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Citing Sources Extended Essay Example

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Citing sources extended essay

Author: Mar4o On: 25.05.2015

Citing sources extended essay

The deadline comes in big letters at the top. It is full of great information, ideas and inspiration. Follow the directions for this page carefully.

The 2005 Act essa y this perceived soruces by setting out citing sources extended essay statutory framework for determining decision making capacity and introducing a checklist of factors for determining a persons best interests (Mental Capacity Act 2005, the product are talking about commercial value.

The composition of your research essay begins with an Introduction. After Epidural Anaesthesia, Depends Partly On Honor The Birth, Are More Likely.

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Citing sources extended essay

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Citation Examples

Citation Examples

A citation is just a means to document an article, book, or whichever source of information taken at some stage in research. A record of citations produces the bibliography or works cited records at the last part of your research job. Citations hold fundamental evidence concerning the source you refer. In most cases it contains the following title, author, year of publication, publisher and format. This information is quite simple to recognize, but you then require formatting this sources into a correct citation. Citing references is methods of letting your instructor be acquainted with where you got your information. It is normal academic practice and you have to do this in every of your course works. Of the several of thousands of papers available in research journals each year, the majority include records of citations, as references or footnotes published with an academic journal papers. These cited evidences are writers’ acknowledgments of their debt to the published study articles of other authors.

APA style citations takes into consideration to the conventions and rules recognized by the American Psychological Association (APA) for listing evidences used in a research paper. APA style citations need both with in-text citations and a list of reference. For each with in-text citation there ought to be a complete citation in the list of reference and vice versa. APA style citations in-text citations are located inside sentences and paragraphs therefore it is obvious what evidence is being quoted and whose evidence is being cited. The following are APA citation examples :

Works by a single author, the last name of the author and the year of publication are inserted in the text at the appropriate point (Simon, 1945). Works by multiple authors (Leiter & Maslach, 1998).

Citations MLA style is broadly applied for spotting research sources. In Citations MLA style you shortly recognize sources using parenthetical citations in the content of your article, and offer an entire description of every source in your list of citation part. Citations MLA style takes into consideration the conventions and rules made by the Modern Language Associatio n for giving credit to sources used in a research articles.

The following are mla citation examples and list of references, for one author:

Brinkley, Alan. The Unfinished Nation. New York: Knopf, 1993. For two or more authors Rowe, Richard, and Larry Jeffus. The Essential Welder: Gas Metal Arc Welding Classroom Manual. Albany: Delmar, 2000.

Chicago Style Citations

Chicago style citations present 2 fundamental documentation systems the first one is notes and bibliography and the second one is author-date. Selecting between the 2 regularly relies on the subject matter and the nature of sources cited, as every system is privileged by diverse groups of intellectuals.

Chicago style citations delineate 2 separate citation styles, these are humanities style that follows: Notes/bibliography styles, evidences are cited using endnotes (or footnotes) and a bibliography. Author/date style, evidences are cited using parenthetical author/date references in a reference list and the text.

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Citing Indirect Sources - Essay by Keithdeng

Citing Indirect Sources Essay

Below is an essay on "Citing Indirect Sources" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.

Citing Indirect Sources

If you use a source that was cited in another source

In text citation: Name the original source in your signal phrase and include the secondary source in the parentheses.
An example: Maslow argued that……. (as cited in Mullins, 2007, p. 102).
Note: When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. Also, try to locate the original material and cite the original source.

Reference List entry: List the secondary source in your reference list
An example: Mullins, L. (2007). Management and Organisational Behaviour. 8th Ed. Harlow, Essex: Pearson.

If you have found the source in the compiled module handbook

In-text citation:
· Family name of original author
· Family name of author of chapter in compiled book
· Date of publication of original book
· Do not include page numbers

An example: Maslow stated that:
“Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx” (cited by Mullins, 2007)
Or if paraphrased, without the quotation marks

Reference List entry:
· Family name of original author of the Chapter
· Name of the Chapter
· Family names of the book’s compilers /editors
· Date of publication of the compiled /edited book
· Name of the book in italics
· Place of publication
· Name of publishers
An example: Mullins, L. (2007). Work motivation and job satisfaction. In Hinton, G. & Ruscoe, D. (Eds.) (2012). People and Organisational Behaviour within the context of human resource management 2nd edit. Harlow, Essex: Pearson.

