting that the most famous murder-thriller movie of all time be the next released.
Psycho (1960) became Hitchcock?s biggest commercial hit ever. Produced at just over $800,000, it grossed over $20 million (Bowers 1391). Psycho is the story of murder and deception, but at the same time (although slightly ambiguous) it is the story of split personality and not letting go. Suspense (and in some cases fear) is built up throughout the entire movie, making the viewer forget that there are only two actual scenes of violence. Psycho is a film that takes place more in the mind of the viewer than on the screen. The movie is based on a novel with the same name by Robert Bloch, which was a fictionalization of a real event in Wisconsin (Bowers 1393).
Marion Crane is the first character that is really introduced. She is upset because her and her boyfriend Sam can not get married due to financial difficulties. Marion?s boss entrusts her to deposit $40,000 of a client?s money. The next time we see Marion she is packing a bag and has the money with her, obviously planning to leave with it. Even though she is a thief, the audience is still sympathetic towards her because of her situation. Marion trades in her car for a new one and leaves Phoenix heading towards California, where her and Sam plan to get married. When Marion pulls over for the night, the first view of the now famous Bates motel and mansion. A figure of an old woman is visible in the window. As Marion wanders around the motel she meets Norman, the proprietor, and also sees his hobby of stuffing birds. After she is taken to her room, she is sitting on her bed (with the bathroom and shower clearly visible in the background) and she hears an argument between Norman and his mother. Marion then decides to take a bath before bed, and the most famous murder scene in movie history takes place. The infamous shower sequence, totally takes the viewer by surprise. Marion who appears to be the main character is killed off in the first third of the movie. This scene required over 60 still shots, 70 setups, and over a week of attempts; all for a less than a minute on screen. True Hitchcock genius, you never actually see the knife strike Marion, but the loud, high pitched screeching music, and the close-ups of her face and the knife sends chills through the body. An investigator comes out to the motel, and becomes the next victim. Soon the audience learns that there is no Mother Bates, when one of the other investigators discovers her body in the basement, where she is attracted by Norman, the split personality, dressed in his mother?s clothing. The movie has foreshadowing and imagery through out, such as the credits splitting apart, and all the use of mirrors, implying that perhaps other characters are split also (Spoto 357), and the presence of the shower and all the stuffed birds in the background. As William Blowitz said “The star of this picture is Alfred Hitchcock.” (Kapasis 83).
“A blot on an honorable career” is how New York Times (NYT) critic Bosley Crowther announced the release of Psycho in 1960, and by the end of the year he had it on his list of 10 best for the year (Sterrit 100). In his original review Crowther says that Psycho is “…obviously a low budget job.” and “It does seem slowly paced for Mr. Hitchcock and given over to a lot of small detail.” (NYT film review). He also said that the stunts were exaggerated. “The consequence in his denouement falls quite flat for us. But the acting is quite fair.” is how he describes the other aspects of this film; the film which best describes the mastery of Alfred Hitchcock. Philip T. Hartung who reviewed Psycho for Commonweal magazine in September of 1960, had a different opinion of it; “Hitchcock pushes everything as far as he can go: the violence, the sex, the thrills and the gore.” All of the literature used in this report all agree on one fact: Psycho is a movie beyond its years and is one of the best in movie history. Although none of his movies did or would ever compare to the success of Psycho, his next release The Birds (1963), is another classic example of Hitchcock?s true genius.
Inspired by a unusual occurrence of “crying” birds, who bit some residents along the San Francisco coast, The Birds is another scary, and truly remarkable movie (Discover 37). Again the use of special effects and unique camera angles are found in this Hitchcock classic. This movie also comes from a novel by Daphne du Maurier, who?s storytelling abilities make a reader believe, much like Hitchcock himself (DeWitt 249).
