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Реферат - Typical Tourist Essay Research Paper You too - На английском языке

Typical Tourist Essay, Research Paper

You, too, can enjoy that relaxed lifestyle by following these few simple rules

on your way to becoming a typical tourist. 1. Dress like a tourist. A. Wear loud

shorts, bright shirts, double-knit slacks, and flip-flop thong sandals. B.

Choose clip-on, flip-up sunglasses and a florescent colored money belt. C. Pack

personalized tee-shirts and caps. II. Buy a camera and take pictures. A. Quality

is unimportant so a cheap camera will do. B. Don’t bother to focus. C. Don’t

worry about what you subject matter is. III. Share the experience by bringing

home souveniers. A. You can buy some. B. You can also collect «free

items» IV. Be tactless. A. Drive slowly and ignore road signs and traffice

patterns. B. Ask irrelevant questions. C. Talk loudly and make fun of locals. D.

Go everywhere. E. Demand typical American food in restaurants. How to Be a

Typical Tourist From southern Florida’s sunny beaches to the chilly tundra of

Alaska, in the outback of in the outback of Australia or in the bustling streets

of Paris, London, Chicago, Tokyo, and Chicago, tourists are a group of people

seemingly unburdened by the cares of routine life. Perhaps you’ve seen tourists

in your own town and have envied their informal, carefree way of life. You, too,

can enjoy that relaxed lifestyle by following these few simple rules on your way

to becoming a typical tourist. First, in order to be a true tourist, you must

dress like a tourist. Go ahead; dig out those loud, tacky Fermuda shorts;