Sources used within
Hinton, G. & Ruscoe, D. (Eds.) (2011). People and Organisational Behaviour within the context of Human Resource Management. Harlow: Pearson
The numbers refer to the text book chapters.
1. Introducing Human Resource Management: Torrington, D. Et al. (2009) Fundamentals of Human Resource Management. Harlow: FT/Prentice Hall.
2. Human Resource Strategy: Torrington, D. Et al (2009) Fundamentals of Human Resource Management. Harlow: FT/Prentice.

International Baccalaureate

International Baccalaureate/Extended Essay Tips

Introduction and Getting Started!

Start Working NOW!

The Extended Essay (EE) is one of the requirements of the IB Diploma Programme. It provides students with an opportunity to conduct independent research on a topic of interest to them. It is written on a freely-chosen topic as long as there is a subject teacher in school, as the candidate must have a subject supervisor.


The IBO recommends that candidates spend approximately 40 hours in total on their extended essays, and if you put it off until that last weekend, your work won't be nearly as good as it can be. Talk to your IB school supervisor, as it is his or her job to set internal school deadlines (i.e. choosing a topic, formulating an outline, rough draft, final draft, etc).

Getting Started
  • Firstly, find a topic you're actually interested in, or you'll never work on it.
  • Don't stress. After doing all your research 4,000 words is nothing (your first draft could be 6,000-8,000 words). While the Extended Essay has the potential to make you hate your own topic (as many academic assignments do), an interest in the topic can motivate you to pull through in the end.
  • Many students are appalled at the sheer number of words that this task requires. But by following the guidelines set out for you, you'll quickly realize how hard pressed you will be to contain your work to the limit.
  • Make sure that your focus is somewhat specific, or that you have a specific topic in mind (instead of just a general subject area).
  • Example. Your final essay title should be somewhat similar to the style used in the Internal Assessments for the 20th Century World Issues course - specific and focused with some form of cause and effect. Check the official Extended Essay guidelines for more on this - it offers sample essay titles (along with title choosing advice and essay titles to avoid) for each subject area.
  • If the above example does not apply to you, perhaps ask your IB Coordinator for examples from students past. Many of them keep a record of every essay, mainly to ensure there is no plagiarism.
  • Make sure you stay on top of the work.
  • Look over the guidelines and the explanations.

To get a diploma, you need to complete the TOK Essay and the Extended Essay. At best, you can achieve 3 bonus points towards your IB diploma, so don't ignore your schoolwork, as your courses are worth much more. The point matrix is outlined in the "Diploma Points Matrix for the Extended Essay and TOK" grid in the IBO form. You can still get your diploma if you get a "Mediocre" on one and an "Elementary" on another. NOTE: As of May 2010, an 'Elementary' on both TOK and Extended essay is an automatic fail, but you may still pass with an 'Elementary' on either one, just not both. An 'Elementary' on either is a so called 'failing condition' which requires a minimum 28 points rather than the usual 24 to obtain your diploma.

However, you can make a very good essay, provided you allot yourself enough time to write about something you are interested in. The IBO knows that you are between 16 and 18 years old and thus does not require a perfect essay or a groundbreaking new discovery. They just want to see that you can work on and complete a big project.

Picking a Topic

You'll want to write about a topic or subject you're fairly familiar with. For instance, if you've nailed the process of writing labs, do a science investigation. It'll be just like a big lab write-up, and writing the method, materials, qualitative/quantitative observations are all part of the word count, and take up a significant amount of words.

Essay Competitions

Find out if there are competitions or scholarship opportunities in which you can enter your essay. Why not kill two birds with one stone and head off to university with a scholarship? If you don't win, at least you'll get feedback, something the IBO neglects to give.