The Birds begins in San Francisco where Mitch Brenner meets Melanie Daniels. She has a crush on him and decides to visit him weekend house. Melanie arrives in town, where all the birds have already begun to gather. The birds behave strangely, and cause the people to be threatened. The birds attack all over Bodega Bay, seemingly unprovoked. In one scene a flock of birds plunged down upon a gas station where a worker is frightened and drops the gas pump. The gas continues to flow from it, and is set on fire, when a passer-by drops a match on the ground causing a immense damage. In a later scene the children are trapped in the school, and as the teacher attempts to lead them to their homes, believing the birds have flow away, they turn a corner and are suddenly surrounded. The birds come together and strike, while the children run and scream for their lives. Some of them trip and are either pecked to death or trampled. Throughout the movie the birds wreak havoc all along the coast of San Francisco. All the remaining people escape the town, and the birds move in and seem to claim as their own, as though they were a conquering army. The movie just ends without any real idea of what happens next, something that Hitchcock had never done before.
According to Bosley Crowther who reviewed the movie in April, 1963 for NYT “The cast is appropriate and sufficient to this melodramatic intent. Tippi Hedren is pretty, bland and wholesome as the disruptive girl. Rod Taylor is stolid and sturdy as the mother-smothered son.” He goes on to say that the narrative elements of this film are clear and naturalistic, and he thinks the scenery is very well suited to the movie. “Mr. Hitchcock and his associates have constructed a horror film that should raise the hackles on the most carageous and put goose-pimps on the toughest hide.” ( Crowther qtd NYT). It is rather obvious that Mr. Crowther enjoyed this picture at first viewing more than he did Psycho.
Hitchcock always believed that developing an artistic reputation was far more important than fame, and that as much as you put in, that is how much you get out. The remarkable life and career of Alfred Hitchcock demonstrate truth in his words. He put everything he had into all his movies, making sure that every detail, no matter how minute, was perfect. Alfred Joseph Hitchcock died in 1980 while working on what would have been his 54th motion picture. His unique style and breakthrough ideas will stand for all time, and he will always be remembered as one of the greatest directors of all time.
Sassoon’s bitterness against the war is made clear through his poetry. which is filled with his resentment against war, the futility of it and the high price that had to be paid.In the poem ‘A working party’ Sassoon’s feelings towards the futility of war and the waste of life that war brings about is made clear through his use of his language and the way he makes the reader feel as if they know the man in the poem. In this and many other poems. Sassoon uses irony and heavy sarcasm to make his true feelings known. In ‘The Kiss’, the entire poem has a very sarcastic tone, and the poem could actually be read as a pro-war poem, but it actually shows Sassoon’s hatred for the war and how bitter he was about it. He calls his bullets and bayonet “brother lead and sister steel’, saying ‘in these I trust’. This is a perfect example of how Sassoon used sarcasm, because at face value, the poem seems psychopathic, as if it was written by a man that actually enjoyed killing and the harsh conditions of the war, when in actual fact it is a poem that is against the war.In ‘A working Party’, Sassoon specifically starts the poem off slowly, describing the men slowly making their way down the trenches, slipping into the mud and squeezing past other soldiers returning from the front line. Then, he ironically rushes the main character’s death in the last two lines, after the man is thinking how slow time passes. The man’s sudden death shocks the reader and shows how suddenly life can be taken away. It also makes the death of the character seem insignificant and unimportant, and Sassoon probably did this because he felt that not enough attention was paid to the men that lost their lives fighting for their country, like his brother.In ‘The General’ Sassoon uses a more direct way to show how he feels about the Generals who gave the orders, from well behind the front-line. I think that Sassoon was also bitter about the officers who gave orders although they knew nothing about what it was like in the trenches, and I think that Sassoon probably blamed them for much of the pointless deaths that occurred. Sassoon’s resentment of the General comes through two lines of the poem. “And we’re cursing his staff for incompetent swine” which is the fourth line, but does not hold any real impact until you read the last line of the poem – “But he did for them both by his plan of attack”. This last line shows that the soldiers were lead to believe that it was the General’s staff that were to blame for the poorly organised attack, but Sassoon knew that it was the General himself who was to blame, and deeply resented him for both his poor plan of attack and the way he blamed it on his staff.Sassoon’s feelings towards the officers are best described in the poem ‘Base Details’. In this poem, Sassoon shows his resentment towards the officers by describing them drinking in the best hotels, and reading the names of those who died, saying ‘poor young chap … I used to know his father well’ and saying ‘yes, we’ve lost heavily in this last scrap’. The poem is finished with the lines “and when the war is done and youth stone dead,I’d toddle safely home and die – in bed”This poem truly shows the bitterness and resentment Sassoon felt towards the officers. He felt that they didn’t really care about those who died, because they were safe themselves and had no idea of what was going on at the front line – calling the battle that was fought a ’scrap’, like it was nothing more than a small fight. In the last two lines of the poem, Sassoon’s feelings are clearer than ever, the way he says that they’ll ‘toddle home and then die in bed shows that he thought that the officers were safe and living comfortably while the soldiers, who were actually fighting the war, were living in shocking conditions, where they would die at any moment.Sassoon uses many different ways to convey his feelings, and particularly his bitterness and resentment towards the war and the officers, but in all his poems, his true meanings are clear and he writes in such a way that shows us clearly what he thinks and feels about the war.