brightly colored shirts; double-knit slacks; and flip-flop thong sandals. Add a

touch of class with a pair of clip-on, flip-up sunglasses and the latest rage, a

flourescent-colored money belt. To personaliqe your touring wardrobe, consider

packing tee-shirts or caps that make a proud statement such as «I visited

the History of Mustard Museum at Gofer Point, North Dakota»; I cooled off

in Barrow, Alaska"; or «I hiked the Grand Canyon.» People will be

impressed by these shirts, and you won’t need to tell them about the helicopter

the rangers had to call to haul you back out of the canyon. Next, if you don’t

already own a camera, you will need to purchase one. A camera will become one of

the of the most valuable tools in your glove compartment. After all, do you

really expect your neighbors to believe that you actually saw the Oscar Meyer

Weinermobile on Interstate 55 unless you have a snapshot to prove it? To be a

typical tourist, it is not a requirement that you be an accomplished

photographer, so any cheap camera will serve nicely. In fact, quality is quite

unimportant in tourist photography. don’t bother to focus; you might miss the

moment. Ablurry picture, a thumb in the foreground, the unidentified hiker in a

sunset picture–these and other «mistakes» will only add to the

character of your photo collection. Just as quality is of little concern,

content is also irrelevant. It doesn’t matter what you take pictures of as long

as you can make up a good story to explain the significance of the photo to the

people back home. In fact, favorite slide presentations of seasoned travelers in

my family have included shots of highway signs, unusual trees, grazing cattle,

and other tourists who shared a treasured moment at a toll road rest area. On a

recent trip, my mother became fascinated with the unusual markings left on a car

by an obviously large bird, and she brought home a photo for the rest of us to

see. Be sure you don’t miss the exceptional photo opportunities if your vacation

involves air travel. You will want to at least snap three photographs: one at

takeoff, one of the clouds while you are in the air, and one to capture your

excitement upon reaching your destination. It is also typical to catch at least

the tip of the plane’s wing in these shots. As a typical tourist, you will also

find the purchase of souveniers a valuable means by which to share the joys of

your travels with the homebodies. Bring cousin Ted a seashell flamingo from

Florida and watch his eyes light up. Your kid sister will be overwhelmed by your

thoughtfulness and generosity when you present her with the back scratcher you

bought for $5.95 from the vendor at Niagara Falls. Or you might think of your

favorite uncle and whip out another traveler’s check to buy the shirt that

reads, «My nephew went to Beaver Crossing, Nebraska and all I got was this

crummy tee-shirt». However, it is not always necessary to spend a lot of

your hard-earned cash to bring home memories of your travels. Many tourist have

found wonderful use for such «free» items as motel bath towels, ash

trays, stationery, and sundry toiletries. While traveling in Poland, I collected

two of the crusty little buns that appeared with breakfast each morning, and

they now sit on my dresser as more or less permanent mementoes of my summer in

Europe. Colorful rocks, unusually shaped splinters of wood, and bottles of sand

from the ocean all qualify as typical tourist collectors’ items. No matter what

treasure you pack on the return trip, you will find that most souveniers have

two common qualifying factors–they have little or no monetary value and they

are guaranteed to collect dust back home. Finally, be sure to leave tact behind

as you start out on you journey. This is essential if you want to fit in with

the top-notch typical tour- ist. Assume that everyone you meet has as much spare

time as you do. Drive slowly, drinking in all the sights. Pay no attention to

road signs and local traffic patterns. Ask a thousand irrelevant questions and

make small talk in the check-out line at the gas station. Talk loudly, joke

obnoxiously, and poke fun at the ‘unusual’ accents and customs of the locals. Be

exceedingly inquisitive and explore everything–abandoned houses, churches and

cathedrals, land beyond the «No Trespassing» signs– and tell anyone

who questions you that you’re from out of town and you’re just looking for the

rest rooms. If you are traveling in a culture different from your own,

restaurants are great places to show your individuality through unrestrained

whining. Before looking at the menu, ask for common American foods like

hamburgers, french fries, or maybe catfish filets. Whine about having to pay for

bottled water with your meal and mumble comments like, «Taco Bell back home

serves their refried beans with cheese.» Perish the thought that you might

explore some new taste experience in a foreign country. With these small

alterations to your normally polite and dignified nature, you will be fast on

your way to joining the ranks of the typical tourist.

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Typical Tourist Essay Research Paper You too

Typical Tourist Essay Research Paper You too

You, too, can enjoy that relaxed lifestyle by following these few simple rules

on your way to becoming a typical tourist. 1. Dress like a tourist. A. Wear loud

shorts, bright shirts, double-knit slacks, and flip-flop thong sandals. B.

Choose clip-on, flip-up sunglasses and a florescent colored money belt. C. Pack

personalized tee-shirts and caps. II. Buy a camera and take pictures. A. Quality

is unimportant so a cheap camera will do. B. Don’t bother to focus. C. Don’t

worry about what you subject matter is. III. Share the experience by bringing

home souveniers. A. You can buy some. B. You can also collect "free

items" IV. Be tactless. A. Drive slowly and ignore road signs and traffice

patterns. B. Ask irrelevant questions. C. Talk loudly and make fun of locals. D.

Go everywhere. E. Demand typical American food in restaurants. How to Be a

Typical Tourist From southern Florida’s sunny beaches to the chilly tundra of

Alaska, in the outback of in the outback of Australia or in the bustling streets

of Paris, London, Chicago, Tokyo, and Chicago, tourists are a group of people

seemingly unburdened by the cares of routine life. Perhaps you’ve seen tourists

in your own town and have envied their informal, carefree way of life. You, too,

can enjoy that relaxed lifestyle by following these few simple rules on your way

to becoming a typical tourist. First, in order to be a true tourist, you must

dress like a tourist. Go ahead; dig out those loud, tacky Fermuda shorts;