Writing a Good Extended Essay

Everyone wants to write a good Extended Essay, but just remember that it's really not as overwhelming as it sounds. Some candidates will find their first drafts are in the 6,000 to 8,000 range, while others will reach about 2800-3500. In fact, keep in mind that 4,000 words is the maximum word count and not where you must get to. While most essays have a word count in the 3,900 range, it is perfectly acceptable to submit an essay that is 3,500 words. While there is no actual minimum word count, you would probably want to write over 3,000 words, since a short essay might imply that the topic was not investigated thoroughly enough. However, some topics - mathematics among them - may require only 2,000 words to fully investigate them.

Citing Sources

Keep legible, consistent and accurate notes that include bibliographic information. There's nothing more annoying than browsing through a 1200 page book looking for where that key quotation came from. Cite your sources in a consistent manner (either in MLA or APA format, or some other recognized format). IBO is very strict with plagiarism, so remember that the text has to be your own and do not forget to make references. You will have to sign an IBO form certifying that your EE is your own, and has no unsourced material in it, before they will even read your essay. Failure to submit an Extended Essay will result in no diploma being awarded.

Use the internet to find information but do include books in your research especially if your essay is not on the Sciences. Be skeptical in your use of the internet. Anyone can post anything, so read with a critical eye. Generally, university and academic websites are good sources to refer to. News sources are generally reliable, but be sure to stay away from "gossip" media which often contorts the truth.

Keep in mind that a general guide line used in many schools is 5 sources minimum for the IA in History, so if you are doing a History paper aim to have as close to ten sources as possible if not more for the EE.


Once you have researched your topic, you should spend a lot of time structuring and organizing your essay. Make sure your essay has a clear introduction, research question/focus (i.e. what you will be investigating), body, and conclusion. A poorly organized or unclear essay will hurt the assessment of your essay. You should also spend some time making sure that your 300-word abstract is clear and succinct in summarizing your essay. An unclear abstract will make your essay difficult to understand and will also hurt the assessment of your essay.

Although this is stated in the "General Requirements" for the Extended Essay, I feel it is necessary to repeat: if you are doing a paper in a subject not offered at your school, be very careful. especially if doing your paper in World Religions. You might want to either reconsider your choice of topic, or make sure you have several people with good credibility in that topic reading your paper. If you don't, especially in World Religions, you could end up offending your reader, and I promise you, you do not want to do that.

You can do your extended essay on any topic for which an IB class exists - i.e. something like Islamic History, which only about 100 candidates a year write about. However, you cannot do your extended essay in Theory of Knowledge, most pilot subjects and school-based syllabus subjects (check with your IB coordinator). Bear in mind that getting a good score in your extended essay, combined with your score for your Theory of Knowledge essay, may reward you with up to 3 bonus points. So aim high!

IBO Official Guide

The above site is quite useful in perusing tips and hints for writing the essay, in addition to viewing the IBO standards for the essay. Note that the above link is for consideration purposes only.

"three: The Ultimate Student's Guide to Acing the Extended Essay and Theory of Knowledge" by Alexander Zouev - a book full of tips and time savers for IB EE.

IB Extended Essay Help, Essay Examples, Topics, Writing Guidelines, Criteria, English, Rubric, IB Psychology Essay

IB Extended Essay Writing Help

Throughout the centuries the sphere of education was influenced by individuals, organizations, governments. Traditionally education is regarded as the most important legacy that parents bequest to their children. Since the time of Enlightenment the relevance of education to a nation’s development and economic growth was realized and education became regarded also as a sphere of special interest of the government. In our globalized world education is passing through the new changes, one of them is the emergence of International Baccalaureate (IB for short). IB is a successful international academic program that has a three tier curriculum that caters for children between the ages of 3 to 19. One of them is an IB diploma program offered to students seeking admission into the universities. In fact it is more challenging, and tedious than A level program.

IB Extended Essay Page Navigation IB extended essay example

IB Extended Essay Free Sample (Click the image to enlarge)

Essay writing is an art and not everyone has a way with words to be able to produce nice essays for professional consumption. By now one must have got an idea about the layout and content that is written in the IB extended essay example. One needs to keep in mind the requirements towards this kind of essays before writing the essay. These essays are highly professional essays and you cannot afford to take them for granted. If you do not know much about the essay then you should try to search on the Internet so that you get an idea of the content.