The Impressionist group was first formed around 1870 in France by Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley and Frederic Bazille due to their shared discontent with academic teaching. He also purchased works by Degas, Manet, Renoir and Sisley to be the first Impressionist works to be viewed in London, though was not a great success. In 1873 the Salon rejected works by Pissarro, Monet, Renoir, Cezanne and Sisley.2. Claude Monet
Claude MonetDifferent styles of paintings continuously emerge from century to century. Several artists begin to use unique methods in their paintings, which bring about new, distinct styles. One of the styles that emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was Impressionism. Among the many.3. Pierre Auguste Renoir
Pierre Auguste RenoirImpressionism is a movement in painting, which developed in the 19th century. It arose because certain painters became unhappy and unsatisfied with having to continually paint classical subjects. There were many impressionist artists, these artist were concerned with light, outl.4. Manet, Edouard
Edouard ManetOn January 29, 1832, Edouard Manet was born into a high-class family in Paris, France. His mother, Eugenie-Desiree Fournier, was the goddaughter of Charles Bernadotte, the Crown Prince of Sweden. Eduardo's father, Augusta Manet was a magistrate and an officer in the Ministry of Justice.5. Biography of Claude Monet
Claude Monet was a key figure in the Impressionist movement that transformed French painting in the second half of the nineteenth century. Throughout his long career, Monet consistently depicted the landscape and leisure activities of Paris and its environs as well as the Normandy coast. He led th.6. Art
Role of Colour in Impressionism In this essay, I shall try to examine how great a role colour played in the evolution of Impressionism. Impressionism in itself can be seen as a linkage in a long chain of procedures, which led the art to the point it is today. In order to do so, colour in Impressioni.7. Monet and Impressionism
Monet was one of the most outstanding figures in the impressionism movement. He was the leader of a group of French artists called the Impressionists, which included such painters as Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Camille Pissarro. Monet often presented himself in many different guises throughout his lif.
The following essay offers both a short biography of Psychologist Alfred Binet
and a present day practical application using the theory from which Binet
developed his Intelligence test.
Alfred Binet, born in Nice, France, on the eleventh of July, whose mother was an
artist and whose father was a physician, became one of the most prominent
psychologists in French history.
Having received his formal education in both Nice and later, in Paris, at the
renowned Lycee Louis -le-Grand, Binet went on to become a lawyer. This
profession, however, was not suited to him, and he found himself immersed in the
works of J.S. Mill, Bain and Sully at the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris. He
identified strongly with the associationism theory in following that his mentor
was J.S. Mill.
Binet began working with Charcot and Fere at the Salpetriere, a famous Parisian
hospital, where he absorbed the theories of his teachers in regards to hypnosis,
hysteria and abnormal psychology. During the following seven years, he
continuously demonstrated his loyalty in defending Charcot's doctrines on
hypnotic transfer and polarization until he was forced to accept the
counterattacks of Delboeuf and the Nancy School, which eventually caused a split
between student and teacher.
Having been married in 1884 to Laure Balbiani, whose father was E.G. Balbiani,
an embryologist at the College de France, Binet was given the opportunity to
work in his lab where his interest in 'comparative psychology' was piqued and in
which he eventually wrote his thesis for his doctorate in natural science,
focusing his research on the "the behavior, physiology, histology and anatomy of
insects"(Wolfe, p.7). It was while working in Dr. Balbiani's lab, that Binet
wrote 'Animal Magnetism', an obvious breaking away from associationism, showing
Binet's ability to adapt and learn with every opportunity.
