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Table of Contents
Next Section10.9 Persuasion Learning Objectives
The purpose of persuasion The attempt to convince or move others to a certain point of view, or opinion. in writing is to convince, motivate, or move readers toward a certain point of view, or opinion. The act of trying to persuade automatically implies more than one opinion on the subject can be argued.
The idea of an argument often conjures up images of two people yelling and screaming in anger. In writing, however, an argument is very different. An argument A reasoned opinion supported and explained by evidence. is a reasoned opinion supported and explained by evidence. To argue in writing is to advance knowledge and ideas in a positive way. Written arguments often fail when they employ ranting rather than reasoning.Tip
Most of us feel inclined to try to win the arguments we engage in. On some level, we all want to be right, and we want others to see the error of their ways. More times than not, however, arguments in which both sides try to win end up producing losers all around. The more productive approach is to persuade your audience to consider your opinion as a valid one, not simply the right one.The Structure of a Persuasive Essay
The following five features make up the structure of a persuasive essay:
The persuasive essay begins with an engaging introduction that presents the general topic. The thesis typically appears somewhere in the introduction and states the writer’s point of view.Tip
Avoid forming a thesis based on a negative claim. For example, “The hourly minimum wage is not high enough for the average worker to live on.” This is probably a true statement, but persuasive arguments should make a positive case. That is, the thesis statement should focus on how the hourly minimum wage is low or insufficient.Acknowledging Opposing Ideas and Limits to Your Argument
Because an argument implies differing points of view on the subject, you must be sure to acknowledge those opposing ideas. Avoiding ideas that conflict with your own gives the reader the impression that you may be uncertain, fearful, or unaware of opposing ideas. Thus it is essential that you not only address counterarguments but also do so respectfully.
Try to address opposing arguments earlier rather than later in your essay. Rhetorically speaking, ordering your positive arguments last allows you to better address ideas that conflict with your own, so you can spend the rest of the essay countering those arguments. This way, you leave your reader thinking about your argument rather than someone else’s. You have the last word.
Acknowledging points of view different from your own also has the effect of fostering more credibility between you and the audience. They know from the outset that you are aware of opposing ideas and that you are not afraid to give them space.
It is also helpful to establish the limits of your argument and what you are trying to accomplish. In effect, you are conceding early on that your argument is not the ultimate authority on a given topic. Such humility can go a long way toward earning credibility and trust with an audience. Audience members will know from the beginning that you are a reasonable writer, and audience members will trust your argument as a result. For example, in the following concessionary statement, the writer advocates for stricter gun control laws, but she admits it will not solve all of our problems with crime:
Although tougher gun control laws are a powerful first step in decreasing violence in our streets, such legislation alone cannot end these problems since guns are not the only problem we face.
Such a concession will be welcome by those who might disagree with this writer’s argument in the first place. To effectively persuade their readers, writers need to be modest in their goals and humble in their approach to get readers to listen to the ideas. See Table 10.5 "Phrases of Concession" for some useful phrases of concession.
Table 10.5 Phrases of ConcessionExercise 1
Try to form a thesis for each of the following topics. Remember the more specific your thesis, the better.
Please share with a classmate and compare your answers. Choose the thesis statement that most interests you and discuss why.Bias in Writing
Everyone has various biases on any number of topics. For example, you might have a bias toward wearing black instead of brightly colored clothes or wearing jeans rather than formal wear. You might have a bias toward working at night rather than in the morning, or working by deadlines rather than getting tasks done in advance. These examples identify minor biases, of course, but they still indicate preferences and opinions.
Handling bias in writing and in daily life can be a useful skill. It will allow you to articulate your own points of view while also defending yourself against unreasonable points of view. The ideal in persuasive writing is to let your reader know your bias, but do not let that bias blind you to the primary components of good argumentation: sound, thoughtful evidence and a respectful and reasonable address of opposing sides.
The strength of a personal bias is that it can motivate you to construct a strong argument. If you are invested in the topic, you are more likely to care about the piece of writing. Similarly, the more you care, the more time and effort you are apt to put forth and the better the final product will be.
The weakness of bias is when the bias begins to take over the essay—when, for example, you neglect opposing ideas, exaggerate your points, or repeatedly insert yourself ahead of the subject by using I too often. Being aware of all three of these pitfalls will help you avoid them.The Use of I in Writing
The use of I in writing is often a topic of debate, and the acceptance of its usage varies from instructor to instructor. It is difficult to predict the preferences for all your present and future instructors, but consider the effects it can potentially have on your writing.