IB extended essay topics

Check interesting research topics available at When it comes to IB extended essay topics one needs to be very careful while choosing an appropriate one because you would not want to lose on your marks. Always start with searching the library for great books related to your subject. Consider a number of topics and don’t just choose a topic in haste. Always listen to your seniors while selecting your topic and don’t choose a topic that you are unfamiliar with. The idea here is to score good and leave a mark with your writing and not to just flaunt your intelligence. A good decision would pay you well in the future.

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International baccalaureate coined out of International baccalaureate organization (IBO) was formed in 1968 in Switzerland as an international educational school, the diploma agenda for IB (IBDP) was created by Marie-Therese Maurette in 1948, it proposed standard curriculum, and assessment for students in all ages. are experience online custom essays provider, whose writing is compliant with relevant academic standards like MLA, APA, online custom papers are written with precision, no copying 100% original custom research papers and projects, 100 % customer privacy, UK, and UK graduates writer, contact them today for all custom essay papers, and custom term papers writing, prices are very reasonable.

Next is to study all piece of information this time more seriously, analyze all points already gathered. Next is to draft essay outlines. There are writing experts 100% capable of writing this essay, is one among the best, contact them today for your IB extended essay custom papers.

IB extended program is not a bad idea, it promotes educational seriousness and independence in students.

IB extended essay guide

Whenever you are drafting an essay paper for your professional course like IB diploma course you need to be very strategic and thorough in your approach. Here the main idea is to impress your instructor and make them believe that your concepts are clear. IB extended essay guide highlights the points that you need to keep in mind while writing your term paper. Your arguments need to be coherent and connected otherwise you would end up getting confused. You might find amazingly written articles on the Internet but you cannot always rely on those materials because it might be misleading and untrue.

IB extended essay guidelines

Writing an essay becomes all the more interesting and easy if you have certain guidelines by your side to choose from. IB extended essay guidelines help you proceed in the right direction. The guidelines help you find out the exact length of the research paper and the word limit as well. This is one paper where you cannot just keep writing at length without bothering about the limit. You need to pay attention to every single detail before the final attempt to jot down the paper. A beginning middle and an end needs to be drafted very well because that holds the entire paper together.

IB extended essay criteria

Every paper works on certain rules that you are supposed to follow and if you do not follow those set of rules you might just lose on your grades. IB extended essay criteria is available on the and you can have a look at its format and structure to understand it more closely. It is good to have a fair understanding of your subject before finally writing it down as your project. The main purpose behind these papers is to examine your strengths and weaknesses related to that particular paper therefore it becomes all the more crucial for you to score nicely in this one.

IB extended essay psychology

Every paper has a particular field of study and so is the case with IB extended. Here you can choose from a variety of topics. But one suggestion that always works in students favor is that you choose a topic that can fetch you highest grades. Most of the time what we notice is that the student go for a difficult topic to impress the instructor but then they fail to handle it on their own and lose marks. You can also ask for some essay samples from your seniors to make sure that you are proceeding in the right direction.

IB extended essay rubric

IB extended rubric is like the outline of your term paper and it highlights all the important aspects of the paper. It talks about all your thesis and arguments in short so that the idea is conveyed to the reader. It is suggested that you should always make a point to keep a hard copy of your essay somewhere so that you don not lose it anywhere. See, technical glitches can happen to anyone, anywhere, anytime so better be prepared for the calamity as well. The outline would later help you draft your essay because you would help all the necessary content and you would be required to elaborate on that.

IB extended English essay

As you already know that you might be asked to write IB extended English essay so you need to be very much prepared for it. Just start reading all your text firsts. Students have this tendency to keep their texts aside and follow the secondary material blindly. One should keep in mind that main course books are very important and they need to be read very carefully. The instructor would be impressed with you if you follow the right pattern and quote from your texts. It always helps to know your authors and other technical details about the paper that you are planning to write.

