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Racial Smog Essay

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Реферат - Smog And Pollution Essay Research Paper Smog - Иностранный язык

Smog And Pollution Essay, Research Paper

Smog is one of the major forms of air pollution. It makes being outside a health

threat. Some of the major contributers to smog are automobiles, factories, and

other things of this nature. High temperatures stimulate the effects of smog,

therefore, the highest levels of smog are on hot summer days. This means that

most of the problems associated with smog occur in the summer months. Health

effects vary from person to person. There is evidence that suggests that it can

cause some short-term breathing problems. This includes coughing, shortness of

breath, and pain with deep breathing. Individuals with asthma are much more

sensitive to smog. There are a few factors that determine how unhealthy smog is

to a person. The first factor is the amount of ozone in the air. Since heat is

usually associated with ozone, it will make the effects of smog greater. The

second is the length of the exposure. The longer a person is exposed to smog,

the greater the symptoms are. Finally, the third factor is how deeply a person

is breathing when exposed to smog. The heavier an individual breathes, the

bigger dose of smog is going into their lungs. Scientific studies have suggested

that the lungs adapt to smog and other air pollution after prolonged exposure.

This defense mechanism disappears once a person is no longer exposed to

pollutants. Tests on rats, which were exposed to a polluted environment for a

extended period of time, concluded that there was no sign of lung cancer. The

government has stepped in to combat air pollution in general. They passed the

Clean Air Act in 1990. This act made provisions such as placing centralized

emissions testing facilities in high risk areas. The problem with the provisions

is that they cost a lot of money and the state governments do not want to pay

the exorbitant price tags. Locally, a law was recently passed which will all car

owners to get an emissions test on their cars by May of the year 2001. If their

automobile does not pass the test, they will have to get it fixed until it

passes the emissions test. The price of the repair is not expensive but it is

mandatory for the car to be able to drive on the road.

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Smog Essay Research Paper Smog has been

Smog Essay Research Paper Smog has been

Smog Essay, Research Paper

Smog has been around for a pretty long time, people just knew it as something else. Smog comes from the word smoke and fog, and that’s practically what it is. It was a serious problem before, before nature and humans went unharmed in the presence of smog but now it’s serious. What does all of this polluted air do to the body? The answer depends on the situation. How long a person is exposed to pollution, the type and concentration, the place, time and day, temperature, weather and more.

But one thing is certain: Smog is harmful to your health. Lungs are ozone’s primary target. Studies on animals show that ozone damages cells in the lung’s airways, causing inflammation and swelling. It also reduces the respiratory system’s ability to fight infection and remove foreign particle. Ozone may pose a particular health threat to those who already suffer from respiratory problems such as asthma, emphysema and chronic bronchitis. About 10% of the basins approximately 14 million residents fit into this category. Ozone may also pose a health threat to the young, elderly and cardiovascular patients.

Ozone affects healthy people as well. In 1990, the State Air Resources Board established a new health advisory level in response to mounting evidence that smog affects healthy, exercising adults at lower levels than previously believed. Now, a health advisory is issued at .15 parts per million (on the pollutant standards index) before a first stage smog alert is called when ozone levels reach .20 ppm.

During a health advisory, everyone, including healthy adults and children are advised to avoid prolonged, vigorous outdoor exercise. Susceptible individuals, including those with heart or lung disease, should avoid outdoor activities until the advisory is canceled.

Currently, the federal Environmental Protection Agency is reviewing the adequacy of the federal health standard for ozone and is considering tightening it.

The sources of pollution include emissions from on-road vehicles, non-road vehicles like planes, ships and trains, industries, and even small businesses and households where polluting products are used.

Ozone, an invisible gas, is not emitted directly into the air, but forms when nitrogen oxides from fuel combustion and volatile organic gases from evaporated petroleum products react in the presence of sunshine. Ozone levels are highest during the warm months when there is strong sunshine, high temperatures and an inversion layer.

Nitrogen oxides are produced when fossil fuels are burned in motor vehicles, power plants, furnaces and turbines. Carbon monoxide is a by-product of combustion that comes almost entirely from motor vehicles. Fine particles, which are emitted directly as smoke and diesel soot and form in the air out of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides, obscure visibility and can be inhaled deep into the lungs.