brightly colored shirts; double-knit slacks; and flip-flop thong sandals. Add a

touch of class with a pair of clip-on, flip-up sunglasses and the latest rage, a

flourescent-colored money belt. To personaliqe your touring wardrobe, consider

packing tee-shirts or caps that make a proud statement such as "I visited

the History of Mustard Museum at Gofer Point, North Dakota"; I cooled off

in Barrow, Alaska"; or "I hiked the Grand Canyon." People will be

impressed by these shirts, and you won’t need to tell them about the helicopter

the rangers had to call to haul you back out of the canyon. Next, if you don’t

already own a camera, you will need to purchase one. A camera will become one of

the of the most valuable tools in your glove compartment. After all, do you

really expect your neighbors to believe that you actually saw the Oscar Meyer

Weinermobile on Interstate 55 unless you have a snapshot to prove it? To be a

typical tourist, it is not a requirement that you be an accomplished

photographer, so any cheap camera will serve nicely. In fact, quality is quite

unimportant in tourist photography. don’t bother to focus; you might miss the

moment. Ablurry picture, a thumb in the foreground, the unidentified hiker in a

sunset picture–these and other "mistakes" will only add to the

character of your photo collection. Just as quality is of little concern,

content is also irrelevant. It doesn’t matter what you take pictures of as long

as you can make up a good story to explain the significance of the photo to the

people back home. In fact, favorite slide presentations of seasoned travelers in

my family have included shots of highway signs, unusual trees, grazing cattle,

and other tourists who shared a treasured moment at a toll road rest area. On a

recent trip, my mother became fascinated with the unusual markings left on a car

by an obviously large bird, and she brought home a photo for the rest of us to

see. Be sure you don’t miss the exceptional photo opportunities if your vacation

involves air travel. You will want to at least snap three photographs: one at

takeoff, one of the clouds while you are in the air, and one to capture your

excitement upon reaching your destination. It is also typical to catch at least

the tip of the plane’s wing in these shots. As a typical tourist, you will also

find the purchase of souveniers a valuable means by which to share the joys of

your travels with the homebodies. Bring cousin Ted a seashell flamingo from

Florida and watch his eyes light up. Your kid sister will be overwhelmed by your

thoughtfulness and generosity when you present her with the back scratcher you

bought for $5.95 from the vendor at Niagara Falls. Or you might think of your

favorite uncle and whip out another traveler’s check to buy the shirt that

reads, "My nephew went to Beaver Crossing, Nebraska and all I got was this

crummy tee-shirt". However, it is not always necessary to spend a lot of

your hard-earned cash to bring home memories of your travels. Many tourist have

found wonderful use for such "free" items as motel bath towels, ash

trays, stationery, and sundry toiletries. While traveling in Poland, I collected

two of the crusty little buns that appeared with breakfast each morning, and

they now sit on my dresser as more or less permanent mementoes of my summer in

Europe. Colorful rocks, unusually shaped splinters of wood, and bottles of sand

from the ocean all qualify as typical tourist collectors’ items. No matter what

treasure you pack on the return trip, you will find that most souveniers have

two common qualifying factors–they have little or no monetary value and they

are guaranteed to collect dust back home. Finally, be sure to leave tact behind

as you start out on you journey. This is essential if you want to fit in with

the top-notch typical tour- ist. Assume that everyone you meet has as much spare

time as you do. Drive slowly, drinking in all the sights. Pay no attention to

road signs and local traffic patterns. Ask a thousand irrelevant questions and

make small talk in the check-out line at the gas station. Talk loudly, joke

obnoxiously, and poke fun at the ‘unusual’ accents and customs of the locals. Be

exceedingly inquisitive and explore everything–abandoned houses, churches and

cathedrals, land beyond the "No Trespassing" signs– and tell anyone

who questions you that you’re from out of town and you’re just looking for the

rest rooms. If you are traveling in a culture different from your own,

restaurants are great places to show your individuality through unrestrained

whining. Before looking at the menu, ask for common American foods like

hamburgers, french fries, or maybe catfish filets. Whine about having to pay for

bottled water with your meal and mumble comments like, "Taco Bell back home

serves their refried beans with cheese." Perish the thought that you might

explore some new taste experience in a foreign country. With these small

alterations to your normally polite and dignified nature, you will be fast on

your way to joining the ranks of the typical tourist.