Be mindful of the use of I in your writing because it can make your argument sound overly biased. There are two primary reasons:
I think smoking is bad.
In the first sentence, the rightful subject, smoking. is in the subject position in the sentence. In the second sentence, the insertion of I and think replaces smoking as the subject, which draws attention to I and away from the topic that is supposed to be discussed. Remember to keep the message (the subject) and the messenger (the writer) separate.Checklist
Developing Sound Arguments
Does my essay contain the following elements?
Facts Statements that can be definitely proven; ones that have, in a sense, an objective reality. are statements that can be definitely proven using objective data. The statement that is a fact is absolutely valid. In other words, the statement can be pronounced as true or false. For example, 2 + 2 = 4. This expression identifies a true statement, or a fact, because it can be proved with objective data.
Opinions Personal views, or judgments. All opinions are not created equal. An opinion in argumentation must have legitimate backing. are personal views, or judgments. An opinion is what an individual believes about a particular subject. However, an opinion in argumentation must have legitimate backing; adequate evidence and credibility should support the opinion. Consider the credibility of expert opinions. Experts in a given field have the knowledge and credentials to make their opinion meaningful to a larger audience.
For example, you seek the opinion of your dentist when it comes to the health of your gums, and you seek the opinion of your mechanic when it comes to the maintenance of your car. Both have knowledge and credentials in those respective fields, which is why their opinions matter to you. But the authority of your dentist may be greatly diminished should he or she offer an opinion about your car, and vice versa.
In writing, you want to strike a balance between credible facts and authoritative opinions. Relying on one or the other will likely lose more of your audience than it gains.Tip
The word prove is frequently used in the discussion of persuasive writing. Writers may claim that one piece of evidence or another proves the argument, but proving an argument is often not possible. No evidence proves a debatable topic one way or the other; that is why the topic is debatable. Facts can be proved, but opinions can only be supported, explained, and persuaded.Exercise 2
On a separate sheet of paper, take three of the theses you formed in Note 10.94 "Exercise 1". and list the types of evidence you might use in support of that thesis.Exercise 3
Using the evidence you provided in support of the three theses in Note 10.100 "Exercise 2". come up with at least one counterargument to each. Then write a concession statement, expressing the limits to each of your three arguments.Using Visual Elements to Strengthen Arguments
Adding visual elements to a persuasive argument can often strengthen its persuasive effect. There are two main types of visual elements: quantitative visuals and qualitative visuals.
Quantitative visuals Visuals that present data graphically. The purpose of using them is to make logical appeals to the audience. present data graphically. They allow the audience to see statistics spatially. The purpose of using quantitative visuals is to make logical appeals to the audience. For example, sometimes it is easier to understand the disparity in certain statistics if you can see how the disparity looks graphically. Bar graphs, pie charts, Venn diagrams, histograms, and line graphs are all ways of presenting quantitative data in spatial dimensions.
Qualitative visuals Visuals present images that are to appeal to the audience’s emotions. present images that appeal to the audience’s emotions. Photographs and pictorial images are examples of qualitative visuals. Such images often try to convey a story, and seeing an actual example can carry more power than hearing or reading about the example. For example, one image of a child suffering from malnutrition will likely have more of an emotional impact than pages dedicated to describing that same condition in writing.Writing at Work
When making a business presentation, you typically have limited time to get across your idea. Providing visual elements for your audience can be an effective timesaving tool. Quantitative visuals in business presentations serve the same purpose as they do in persuasive writing. They should make logical appeals by showing numerical data in a spatial design. Quantitative visuals should be pictures that might appeal to your audience’s emotions. You will find that many of the rhetorical devices used in writing are the same ones used in the workplace. For more information about visuals in presentations, see Chapter 14 "Creating Presentations: Sharing Your Ideas" .Writing a Persuasive Essay
Choose a topic that you feel passionate about. If your instructor requires you to write about a specific topic, approach the subject from an angle that interests you. Begin your essay with an engaging introduction. Your thesis should typically appear somewhere in your introduction.
Start by acknowledging and explaining points of view that may conflict with your own to build credibility and trust with your audience. Also state the limits of your argument. This too helps you sound more reasonable and honest to those who may naturally be inclined to disagree with your view. By respectfully acknowledging opposing arguments and conceding limitations to your own view, you set a measured and responsible tone for the essay.