Binet's next area of interest could be considered a precursor to some of
Piaget's work with child psychology and began with the systematic observation of
his two daughters, to whom he devoted much of his time, studying and writing
about. It was at this point, that Binet "came to realize that individual
differences had to be systematically explored before one could determine laws
which would apply to all people"(Pollack,p.xii).
Soon after, Binet was nominated co-director and one year later, became director
of the Laboratory of Physiological Psychology at the Sorbonne. He and Beaunis,
also co-director, initiated and edited the first French psychological journal
'L'Annee Psychologique', which remains in press today.
Although never having attained a professorship in his own country (a bitter
disappointment for the proud nationalist) Binet did spend one spring in
Bucharest where his knowledge in experimental psychology was fully appreciated
as he taught to auditoriums filled to capacity, and was thus offered a chair in
psychophysiology. Binet refused, unable to remain away from Paris.
The 'Society Libre pour l'Etude Psychologique de l'Enfant', was established in
1900 by Binet and Ferdinand Buisson. This organization's concerns dealt with
practical problems in the school setting. Binet, after having proven himself
through his work here, was appointed to a commission which was to adorn Binet
with his most famous contribution in Psychology. the 'Methodes Nouvelles pour
le Diagnostic du Niveau Intellectuel des Anormaux', a series of tests developed
by he and his partner, Theodore Simone, allowing the differentiaion of normal
from retarded children in the school system, thus allowing the slower children
to be separated for remedial help. Although never used extensively in France,
this of course, was the precursor (although used for different and opposable
reasons than were initially intended by Binet) of the Stanford-Binet
Alfred Binet "attempted to penetrate the human mind, to analyze its wellspring,
to understand [it as] a complete whole"(Wolfe, p. 327). His work was diverse,
covering areas such as systematic introspection, suggestibility, research with
abnormals, mental fatigue, psychology of legal testimony, experimental study of
children and experimental pedigogy.
Binet died in Paris in 1911. As a French Psychologist, he was never appreciated,
specifically by the French, to the extent that his work and dedication merited
him to be. Binet's work was diverse, showing interest in the person as a whole
and therefore, trying to understand all facets comprising man. His work,
although contributing much in the sense that it was often the precursor of more
detailed, profound research, was never detailed enough to formulate any firm
theories in any one area.
Binet's crownig glory was the formulation of the first intelligence test. The
development of this test is explained fully in the 'The Psychological Testing
Enterprise, An Introduction' pages 191 to 208.
Binet's theory which argues that "the best way to predict success in school was
to measure success in school"(Rogers, p.653), can equally be applied in other
situations. In breaking up the whole into a series of minitasks which allow the
demonstration of ability, one can properly assess and place the learner in a
learning situation which will best benefit that individual.
The following example deals with the sport of hockey. As it stands, children are
separated into age divisions regardless of physical development, experience,
etc. In following Binet's theory, we shall take the game of hockey and divide
it into minitasks such as:
spontaneously on command stopping and starting
switching directions quickly switching directions quickly on command
4) Stick handling
while still while skating while playing
5) Puck handling
alone with others passing accurately receiving
7) Anticipating opponents Although I'm sure there are many more minitasks into
which this complex game can be sub-divided, this provides a starting point from
which to work and is the first step in our process.
Start testing all children in the norm group in all tasks. Some of the children
will perform many of the subtests well, but others will not. There will be a
natural division due to the abilities of the children.
Start with the easiest subtests and gradually increase difficulty.
The subtests in each scale will be determined by the percentage of children who
can do this subtest well.
Sixty-five to seventy-five per cent of children in each level should be able to
pass the subtests of that specific scale. Each scale would therefore, be
determined following the natural separation of subtests by the different
abilities of the participants.
Most of the children in the level below, should not be able to perform the
subtests in this specific scale; most of the children in the level above should
be able to perform the subtests well.
Therefore, if the lowest 65% of the children can skate forward, stop
spontaneously and switch directions, but cannot perform the other tasks well,
these three subtasks will become one scale. The next scale would consist of the
following tasks which are performed at a consistent level by the next lowest 65%
of the players.