During the early years of World War II, Los Angeles residents began to realize the consequences of an increasingly industrialized area. Investigations began to determine the cause of resident’s eye irritation, crop damage, severe reductions in visibility and the rapid deterioration of rubber products. “Smog” became a familiar word and everyday presence and scientists and medical personnel began to look at its effects on public health. In the mid-1950s, the state of California’s Public Health division started to step up its efforts to define the problem of how and where smog forms, as well as address the health concerns associated with exposure to smog. Ozone levels were reaching peaks of .68 parts per million, more than six times the federal health standard. Early efforts to study the health effects of exposure to air pollution focused on acute exposure episodes. Only recently have the long-term exposure effects been addressed. In a 1956 survey sent out by the Los Angeles County Medical Association, physicians reported the following:

There have been several episodes in history which illustrate the harmful effects of acute short-term exposure to air pollution. Among those include:

Belgium’s Meuse Valley

During a five-day fog in December 1930, 63 people died, most of the deaths occurring on the fourth and fifth days. Older persons with previously known diseases of the heart or lungs accounted for the majority of fatalities. The signs and symptoms were primarily those caused by a respiratory irritant. They include chest pain, cough, shortness of breath and irritation of the eyes. Sulfur dioxide gas is suspected as the cause of the disaster.

Twenty people died and approximately 7,000 or 50% of the population, experienced acute illness during the week of Oct. 25, 1948, when temperature inversion and air stagnation occurred. Persons of all ages became ill, but those over 55 were more severely affected. Those with previous heart or respiratory disease, particularly bronchial asthma, suffered most. Symptoms were primarily respiratory and secondarily gastrointestinal, and included cough, sore throat, chest constriction, shortness of breath, eye irritation, nausea and vomiting. The onset of the illness for most persons occurred on the evening of the third day. Of the 20 who died, 14 had some known heart or lung disease.

Three episodes during which heavy fogs and air pollution were associated resulted in the death of nearly 5,000 people – in 1948, 1952 and 1956.

The episode in December of 1952 alone, resulted in at least 3,000 deaths more than expected for that time of year. Although the increase was present in every age group, the greatest increase was in the age group of 45 years and over. More than 80% of these deaths occurred among individuals with known heart and respiratory disease. During each of these incidents, comparable conditions were present: limited air supplies as a result of low-lying temperature inversions and faint winds, and a continuing heavy output of air pollution from multiple sources. Also, in none of the incidents was technology sophisticated enough to properly monitor the air and diagnosis of the specific causes of the illness and deaths were based on limited evidence gathered after the disasters.

Since the 1950s, medical evidence chronicling the effects of air pollution on the human body has continued to mountThe study found that 98% of the four-county basin’s population of 13 million is exposed to unhealthful air, with children especially vulnerable. In addition, 1,600 people die prematurely as a result of exposure to air pollution, according to the study. In 1991, as a follow up to the study, Hall looked at how air quality impacts minority communities. The study showed that minorities as a whole were shown to be exposed more often to poor air quality since they tend to live in more polluted air where housing is affordable. African-Americans and Hispanics generally breathe the worst air, partly because they tend to work in outdoor occupations. Children are the focus of a study funded by the California Air Resources Board that began in spring 1992 and will track 9,600 fourth, eighth and twelfth grade students for up to 10 years to assess the potential health damage from continued exposure to ozone, fine particulates and atmospheric acidity. The lead scientist on the pr