How to write an IB extended essay:

IB extended essay is a writing composition that is observed by students who wish to gain entry into the highly prestigious university, it is among the other six courses that a students is required to scale through before acceptance by university, it is very tedious, and highly challenging. It consists of 4000 words essay completed by end of the first semester of the senior year, topics are chosen by students in the junior year under the supervision of the teacher. This type of essay prepares students for the high standard undergraduate research paper, it offer a chance for students to be engaged in an extensive study of essay topic .

Steps on writing IB extended essay

The big deal about this essay is the length 4000 words compare to 500 words essay or less one is use to, secondly it requires longer time to complete which to me is a big plus, you don’t really have to be a perfect writer like to succeed, your previous knowledge of essay plan. structuring, essay outlines. citation, etc is needed.

Find a topic that interest,

Conduct relevant and very extensive research on the research paper topic, keep your cool don’t fret so much about it, read through whatever information you have on your topic leisurely at first, take note of some key point and underline it.

After the survey phase, list out some of the key points you observed while researching, and conduct further investigation about it, ask some key question, if possible discuss the questions with your friends.
It is highly recommended that you find out the IB extended essay guideline from the official website.

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Essay format citations

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Referencing - Extended Essay Hub

As a writer it is your ethical responsibility to give proper credit to sources and demonstrate academic honesty. It is also very important that you give credit in accordance with a recognised form of citation.

The three common styles of citation are listed here. You are encouraged to use the Modern Language Association (MLA) style though some subject teachers will ask you to follow a style of citation that is commonly used within that subject.

Quoting, Summarising and Paraphrasing - tips to avoid plagarism.

As you begin your research it is very important to take notes as you read, select, interpret and evaluate sources of information. If you carelessly take notes, and copy and paste material, you will be in trouble when you try to use these in your Extended Essay. As you select information from a source, record the source in a working biblioraphy and then use one of three methods to record it: quoting, summarising or paraphrasing.

Quoting an author's text, word-for-word is the easiest way to record information, but use this method very selectively and only quote a paragraph that deals directly with your Extended Essay topic in memorable language. When you copy the quote from the source, place it in "parenthesis". If you choose to omit part of the quote use the. symbols. Read the section below about in-text referencing to ensure that you cite the author correctly in your writing
SummarisingThis condenses the content of a lengthy passage. When you write a summary, you reformulate the main idea and outline the main points that support it. Because the ideas are not your's your need to cite the author at the end of the sentence, using one of the in-text conventions. (see below )
ParaphrasingThis allows you to restate the content of a short passage. When you paraphrase, you reconstruct the passage, phrase by phrase, recasting the author's words in your own without using quotations. Because the ideas are not your's and not directly quotes, you need to cite the author at the end of the sentence, using one of the in-text conventions. (see below )

Creative Commons - Timothy Greig
Citing Sources of Information (Works Cited Page)

Developing a works cited page
A "works citied" page is the name MLA give to a bibliography. It is a listing of all of the sources you have citied in the body of your paper. Traditionally this is one of the last pages in your research essay. You should begin creating a draft list of works cited, very early in your research prices. This will help you keep track of your research.

Things to keep in mind.

The Works Cited page (Bibliography) should always been the last page or your essay, report or presentation.
The second and subsequent lines of information should be indented (use the tab key)
Sources should be organized alphabetically by the first word or name in the entry. This first word or name is what you use in the paper when making a direct citation or quote from the author.
Examples of Citations:

The table below lists how to reference five common sources of information in the MLA style. Throughout your research you will likely come across new sources of information and will need to reference these.

Try this invaluable resource for a full list of citation examples using the 3 common styles -> Citation Style Chart .

Type of source How it looks on ‘Works Cited’ page In-text citation

1a) Book by One Author

1b) Book by Two Authors

Last Name, First Name. Title. Place of publication: Publisher, Copyright Date.

Jameson, George P. Ellis Island. New York: Icon Press, 2006.

Last Name, First Name and Last Name, First name. Title. Place of publication: Publisher, Copyright Date.