Реферат: Megans Law Essay Research Paper Steve Butler

Megans Law Essay, Research Paper

Steve Butler and Eric Roos

Advanced English 10

14 January 2000

When people think of their neighbors, do they think of violent sex crime offenders? Many people have to deal with this every day of life. There are now laws that inform people of a community when a sex crime offender moves into their town. These laws are said to keep violent sex crime offenders from striking again, but do these laws really work is the question that many people ask? The answer all depends on the opinion of the person who is being asking. Many supporters say that the law is keeping sexually violent predators from striking again, but many critics say that the law is unethical and breaks many amendments. This is another question proposed when the topic of Megan?s Law is brought up, is it breaking any of the amendments or is it necessary for community members to know whether a sex crime offender is living is in their neighborhood? The judge who was deciding this case ruled in favor of the critics, that Megan?s Law was in violation of the Constitution. But then finally President Bill Clinton stepped in and created a total package called the Jacob Wetterling Act. This Law was said to almost end all of the Sex crime cases to come in the future, but did it?

Megan?s Law has once played an intricate part in the life of my family members. In 1995 my aunt a resident of a nearby suburb of Seattle, Washington encountered a scenario which involved the notification of sex offenders.

Butler and Roos 2

She resided next to what appeared to be a pleasant and friendly bachelor. He was very out going and kind to the people in the community. The residents of the community had no idea he was once a child molester about to move in on his next victim. After living five months in this small community he sexually abused a seven year old girl. After going to jail citizens of the community discovered this was not his first offense. This brought great controversy in the notification of sex offenders in communities also known as Megan?s Law.

Megan?s Law is said to be one of the most controversial topics among lawyers today. In this paper one will see how Megan?s Law is enforced, how the name came about, the regulations of Megan?s Law, how the federal government stepped in and created laws enforcing sex crime offenders to register with the town?s Police, some brief opinions of the people on how they would react if they knew that a sex crime offender moved into their community, statements from two lawyers, how Megan?s Law is not really a law, and the problems with the law.

” On July 29, 1994, seven year old Megan Kanka, from Hamilton Township, New Jersey, was walking home after playing at a friends house. She had almost reached her front door when Jesse Timmendequas, 33, a landscaper who had lived across the street for a year invited her over to pet his new puppy ( Richard 1 ).” ” When Megan followed him inside, he led her to an upstairs bedroom, strangled her unconscious with his belt, raped her and then asphyxiated her to death with a plastic bag. Timmendequas then placed Megan?s body in a tool box, drove it in his pick-up truck to a near-by soccer field and dumped her body in some bushes ( Jerome 1 ).” This, and the tragic murder of Amanda Wengert, was how the name was developed. But in my paper I did not discuss the murder and raping of Amanda Wengert.

Butler and Roos 3

Megan?s Law created a registration and notification procedure to alert law enforcement, schools, community organizations and neighbors to the presence of a sex offender who authorities believe may pose a risk to the community ( Verniero 1) .When sex crime offenders are released from prison according to this new law, they must register themselves with the police. If they are thought to be dangerous and will possibly strike again, they must also register with the

community. The sex crime offenders have only three days when they move into a community to register with the police, or they are considered to be breaking the law and will be arrested (Reno 2).

“The general objective of the Act is to protect people from child molesters and sexually violent predators through registration requirements. It is not intended to, and does not have the effect of, making states less free than they were under prior law to impose registration requirements for this purpose ( Reno 10).” The act itself provides that, if a person required to register is let out of jail then the officer responsible for him must obtain the registration information and send it to the registration agency also within three days of receiving it ( Reno 2). Some states assign the duty of getting the information that the child molester or sexually violent predator to either probation officers or parole officers ( Reno 3).