Each level will thus contain a scale of subtests which the children will work at
mastering during the session. The levels should range from basic scales,
concentrating on the easiest subtests to levels which are comprised of scales
needing great skill in order to master the subtests.
In this manner, children would be separated on the basis of skill level and
would thus receive the attention that they needed. They would play more and see
more ice time, because they would be playing with their equals and they would
thereby be provided with the optimal opportunity for skill development.
Advancement would be based on the acquiring of the skills of the next level:
Children would not be moved automatically to the next level with this same group.
They would advance when they demonstrate that they can perform 80% of the
subtests of the scale they are presently in and would therefore always be
playing at a level which would be most beneficial to the development of their
Pollack, B. The Experimental Psychology of Alfred Binet, Selected Papers.
Springer Publishing Co. Inc. New York City, @ 1995.
Robinson, D.N. Significant Contributions to the History of Psychology 1750-1920
- Bine Psychometrics and Educational Psychology. University Publications of
America, Inc. Washington, D.C. @ 1977
Rogers, T.B. The Psychological Testing Enterprise, An Introduction. Books/Cole
Publishing Co. Pacific Grove, California, @ 1995.
Wolf, T.H. Alfred Binet. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago & London, @
Alfred Nobel, the great Swedish inventor and industrialist, was a man of many contrasts. He was the son of a bankrupt, but became a millionaire, a scientist with a love of literature, an industrialist who managed to remain an idealist. He made a fortune but lived a simple life, and although cheerful in company he was often sad in private. A lover of mankind, he never had a wife or family to love him; a patriotic son of his native land, he died alone on foreign soil. He invented a new explosive, dynamite, to improve the peaceful industries of mining and road building, but saw it used as a weapon of war to kill and injure his fellow men. World-famous for his works he was never personally well-known for throughout his life he avoided publicity.
Alfred Nobel was born in Stockholm on October 21, 1833 but moved to Russia with his parents in 1842, where his father, Immanuel, made a strong position for himself in the engineering industry. But soon he went bankrupt and returned to Sweden where Alfred began his study of explosives in his father's laboratory. He had never been to school or University but had studied privately and by the time he was twenty was a skilful chemist and excellent linguist, speaking Swedish, Russian, German, French and English. Like his father, Alfred was imaginative and inventive, but he had better luck in business and showed more financial sense. He was quick to see industrial openings for his scientific inventions and built up over 80 companies in 20 different countries. Indeed his greatness lay in his outstanding ability to combine the qualities of an original scientist with those of a forward-looking industrialist.
But Nobel's main concern was never with making money or even with making scientific discoveries. Seldom happy, he was always searching for a meaning to life, and from his youth had taken a serious interest in literature and philosophy. Perhaps because he could not find ordinary human love — he never married — he came to care deeply about the whole of mankind. He was always generous to the poor. His greatest wish was to see an end of wars, and thus peace between nations, and he spent much time and money working for this cause until his death in Italy in 1896. His famous will, in which he left money to provide prizes for outstanding works in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology, Medicine, Literature and Peace, is a memorial to his interests and ideals.
Copyright 2016 Pullion.com
Monday, July 25, 2016
On July 24, 1941, Secretary Of War Henry L. Stimson, reacting to yet another rise in tensions with Japan, ordered that U.S. forces in the Philippines be reinforced. Subsequently, the Philippine Commonwealth Army was called into direct U.S. service. Douglas MacArthur was recalled to active duty and placed in overall command.
Blank Section (Placeholder)Analysis and Commentary
Wednesday, July 13, 2016
On July 8, 1853, Commodore Matthew C. Perry sailed into Tokyo Bay with four ships to deliver a letter from U.S. President Millard Fillmore proposing peaceful commercial relations. The Japanese refused to accept the letter, until Perry made it clear that this would result in a cannonade from his ships that would have devastated downtown Tokyo.