oject is Dr. John Peters of the University of Southern California. David Abbey, Ph.D. of Loma Linda University, studied a group of 6,340 Seventh Day Adventists living throughout California (62% lived in the Basin). Results of the study suggest a relationship between long term exposure to air pollution and the development of specific chronic diseases. Residents living in areas which exceeded state and federal standards for suspended particulates on 42 days or more per year had higher risks of respiratory diseases, including a 33% greater bronchitis risk and 74% greater asthma risk. In addition, women living in those high particulate areas had a 37% higher risk of developing some form of cancer. oIn 1987, Drs. Russell Sherwin and Valda Richters of USC examined the health of 152 young people, between the ages of 15 and 25, who died suddenly from accidents or homicide. In lung autopsies of over 100 of the subjects, slight lung airspace inflammation was found in 75% of the group, with severe damage in 27%. In addition, all of the youths examined had some degree of airway inflammation, while 39% had severe illness in the bronchial glands and 29% had severe illness in their bronchial linings. Combined, about 54% of the youths examined had at least one site of severe illness. While no evidence has been found to deter-ine the levels of smoking or other contributing factors that could have affected their health, these youths appear to have provided the first positive proof of health damage from long-term exposure to poor air quality. oA study conducted by Dr. Roger Detels of UCLA on chronic obstructive respiratory disease (CORD) looked at residents of three Southern California areas (Long Beach, Glendora and Lancaster) with different types and levels of air pollution.

Participants aged 7 to 59 were questioned about lifestyle habits and examined using lung function tests and histories to record exposures to pollutants from workplaces and personal habits, such as smoking.

Athletes may be relatively young, healthy, physically fit and nonsmokers, but they may be among the most vulnerable to the effects of inhaled ozone (and other environmental pollutants), according to Dr. Henry Gong of UCLA. Endurance studies suggest that athletic performance may begin to suffer at the .12 ppm level of ozone (the federal health standard), and is very likely at .20 ppm for most athletes exercising heavily for one or more hours. Fine particulate pollution — even at levels below the federal health standard — can shorten life spans by two years, according to a 16-year study by Harvard University researchers. In a study of 8,111 residents of six U.S. cities, particle pollution was strongly associated with excess deaths from lung cancer and heart disease — even when other lifestyle risks such as cigarette smoking were factored out.

There have been many Environmental Protection Agency studies looking at health effects. Some findings include: oA study of 10 adult men exposed to .12 ppm ozone for 6.6 hours (including five hours of moderate exercise), found that lung function decreased and respiratory symptoms (coughing and breathing discomfort) increased over the more than six hours of exposure. In a study done on rats, continuous low level exposure to ozone caused restrictive lung disease. Removal of the rats from the ozone environment to one of clean, filtered air appeared to reverse the disease state back to normal. However, the study indicated that since people do not breathe filtered air, ozone exceedances in numerous cities would appear to promote pulmonary fibrosis. In a field study of children during normal activities at summer camp, lung function measurements were taken before, during and after ozone levels reached above .12 ppm on four days and .18 ppm on one day. Lung function failed to return to its pre-episode level for many days after the ozone episode had passed. An acute exposure of humans to .40 ppm ozone initiates biochemical changes in the lung resulting in the production of components which contribute to inflammation and acute lung damage and which can lead to long term effects such as fibrosis. A study was initiated to determine if prolonged exposure to low levels of ozone would produce similar biochemical changes. Non-smoking males were randomly exposed to filtered air and either .10 ppm or .08 ppm of ozone for 6.6 hours with moderate exercise. The study concluded that exposure of humans to low levels of ozone is sufficient to cause an inflammatory reaction in the lungs.

The California Air Resources Board has concluded that “since the lungs of children are not fully developed, early damage to the respiratory tract could increase the risk of respiratory disease in adult life.”

Because of their physiology, children are much more likely than adults to develop smog-related lung damage. For their body size, children inhale several times more air than adults, and they breathe faster, particularly during strenuous physical activity. In addition, they spend more time outdoors than any other segment of the population according to the AQMD study. Dr. Robert F. Phalen, Ph.D. professor of community and environmental medicine and director of the Air Pollution Health Effects Laboratory at the University of California, Irvine, says that when children exercise, they tend to breathe through their mouths. According to Phalen, mouth-breathing bypasses the natural filtering of air pollutants by the nose and allows large volumes of polluted air to affect the more sensitive areas of children’s lungs which are still developing. Studies show that children exposed to summer ozone pollution year in, year out, have a greater susceptibility to respiratory infections because chronic exposure to smog impairs their immune system. Research findings also suggest that, even if children do not show symptoms while exercising in unhealthful air, they are likely to suffer a loss in lung function compared to youngsters who grow up where the air is less polluted.