Although there were strong controversial debates over the law, a new law was signed on May 17, 1996 by President William Clinton requiring states to adopt a system of notifying the

public of the whereabouts of sex crime offenders or child molesters by September of 1997, but it leaves it up to the states to establish their own form of notification ( Mader 1). ” First states that wish to achieve compliance with the Jacob Wetterling Act should understand that its

Butler and Roos 4

requirements constitute a floor for state registration systems. not a ceiling. and that they do not risk the loss of part of their Bryne Formula Grant funding by going beyond its standards ( Reno 10).” The Jacob Wetterling Act says that sex crime offenders must register with the police, while Megan?s Law, a provision of this Act, says that sex crime offenders must register with both the police and the community (Bai 1). For example, a state might have a registration system that covers a broader class of sex crime offenders than those identified in the Jacob Wetterling Act, requires verification for other such offenders at more frequent intervals than the Act prescribes, or requires offenders to register for a longer period of time than the period specified in the act ( Reno 12 ). ” States have three years to come into compliance with the Act, unless the Attorney General grants an additional two years where a state is making good faith efforts at implementation ( Reno 43 ).”

Opposing the belief that Megan?s Law gives people a false sense of security, is the family of Megan Kanka. Maureen and Richard Kanka put themselves in the public eye, enforcing the fact upon the people that if they had known that a Sex crime offender already convicted was living right across the street from them, Meagan would have been alive today

( Jerome 1). ” Richard Kanka stated. If I had already known about his record, my daughter would still be alive today. I would have never allowed her to cross the street ( Jerome 1 ).”

Some argue that Megan?s Law is unethical, others argue that the law gives a false sense of security and wonders if the law really prevents sex crime offenders or child molesters from committing the ” hanous” crimes and almost all critics believe that there must be a better way to prevent sex crimes. ( Mader 1 ). Megan?s Law does require the notification of sex crime

Butler and Roos 5

offenders and child molesters, who is to say that it will truly persuade those sex crime offenders to stop committing their crimes? Realistically, this Law probably does very little to protect children from sexual abuse ( Saunders 2 ). Citizens should give the offenders a second chance to move on or if they cannot deal with that, then just leave them alone. Some rapists are wrongly treated in their communities. For instance, a group of arsonists burned down the home where a paroled child rapist was residing ( Shenk 27 ). Every United States citizen is a partner in making this law. We are obligated to act responsibly with any information we receive. No one has the right to take this law into his or her own hands by wrongfully treating or harming a Sex crime offender ( Verniero 1 ). Another case of a once convicted child molester, gaining no respect from fellow citizens occurred in Seattle, Washington. A released child molester purchased a boat with his spouse but was rejected by dozens of different docks in the area before finding one that was willing to lease him space. It is understood that citizens fear sex crime offenders but this does not mean they have the right to treat them unfairly. Everyone makes mistakes but they should also be granted the right to move on and live a happy life ( Shenk 27 ). People in communities think more natural responses on how to drive the sex crime offender out instead of how to live with them ( Mader 2 ).

The Attorney General Janet Reno had much to say about Megan?s Law. She was the one who drew up the final guidelines for Megan?s Law. ” Megan?s Law makes two changes in the Jacob Wetterling Act. It eliminates a general requirement that information required under state registration programs be treated as private data, and it substitutes mandatory language for

Butler and Roos 6

previously permissive language concerning the release of relevant information that is necessary to protect the public concerning registered offenders ( Reno 2 ).” ” Megan?s Law creates a registration system which informs the police and community when a sexually violent predator or a child Molester moves into their community. In my opinion Megan?s Law could and will stop sexually violent predators and child molesters from striking again ( Reno 36 ).” The Attorney General of New Jersey, where the actual murder of Megan Kanka took place, also had much to input on this topic. He feels that if Megan?s Law is implemented less Sex crimes will occur all over not just in small communities ( Verniero 1 ).Megan?s law is not a law within itself. It is a provision of the Jacob Wetterling Act. There are also many other laws concerning child molesters and sexually violent predators such as the Pam Lyncher Act that also includes amendments to the Jacob Wetterling Act ( Reno 14 ). Megan?s Law makes two changes in the Jacob Wetterling Act. It keeps the information given to the parole officers or the probation officers confidential to them, unless they feel that it is necessary knowledge for the public

Megan?s Law was first introduced in the state of New Jersey by the Attorney General Peter Verniero because of the tragic deaths of Megan Kanka and Amanda Wengert. Three months after Megan?s death on October 1, 1994, the governor of New Jersey, Christine Todd Whitman, signed an eleven bill package known as Megan?s Law ( Aseltine 1).