Make your appeals in support of your thesis by using sound, credible evidence. Use a balance of facts and opinions from a wide range of sources, such as scientific studies, expert testimony, statistics, and personal anecdotes. Each piece of evidence should be fully explained and clearly stated.
Make sure that your style and tone are appropriate for your subject and audience. Tailor your language and word choice to these two factors, while still being true to your own voice.
Finally, write a conclusion that effectively summarizes the main argument and reinforces your thesis. See Chapter 15 "Readings: Examples of Essays" to read a sample persuasive essay.Exercise 4
Choose one of the topics you have been working on throughout this section. Use the thesis, evidence, opposing argument, and concessionary statement as the basis for writing a full persuasive essay. Be sure to include an engaging introduction, clear explanations of all the evidence you present, and a strong conclusion.Key Takeaways
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A persuasive essay convinces the reader to agree with your stance or point of view on an issue. A persuasive essay can be challenging as the goal is to show the reader that there is some benefit in agreeing with your point of view. A strong persuasive essay uses well-researched facts to support a persuasive thesis, and also acknowledges and responds to the most obvious objections to the thesis. Follow these steps to write a successful persuasive essay.
As you should do for any essay, allow yourself some time to read, revise, and edit. Be sure that every paragraph supports the thesis, and that all of your ideas are clearly stated. Double check for typos, grammatical errors, and misspellings of commonly confused words.
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Persuasive essay is a basic type of academic essay along with argumentative essays or comparison and contrast essays. The main objective of this type of academic essay is convincing your reader to accept your idea or a point of view regarding a certain issue. Despite the fact that persuasive essay is considered one of the hardest types of academic essays, in most of high schools students are being taught basics of persuasive academic writing, since this skill can be very handy in useful in the future life. Undoubtedly, having mastered the skill of persuading people can be great for making other people do what we want, helping other people form their opinion about something, doing various jobs related to sells and marketing, and assisting us achieve a great variety of goals in our life. To learn more about writing a high school persuasive essay and check out the most important steps on working on this type of academic paper, go on reading this article.
The first and the key step is choosing the most effective and beneficial topic for your persuasive essay. If you have a chance to choose the issue to write about, choose some issue that will give you an opportunity to create a proper argument, as well as do your research and do the writing part with a great interest. Keep in mind that choosing a proper topic which you are truly excited about is an essential factor since for most of the students it can be hard to write about something dull or boring. The best topics for a high school persuasive essay include the issues of school life (like “Why Should We Study Etiquette In Schools”, “Single Sex Colleges Provide Better Education”, “Why Lessons At School Should Start Later”, etc.), science related topics (for example, “Moon Is The Same Important For Earth As Sun”, “We Should Stop Animal Testing”, “We Should Populate The Moon”, etc.) or social issues (like the following topics: “Why Should We Launch More Effective Censorship For PC Games”, “We Should Promote Reading Books Among Modern Kids”, “We Should Grant More Privacy Rights To The Celebrities”, “Being Rich Is A Bad Thing”, etc.).
When the topic has been chosen, you should proceed your work on your high school persuasive essay with going through related publications and printed materials in order to pick as many supportive arguments as possible in order to present them in your persuasive paper. Pick up as many ideas as possible to defend your point of view and make your writing sound as convincing as possible. While working with the sources and picking the ideas up, think about the writing style and the approach you’re going to use for your presentation. For example, you can start with the most important and the most convincing arguments, and then move toward the less important ones. Or, you can start with the ideas and facts which have less importance, and save the strongest and the most important arguments for the end of your discussion. Write down the facts and ideas you’re going to use, as create a small outline of your high school persuasive essay: it will help you greatly when working on the writing part of your academic paper.
Start the writing part with writing an introduction which would clearly state the point of view or the idea you’re going to defend. Keep in mind that your introduction should be a good attention-grabber, therefore, pay a good attention to the writing style you’re using. Start writing the body paragraphs of your high school persuasive essay. Make sure that your arguments are being presented in a clear logical sequence. Complete the work with writing a clear and concise conclusion which would restate your point and gives the reader the main imprint of your academic paper. Do not forget to make proper references and indicate the ideas by other people borrowed for your academic essay. Proofread your academic essay, re-read it a few times and make sure that the content of your paper has no mistakes or errors. Ask your fellow students to check your essay out and give their opinion.
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