State and federal governments have set health standards for pollutants, specifying levels beyond which the air is unhealthful. California’s state standards for air pollutants are more stringent than the federal government’s. It is up to each individual state to determine if they want to set tougher standards. Standards are set to provide an adequate margin of safety in the protection of public health. Under the federal Clean Air Act, EPA must base standards solely on health considerations and not economics or technology.

Various levels of smog episodes are reported for the pollutant ozone. The declaration of a first, second or third stage smog alert is based on the degree of health risk. The protective actions help to reduce exposure to unhealthful levels of ozone, but those who are especially sensitive should contact their physician for more specific advice. Generally, in the event of a smog alert, outdoor activities should be scheduled for morning or early evening hours to avoid the mid-day peak when ozone levels are at their highest.

My opinion on the problem is that it is a very serious problem and something should be done. The only thing is, nothing jurastic enough will be done. People can’t just all of the sudden stop using cars and humans can’t just all of the sudden change their way of living. So smog and ozone levels will get worse but life will go on.

Реферат: Smog Essay Research Paper Smog has been

Smog Essay, Research Paper

Smog has been around for a pretty long time, people just knew it as something else. Smog comes from the word smoke and fog, and that’s practically what it is. It was a serious problem before, before nature and humans went unharmed in the presence of smog but now it’s serious. What does all of this polluted air do to the body? The answer depends on the situation. How long a person is exposed to pollution, the type and concentration, the place, time and day, temperature, weather and more.

But one thing is certain: Smog is harmful to your health. Lungs are ozone’s primary target. Studies on animals show that ozone damages cells in the lung’s airways, causing inflammation and swelling. It also reduces the respiratory system’s ability to fight infection and remove foreign particle. Ozone may pose a particular health threat to those who already suffer from respiratory problems such as asthma, emphysema and chronic bronchitis. About 10% of the basins approximately 14 million residents fit into this category. Ozone may also pose a health threat to the young, elderly and cardiovascular patients.

Ozone affects healthy people as well. In 1990, the State Air Resources Board established a new health advisory level in response to mounting evidence that smog affects healthy, exercising adults at lower levels than previously believed. Now, a health advisory is issued at .15 parts per million (on the pollutant standards index) before a first stage smog alert is called when ozone levels reach .20 ppm.

During a health advisory, everyone, including healthy adults and children are advised to avoid prolonged, vigorous outdoor exercise. Susceptible individuals, including those with heart or lung disease, should avoid outdoor activities until the advisory is canceled.

Currently, the federal Environmental Protection Agency is reviewing the adequacy of the federal health standard for ozone and is considering tightening it.

The sources of pollution include emissions from on-road vehicles, non-road vehicles like planes, ships and trains, industries, and even small businesses and households where polluting products are used.

Ozone, an invisible gas, is not emitted directly into the air, but forms when nitrogen oxides from fuel combustion and volatile organic gases from evaporated petroleum products react in the presence of sunshine. Ozone levels are highest during the warm months when there is strong sunshine, high temperatures and an inversion layer.

Nitrogen oxides are produced when fossil fuels are burned in motor vehicles, power plants, furnaces and turbines. Carbon monoxide is a by-product of combustion that comes almost entirely from motor vehicles. Fine particles, which are emitted directly as smoke and diesel soot and form in the air out of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides, obscure visibility and can be inhaled deep into the lungs.