The majority of people would do what they can to avoid a Sex crime offender, the issue of whether it is right or wrong to notify the community that a Sex crime offender or a Child molester is living nearby, has been the center of many arguments. This is over the statue known

Butler and Roos 7

as Megan?s Law. Supporters argue that Megan?s Law helps to reduce crimes and it also makes communities a safer place to live. Megan?s Law might scare away Sex crime offenders and Child

molesters from committing their crimes again. Other supporters feel as though the Law might give the family a better sense of security than before the Law was enforced. The debates over Megan?s Law are all strongly supported ( Jerome 1 ). John Q. La Fond, a professor at Seattle University School of Law, characterizes the law as being a branding and says ” The best crime prevention strategy is to reintegrate the offenders into the community by helping them find jobs and become productive citizens. But that is impossible when there is angry hostility

( Jerome 3 ).” The biggest argument against Megan?s Law is that the amendments are unethical and unconstitutional. ” Why notification only about Sex crime offenders why not murderers and robbers” was a question asked by a spokesperson for the American Civil Liberties Union. Other criminals are just as dangerous as Sex crime offenders, why should only Sex crime offenders be subjected to discrimination ( Jerome 2 )? ” Others debate that Megan?s Law is ethical, there most definitely is a better sense of security especially because Sex crime offenders get scared off by the Law, and communities will become safer places to live ( Mader 1 ).” The critics of Megan?s Law are not in favor of letting sex crime offenders off the hook, but would rather see other approaches in reducing sex crimes ( Jerome 2). When looking at Megan?s Law from the perspective of the sex crime offender, it is obvious that their lives will never be the same. One judge added, ” This law would prevent offenders who had served time in jail from ever returning to a normal. private, law abiding life ( Mader 2).” Community notification scares sex crime offenders to death. Detective Casey Johnson of King County Police Department stated, ” Offenders call me at all the time and ask where to go, where there are no notification laws

Butler and Roos 8

( Jerome 3 ).” Sex crime offenders who pay society their debts should at least be given a second chance to lead a productive, peaceful, and pleasant life. This law makes all of the Sex crime offenders open to ridicule, discrimination or even vigilantism ( Martens 2 ).

While upholding the requirement that Sex crime offenders register with the police, the United States Federal District Judge, Nicholas Politan of Newark New Jersey, ruled on February 28, 1995 that community notification is unconstitutional. ” Critics say that the Megan?s Law Amendments violate the Ex Post Facto clauses of the state and Federal constitutions, which forbids people to increase punishment after the crime that they committed ( Jerome 2 ).”

Megan?s Law is one of the most controversial topics among lawyers today. Whether you are a supporter or a critic of Megan?s Law, every person is entitled to their own opinion over the issue. I know that if I had children I would sure like to know if there was a convicted Sex crime offender or a Child molester living in my community.

Aseltine, Peter. “Megan?s Law Upheld, With Limitations.” Trenton Times, 23 February 1995.

Bai, Matt. “A Report From the Front in the War on Predators.” Newsweek, 19 May 1997: 67.

Jerome, Richard. “Megan?s Legacy.” People Magazine, 20 May 1995: 46-51.

Mader, Anthony. “Megan?s Law.” Trenton Times, 18 May 1996.

Martens, Steven. “Law Gives Parents False Sense of Security.” Iowa State Daily, 19 October

Reno, Janet. “Final Guidelines for Megan?s Law.” 17 November 1999.