Blank Section (Placeholder)Featured
Thursday, July 7, 2016
Between June 29 and July 4, 1913, some 53,000 Union and Confederate veterans of the Civil War gathered at Gettysburg, where many had shot and bayonetted each other fifty years earlier. They embraced—often tearfully—dressed in Blue and Gray, surrounded by the flags under which each side had fought. President Woodrow Wilson told them, “We have found one another again as brothers and comrades in arms, enemies no longer, generous friends rather, our battles long past, the quarrel forgotten—except that we shall not forget the splendid valor.”
Alfred Adler Essay, Research Paper
Adler, Alfred (1870-1937), Austrian psychologist and psychiatrist, born in Vienna, and educated at Vienna University. After leaving the university he studied and was associated with Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis. In 1911 Adler left the orthodox psychoanalytic school to found a neo-Freudian school of psychoanalysis. After 1926 he was a visiting professor at Columbia University, and in 1935 he and his family moved to the United States.
In his analysis of individual development, Adler stressed the sense of inferiority, rather than sexual drives, as the motivating force in human life. According to Adler, conscious or subconscious feelings of inferiority (to which he gave the name inferiority complex), combined with compensatory defense mechanisms, are the basic causes of psychopathological behavior. The function of the psychoanalyst, furthermore, is to discover and rationalize such feelings and break down the compensatory, neurotic will for power that they engender in the patient. Adler’s works include The Theory and Practice of Individual Psychology (1918) and The Pattern of Life (1930).
Alfred Adler studied personality around the time of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung but developed very different ideas (Cloninger, 1996). Although he changed his theory many times during his lifetime, he always believed people had control over their lives and made choices concerning themselves. He named his theory Individual Psychology because he felt each person was unique and no previous theory applied to all people. Adler?s theory is comprised primarily of four aspects: striving towards superiority, the unity of personality, the development of personality, and psychological health, which includes intervention.
Motivation of Actions
Adler believed the main goal of all people is to move to a better way of life, although he admits the ways to achieve this goal varies among people (Cloninger, 1996). He first used the term inferiority complex as being overcome by feelings of lack of worth. In other words, the person is not achieving their goal to moving positively in life. People wish to move from feelings of inferiority to superiority. He wrote, “We all wish to overcome difficulties. We all strive to reach a goal by the attainment of which we shall feel strong, superior, and complete” (Ansbacher & Ansbacher, 1956). Superior and superiority, in his usage, has a slightly different meaning than what is commonly thought. It is not necessarily feelings of superiority over others but more along the lines of self-improvement, such as striving for one?s personal best. He eventually switched from superiority striving to simply perfection striving. This was the final stage in the development of his theory. Alder also used the word superiority complex. This complex occurred when a person tried to overcome their inferiority complex by repressing their actual feelings. They are usually very arrogant and tend to exaggerate their achievements.
Along with the idea of trying to overcome inferiority, Adler claimed that every person had an idea about what their perfect self would be like (Cloninger, 1996). He called this imagined goal the fictional finalism. Fictional finalism gives clearer direction as to what decisions to make concerning oneself. Although people may have some idea about their goal, they rarely fully comprehend it. Also, throughout one?s lifetime the goal may be altered. The general direction, however, usually remains the same. Adler wrote, “. in every mental phenomenon we discover anew the characteristic of pursuit of a goal, and all our powers, faculties, experiences, wishes and fears, defects and capacities fall into line with this characteristic” (Ansbacher & Ansbacher, 1956). Adler believed that it was impossible to understand a person without understanding that person?s fictional finalism.