During the early years of World War II, Los Angeles residents began to realize the consequences of an increasingly industrialized area. Investigations began to determine the cause of resident’s eye irritation, crop damage, severe reductions in visibility and the rapid deterioration of rubber products. “Smog” became a familiar word and everyday presence and scientists and medical personnel began to look at its effects on public health. In the mid-1950s, the state of California’s Public Health division started to step up its efforts to define the problem of how and where smog forms, as well as address the health concerns associated with exposure to smog. Ozone levels were reaching peaks of .68 parts per million, more than six times the federal health standard. Early efforts to study the health effects of exposure to air pollution focused on acute exposure episodes. Only recently have the long-term exposure effects been addressed. In a 1956 survey sent out by the Los Angeles County Medical Association, physicians reported the following:

There have been several episodes in history which illustrate the harmful effects of acute short-term exposure to air pollution. Among those include:

Belgium’s Meuse Valley

During a five-day fog in December 1930, 63 people died, most of the deaths occurring on the fourth and fifth days. Older persons with previously known diseases of the heart or lungs accounted for the majority of fatalities. The signs and symptoms were primarily those caused by a respiratory irritant. They include chest pain, cough, shortness of breath and irritation of the eyes. Sulfur dioxide gas is suspected as the cause of the disaster.

Twenty people died and approximately 7,000 or 50% of the population, experienced acute illness during the week of Oct. 25, 1948, when temperature inversion and air stagnation occurred. Persons of all ages became ill, but those over 55 were more severely affected. Those with previous heart or respiratory disease, particularly bronchial asthma, suffered most. Symptoms were primarily respiratory and secondarily gastrointestinal, and included cough, sore throat, chest constriction, shortness of breath, eye irritation, nausea and vomiting. The onset of the illness for most persons occurred on the evening of the third day. Of the 20 who died, 14 had some known heart or lung disease.

Three episodes during which heavy fogs and air pollution were associated resulted in the death of nearly 5,000 people – in 1948, 1952 and 1956.

The episode in December of 1952 alone, resulted in at least 3,000 deaths more than expected for that time of year. Although the increase was present in every age group, the greatest increase was in the age group of 45 years and over. More than 80% of these deaths occurred among individuals with known heart and respiratory disease. During each of these incidents, comparable conditions were present: limited air supplies as a result of low-lying temperature inversions and faint winds, and a continuing heavy output of air pollution from multiple sources. Also, in none of the incidents was technology sophisticated enough to properly monitor the air and diagnosis of the specific causes of the illness and deaths were based on limited evidence gathered after the disasters.

Since the 1950s, medical evidence chronicling the effects of air pollution on the human body has continued to mountThe study found that 98% of the four-county basin’s population of 13 million is exposed to unhealthful air, with children especially vulnerable. In addition, 1,600 people die prematurely as a result of exposure to air pollution, according to the study. In 1991, as a follow up to the study, Hall looked at how air quality impacts minority communities. The study showed that minorities as a whole were shown to be exposed more often to poor air quality since they tend to live in more polluted air where housing is affordable. African-Americans and Hispanics generally breathe the worst air, partly because they tend to work in outdoor occupations. Children are the focus of a study funded by the California Air Resources Board that began in spring 1992 and will track 9,600 fourth, eighth and twelfth grade students for up to 10 years to assess the potential health damage from continued exposure to ozone, fine particulates and atmospheric acidity. The lead scientist on the project is Dr. John Peters of the University of Southern California. David Abbey, Ph.D. of Loma Linda University, studied a group of 6,340 Seventh Day Adventists living throughout California (62% lived in the Basin). Results of the study suggest a relationship between long term exposure to air pollution and the development of specific chronic diseases. Residents living in areas which exceeded state and federal standards for suspended particulates on 42 days or more per year had higher risks of respiratory diseases, including a 33% greater bronchitis risk and 74% greater asthma risk. In addition, women living in those high particulate areas had a 37% higher risk of developing some form of cancer. oIn 1987, Drs. Russell Sherwin and Valda Richters of USC examined the health of 152 young people, between the ages of 15 and 25, who died suddenly from accidents or homicide. In lung autopsies of over 100 of the subjects, slight lung airspace inflammation was found in 75% of the group, with severe damage in 27%. In addition, all of the youths examined had some degree of airway inflammation, while 39% had severe illness in the bronchial glands and 29% had severe illness in their bronchial linings. Combined, about 54% of the youths examined had at least one site of severe illness. While no evidence has been found to deter-ine the levels of smoking or other contributing factors that could have affected their health, these youths appear to have provided the first positive proof of health damage from long-term exposure to poor air quality. oA study conducted by Dr. Roger Detels of UCLA on chronic obstructive respiratory disease (CORD) looked at residents of three Southern California areas (Long Beach, Glendora and Lancaster) with different types and levels of air pollution.