Nicholas Murray Butler

Nicholas Murray Butler - Biographical

Nicholas Murray Butler (April 2, 1862-December 7, 1947) was an educator and university president; an adviser to seven presidents and friend of statesmen in foreign nations; recipient of decorations from fifteen foreign governments and of honorary degrees from thirty-seven colleges and universities; a member of more than fifty learned societies and twenty clubs; the author of a small library of books, pamphlets, reports, and speeches; an international traveler who crossed the Atlantic at least a hundred times; a national leader of the Republican Party; an advocate of peace and the embodiment of the «international mind» that he frequently spoke about. He was called Nicholas Miraculous Butler by his good friend Theodore Roosevelt ; the epithet was so perfect that, once uttered, it could not be forgotten.

Born in Elizabeth, New Jersey, this son of Henry L. Butler, a manufacturer, and Mary Murray Butler, daughter of Nicholas Murray, a clergyman and author, began his career with a brilliant record as a student. In 1882, at the age of twenty, he received his bachelor's degree, in 1883, a master's degree, in 1884, a doctorate - all from Columbia College; in 1885 he studied in Paris and in Berlin where he began a lifelong friendship with Elihu Root. who was also destined to become a Nobel peace laureate. In the fall of 1885, he accepted an appointment on the staff of the Department of Philosophy at Columbia College, which in 1896 became Columbia University. And so began a professional association that was to last for sixty years.

From the first, Butler distinguished himself as an educational administrator. Within four years he gave administrative form to his philosophical theory of pedagogy by establishing an institute which, later affiliated with Columbia, became known as Teachers College. He founded the Educational Review and edited it for thirty years, wrote reports on state and local educational systems, served as a member of the New Jersey Board of Education from 1887 to 1895, participated in the formation of the College Entrance Examination Board. He was named acting president of Columbia University in 1901 and president in 1902, retaining that position until retirement in October, 1945.

Under his presidency, Columbia University made phenomenal growth. It became a major university. All graduate studies were enormously expanded; the scope of professional training was enlarged to include new schools such as those of journalism and dentistry; the student body was increased from 4,000 to 34,000 and the faculty by a like ratio; the plant was enlarged by a construction program that averaged a new building each year, and the endowment kept pace; the professorial salaries were increased enough to attract many of the world's leading scholars to the teaching and research staff.

Butler moved in the realm of politics as easily as he did in that of education. He was a delegate to the Republican convention for the first time in 1888 and for the last in 1936. Butler, Root, William Howard Taft, and Theodore Roosevelt constituted a powerful political quartet in the early years of the century. Breaking with the others in 1912, Roosevelt ran for the presidency as the candidate of the Progressive Party, which drew most of its strength from Republicans, against the nominees of the constituted party: Taft for the presidency and Butler for the vice-presidency. By splitting the national vote, they permitted the Democrat, Woodrow Wilson. to win the election. In 1916 Butler failed in his attempt to secure the Republican presidential nomination for Root and in 1920 and 1928 failed to secure it for himself

Meanwhile, Butler sought to unite the world of education and that of politics in a struggle to achieve world peace through international cooperation. He was chairman of the Lake Mohonk Conferences on International Arbitration, which met periodically from 1907 to 1912, and was appointed president of the American branch of International Conciliation, an organization founded by another Nobel peace laureate, d'Estournelles de Constant. His association with the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace was a fruitful one of thirty-five years. Influential in persuading Andrew Carnegie to establish the Endowment in 1910 with a gift of $ 10,000,000, he served as head of the Endowment's section on international education and communication, founded the European branch of the Endowment, with headquarters in Paris, and held the presidency of the parent Endowment from 1925 to 1945.

Butler married twice. His first wife, whom he married in 1887 and by whom he had one daughter, died in 1903; he remarried in 1907. When Butler became almost totally blind in 1945 at the age of eighty-three, he resigned the demanding posts he still held. He died two years later.