Unity of Personality
The second aspect of Adler?s theory was the unity of personality (Cloninger, 1996). Psychologists before him, including Freud, discussed how different parts of a person?s personality are at war with each other. Adler believed the conscious and unconscious worked in union with one another towards the fictional finalism. Both had the same goal. Adler claimed that each person has a unique style of life, which not only includes the common goal but also how the goal is going to be achieved and the person?s concept of one?s self and the world. Styles of life can be either positive or negative. Adler hated lumping large groups of people into broad categories but felt that describing basic lifestyles would make the concept easier to understand. His types are only intended to be rough estimates of the infinitely large number of personalities. Three of the four groups are negative styles of life. These mistaken styles include the ruling types, the getting types and the avoiding types. The ruling types seek to control others. They are not all terrible people; because high competitiveness goes along with control, many are high achievers. They will, however, let others know of their accomplishments and tend to do so in a belittling manner. Adler called this inclination the deprecation complex. The second type is the getting type. These people are very dependent on others and take on a passive attitude towards life. Adler wrote that parents who pamper their children encourage this lifestyle. The third type is the avoiding type. They try to avoid all of life?s problems to avoid defeat. They are seen as cold and usually prefer to be isolated. This appearance however, usually masked a superiority belief, albeit a fragile one. The final type is the only healthy lifestyle. It is the socially useful type. These people believe in doing good for the sake of society. They also believe they have control over their lives. Adler wrote, “[social interest] must be trained, and it can be trained only if one grows up in relation to others and feels a part of the whole. One must sense that not only the comforts of life belong to one, but also the discomforts. One must feel at home on this earth with all its advantages and disadvantages” (Ansbacher & Ansbacher, 1956).
In March of 2000, for 39 days, 16 castaways was marooned on a tropical island in the South China Sea. They were forced to band together and carve out a new existence, using their collective wits to make surviving, without any conveniences of the modern world.
Day by day the location and tropical sun will test the endurance of the castaways. Each three days of island life will result in a one hour Survivor episode. The survivors must form their own cooperative island society, building shelter, gathering and catching food, and participating in contests for rewards. Those who succeed in the day to day challenges will be rewarded with things to make island life more bearable simple comforts like pillows, some cold beer, and clean clothing. Those who fail must do without.
On the last day of each three day cycle, the castaways formed a tribal council. At this meeting, each person placed a secret ballot vote to send one fellow castaway home, eliminating him or her from eligibility for the one million dollars.
Week by week, one by one, the tribe shrinks until at the end of the final episode, only two survivors remain. At that point, the seven most recently eliminated castaways will return to form the final tribal council and decide who will be the final survivor, the winner of $1,000,000!
The 16 survivors, divided into two eight-person groups, float their rafts to their respective beaches on the South China Sea island of Pulau Tiga. Ramona, the 28-year-old biologist, sits on the raft barfing. On the Tagi beach, tubby Richard, a 38-year-old corporate trainer, sits on a tree branch and tries to tell everyone how to process decision making; the other group members roll their eyes. Stacey, a cranky 27-year-old lawyer, doesn’t get along with Rudy, a 72-year-old former Navy SEAL and a real martinet as well. Sonja, a 63-year-old cancer survivor, plays a ukulele. The group can’t seem to get a fire going.
Over at Pagong beach, another crabby old guy, B.B. 64, assiduously builds a house and loudly notes who is and isn’t helping. Every three days, the teams must compete in some sort of grueling ordeal, with the losing team having to vote a member off the island — this is the “immunity challenge.” In this episode, the teams compete to run a raft through the bay in hopes of winning a supply of matches. Sonja falls down in the middle of it, and the Tagi team loses as a consequence. They have to convene later that night in a remote tiki hut for a “tribal council,” where, under the stern gaze of host Jeff Probst, they vote to eject one of their own off the island. Richard votes to off Stacey; Stacey, for Rudy. (”He’s a Navy SEAL and he couldn’t even start a fire.”) Stacey gets one vote, Rudy three; Sonja, who’d compounded the ukulele playing with the contest mishap, gets four. She’s history, and things don’t look good for Rudy.
Episode 13, continued
They then have to troop through a pit of live coals; none seems the worse for the experience.
Then comes the immunity challenge proper, an oddly cosmic one. The three have to stand on stumps and hold on to a wooden pole. Last one standing gets immunity. It’s a tough chore for aged Rudy — he stands stooped right from the start.
Probst stands around taunting the three. Suddenly, Richard gives up. No way he’s going to outlast Kelly, he realizes. He then sits on his fat ass, leaving Rudy, a man nearly twice his age, to go up against the determined and athletic Kelly.
Richard figures Kelly will win, and given the choice will go before the tribal council against him rather than Rudy.
It turns out he’s right. Probst periodically tells Rudy and Kelly to revolve around the pole. After more than three hours Rudy loses by absent-mindedly letting his hand slip off while he’s moving.
“That just cost me a million dollars,” he says.