Smith, Henry G. and Harmon, Betty. Freedom Rides. Chicago: Broad Shoulder Press, 2006.

The author’s name and the page number on which this fact was found are put in brackets.

“In 2007, 37 percent of American adults sought medical information from the internet regarding a health problem they were experiencing before consulting a doctor” (Smith 38).

Note: the reader would understand from this citation that on page 38 of Smith’s book, this fact is mentioned. Furthermore, since the words are contained within quotes, the above example illustrates that this is a direct quote from that page.

If the author’s name is given in the text, it does not need to be included in the citation:

Shaw stated that romantic poetry was marked by a “spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings” (263).

Here is an example of the same idea presented as an indirect quote:

Instead of going to a doctor right away, a recent study found that 37 percent of Americans are now turning to the internet for medical information (Smith 38).

2) Newspaper Article/ Magazine Article

Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Newspaper/Magazine Name Date: page(s).

Blake, Terry. “Attack in Bagdad: Two Marines Dead.” The Plain Dealer 20 July 2006: A1.

Thomasson, Ronald. “Salt Mines of Lake Erie.” Cleveland Magazine 15 May 2004: 23-25.

3) An essay/ document within a book

As in 1a) above – you are quoting the book and its author (or perhaps editor).

Smith has written as essay or chapter in a book authored or edited by Lee. In-text citation is as above for 1.

Smith argues that the structuralist interpretation for Hitler’s rise to power is flawed, as. (Lee 36).

Author (if given). “Title of Web Page.” Title of Website. Date last updated.Name of organization that sponsors the site. Date accessed <URL link>.

Flannery O’Connor Collection. 7 July 2006. Georgia College and State University. 31 August 2006. <

Walker, Gary. "The Effects of Radiation." Hiroshima Atom Bomb. 15 Mar. 2000. Los Alamos Research Facility. 14 Oct. 2008. <>.

Give the author of the website - or organization (if no author).

It has been argued that the effects of radiation was more severe than first thought. (Flannery O'Connor Collection).

If there is a named author

It has also been argued that the effects of radiation was more severe than first thought. (Walker)

To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation styles, including a chart of all MLA citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart. (from the Purdue Online Writing Lab )
Online Citation Tools

Online tools can be very useful to help develop citations. The website EasyBib is a straightforward tool for developing citations. This is perfect for Middle School students who want to double check their citations.

Zotero is the easiest online citation tool, that helps you collate sources of information as you progress with your research. It helps you do several things, collate references with the relevant information, create a bibliography in your format of choice and also insert in-text references as your write your paper. Together Zotero is a powerful tool to improve your referencing skills.

Firstly, you need to download two files to set this up on your MacBook. Zotero 3.0 standalone, allows you to collate citations and then add them into Microsoft Word as you write. The Connector to Safari allows you to drop and drag resources, into your library as you work.

1. Installation and set up

Firstly you need to install the two above files
Open the Zotero.dmg file from your downloads and complete the install.
Then open Zotero from Spotlight.
You will might need to restart MS Word for the plugin to work perfectly.
Create folders for your Extended Essay

A plugin is a piece of software that links Safari with your Zotero application. A new Z icon next to the URL bar, should be showing in Safari.
In most website, newspaper articles and journal databases you can click the Zotero button and the reference will be copied to your Zotero library along with some metadata. (name of website, date of journal, author etc).
You will need to add some extra detail for website references by hunting around the website.

3. Using Zotero with MS Word

When you install the Zotero Standalone application, it will automatically an extra tool to MS Word allowing you to insert in-text references from items in your library.
Open, MS Word and then click on the script icon next to the Help Menu.
Choose to Add Citation
Choose Modern Language Association style format.
Click on the small red arrow on the menu bar to choose old layout.
Choose your reference and then add the page number if required.
The in-text citation should now be showing in your Extended Essay.

Adding a Citation from MS Word for Mac

Adding a Citation from MS Word for Mac - Switching to Classic View

Adding a Citation from MS Word for Mac - Adding page Number