In 1940, Butler completed his autobiography with the publication of the second volume of Across the Busy Years. Both in size and in title it is peculiarly appropriate.

Butler, Nicholas Murray. The Butler papers are deposited in the library of Columbia University.

Essay on tourist places in india - writing essay

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Want to go somewhere less crowded? Here's our list of some lesser-known places in south India waiting to be discovered.

Golconda is one of the famous forts of India. The name originates from the Telugu words “Golla Konda” meaning “Shepherd's Hill”. The origins of the fort can be.

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NPR: Octavia Butler

Essay on Racism
A Science-Fiction Writer Shares her View of Intolerance

Listen to the piece from Weekend Edition Saturday.


Sept. 1, 2001 -- As part of NPR's special report for the UN Conference on Racism, Weekend Edition Saturday 's Scott Simon interviews a writer who shares her vision of what it means to be an outsider.

Butler, a science fiction writer, tries explain our differences, as well as our commonalities, through her fictional tales.
Photo: courtesy of Octavia Butler

Octavia Estelle Butler is the first African-American woman to gain popularity and critical acclaim as a science fiction writer. Through her fictional tales, Butler tries to understand and explain our differences as well as common traits shared by all humans.

In her Lilith's Brood trilogy, for example, she introduces her readers to the Oankali, a nomadic alien species that runs into an evolutionary dead end because of its lack of diversity. Butler says these aliens need to interbreed with the human species to regain their genetic strength despite their hatred of humans' hierarchical tendencies and self-destructive violence.

The theme of slavery also appears frequently in her books. In Kindred. a black woman travels back through time to rescue a white man who turns out to be her ancestor. And she later struggles with the fact that she owes her existence to the man who was one of the oppressors of black slaves.

It's easier to find remedies for racism and violence in the fictional world. But what about in real life? In her essay for NPR, Butler asks: What would make us more tolerant, more peaceful, and less likely to need a UN Conference on Racism? Her sobering answer is "nothing at all." It's natural for humans to feel superior to each other, she concludes, and there would be intolerance even if we were all the same color.

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Butler Model of tourist resort development

The Butler Model of tourist resort development

The purpose of the Butler Model is to look at the way that tourist resorts, grow and develop. The tourist industry, like all industry, is dynamic and constantly changing. Therefore, the Butler Model is a way of studying tourist resorts and seeing how they change over time and in relation to the changing demands of the tourist industry. These changes can then be compared to the predictions as shown on the model.

The Butler Model (see Figure 1) breaks down tourist resort development into five distinct stages.

1. Discovery Stage

A settlement is 'explored' or 'discovered' by a small number of people who later tell others about their experience. In time other people visit and local people seize upon the new economic opportunities provided by these visitors and provide services to meet the needs of these visitors or tourists.

2. Growth and Development Stage

More tourists arrive having heard about the place by word of mouth, articles in Travel Supplements in papers such as The Sunday Times, brochures or tourist guides. The extra tourists attracted by the publicity and people willing to visit somewhere new will lead to the building of new hotels, restaurants, shops and services to cater for the influx of people.

3. Success Stage

As more people visit the resort, the facilities are now fully utilised. At this stage mass tourism replaces what was once the original economic function of the settlement. This may cause some resentment with people in the town who have not benefited from the new industry or from the loss of distinct identity that the settlement held before. It may appear that the local culture is being diminished by a more international and non-unique culture compared to what may have existed before.

4. Problem � Stagnation Stage

Popularity may be short lived. People may become bored with the resort once its initial appeal had waned. Little of the original natural environment will remain and negative comments about what it used to be like may lead people to find somewhere new to discover. The effect of falling tourism if a resort goes out of fashion leads to economic decline and the under-utilisation of tourist infrastructure. The eventual closure of some of the businesses will lead to a rise in unemployment.

5. Decline or Rejuvenation

The tourist resort then has two options; either go into decline or rejuvenate and develop more sustainable strategies based upon lower visitor numbers.