He’s probably right, too — though it’s not clear he could ultimately have outlasted Kelly.
We get a reflection from Kelly “I knew 100 percent I was going to make it to Day 38.” She just won her fifth immunity challenge in a row. (She also won the last reward challenge.)
Kelly is indeed, as Probst says, “the queen of the island tonight.” She dutifully votes the formidable Rudy off the island.
The jury of seven former castaways is realizing that the choice before them is surprisingly unattractive.
“No one here is saying, ‘Gee, I’m so glad Kelly made it to the finals,’” says Colleen disgustedly.
We’ve mentioned before that “Survivor” was a tabula rasa, capable of serving as a metaphor for just about anything. Here’s the saddest one: The last round of the first “Survivor” series may go down as the Michael Dukakis George Bush race of reality TV.
At the final tribal council, Kelly and Richard get to talk to the jury, and then have to answer questions.
Kelly says: “I hope we’re not judged on how we play the game; I hope we’re judged by the kind of person we are. I hope the better person will win.” She’s referring to herself.
Rich looks at things differently. He says he played the game best, so he should win. “From the beginning I tried to figure what it would take to get through 14 ejections,” he says. “It got really complicated, and I couldn’t plan it as well as I thought. But I certainly had a strategy and I came to play the game.”
During the question period, Gervase asks if either would do anything differently. Rich again is oddly wrapped up in strategy. “I got too comfortable believing who I could trust,” he says. “I got surprised.”
Kelly says she wishes she hadn’t joined the alliance.
Jenna asks them whom they’d have in the winner’s circle in their place. Richard says Rudy and Greg. The latter mention is a political move; a few episodes ago, Richard was ridiculing Greg’s flirtatious efforts to ingratiate himself with the alliance leader. Kelly gives props to Sonja and Gretchen, strategically bad choices because neither was there to vote for her.
Sean, the chuckleheaded internist, doesn’t ask a question; instead he babbles a bit about Richard. “Go figure what do I know?” he concludes. He and Kelly have a bad history — a few episodes ago, he promised to share a reward challenge with her and then suddenly shared it with Richard instead.
Colleen asks the two what character traits got them where they are. Kelly says faith and “a tinge of likability, I hope.” Richard says, “Self-awareness, observation and ethics.” He keeps a straight face through all of it.
When his turn to talk comes, Rudy says, “I don’t have anything to say to these two except how dumb I feel after the mistake I made.”
Greg asks the two to pick a number between one and 10; it seems he’s going to vote for whoever comes closest to a number he had in his mind.
Sue speaks last and best. She lambastes both Kelly and Richard in a scorching, minutes-long jeremiad. The gist is that Richard is a snake, but snakes are at least upfront about their nature. Kelly’s a rat “and she just ran around the way rats do.”
“If I found you thirsty by the side of the road I wouldn’t give you water,” Sue tells Kelly. “I’d let the vultures get you.”
That would seem to be a vote for Richard.
Finally, the votes.
We see six of the jury members write down their choices. Three for Rich, three for Kelly. Greg’s is the only vote we don’t get to glimpse.
When Probst counts the votes, we discover Greg went for Richard. (After the show, Greg says Richard’s guessed number was closest.)
Colleen, Jenna and Gervase voted for Kelly, with varying degrees of enthusiasm. Rudy stuck by his man, and so did Sue.
As he votes, Sean remarks that “this has all generally degenerated to who’s the least objectionable; I feel that strongly.” Then he screws over Kelly again and votes for Richard.
Richard gets his million dollars. Yuck. All the castaways start hugging. Sue walks over to Kelly.
Kelly walks right past her.
“Adler, Alfred,” Microsoft? Encarta? Online Encyclopedia 2000
http://encarta.msn.com. 1997-2000 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Ansbacher, H. & Ansbacher, R. (Eds.). (1956). The individual psychology of Alfred Adler: A systematic presentation in selections from his writings. New York: Basic Books, Inc.
Cloninger, S. C. (1996). Theories of personality. Understanding persons. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Survivor illustration: Daniel Adel AP Copyright. 2000 Time Inc. & Entertainment Weekly http://www.ew.com/ew/feature/0,1917,222,allaboutsurvivor.html