Participants aged 7 to 59 were questioned about lifestyle habits and examined using lung function tests and histories to record exposures to pollutants from workplaces and personal habits, such as smoking.

Athletes may be relatively young, healthy, physically fit and nonsmokers, but they may be among the most vulnerable to the effects of inhaled ozone (and other environmental pollutants), according to Dr. Henry Gong of UCLA. Endurance studies suggest that athletic performance may begin to suffer at the .12 ppm level of ozone (the federal health standard), and is very likely at .20 ppm for most athletes exercising heavily for one or more hours. Fine particulate pollution — even at levels below the federal health standard — can shorten life spans by two years, according to a 16-year study by Harvard University researchers. In a study of 8,111 residents of six U.S. cities, particle pollution was strongly associated with excess deaths from lung cancer and heart disease — even when other lifestyle risks such as cigarette smoking were factored out.

There have been many Environmental Protection Agency studies looking at health effects. Some findings include: oA study of 10 adult men exposed to .12 ppm ozone for 6.6 hours (including five hours of moderate exercise), found that lung function decreased and respiratory symptoms (coughing and breathing discomfort) increased over the more than six hours of exposure. In a study done on rats, continuous low level exposure to ozone caused restrictive lung disease. Removal of the rats from the ozone environment to one of clean, filtered air appeared to reverse the disease state back to normal. However, the study indicated that since people do not breathe filtered air, ozone exceedances in numerous cities would appear to promote pulmonary fibrosis. In a field study of children during normal activities at summer camp, lung function measurements were taken before, during and after ozone levels reached above .12 ppm on four days and .18 ppm on one day. Lung function failed to return to its pre-episode level for many days after the ozone episode had passed. An acute exposure of humans to .40 ppm ozone initiates biochemical changes in the lung resulting in the production of components which contribute to inflammation and acute lung damage and which can lead to long term effects such as fibrosis. A study was initiated to determine if prolonged exposure to low levels of ozone would produce similar biochemical changes. Non-smoking males were randomly exposed to filtered air and either .10 ppm or .08 ppm of ozone for 6.6 hours with moderate exercise. The study concluded that exposure of humans to low levels of ozone is sufficient to cause an inflammatory reaction in the lungs.

The California Air Resources Board has concluded that “since the lungs of children are not fully developed, early damage to the respiratory tract could increase the risk of respiratory disease in adult life.”

Because of their physiology, children are much more likely than adults to develop smog-related lung damage. For their body size, children inhale several times more air than adults, and they breathe faster, particularly during strenuous physical activity. In addition, they spend more time outdoors than any other segment of the population according to the AQMD study. Dr. Robert F. Phalen, Ph.D. professor of community and environmental medicine and director of the Air Pollution Health Effects Laboratory at the University of California, Irvine, says that when children exercise, they tend to breathe through their mouths. According to Phalen, mouth-breathing bypasses the natural filtering of air pollutants by the nose and allows large volumes of polluted air to affect the more sensitive areas of children’s lungs which are still developing. Studies show that children exposed to summer ozone pollution year in, year out, have a greater susceptibility to respiratory infections because chronic exposure to smog impairs their immune system. Research findings also suggest that, even if children do not show symptoms while exercising in unhealthful air, they are likely to suffer a loss in lung function compared to youngsters who grow up where the air is less polluted.

State and federal governments have set health standards for pollutants, specifying levels beyond which the air is unhealthful. California’s state standards for air pollutants are more stringent than the federal government’s. It is up to each individual state to determine if they want to set tougher standards. Standards are set to provide an adequate margin of safety in the protection of public health. Under the federal Clean Air Act, EPA must base standards solely on health considerations and not economics or technology.

Various levels of smog episodes are reported for the pollutant ozone. The declaration of a first, second or third stage smog alert is based on the degree of health risk. The protective actions help to reduce exposure to unhealthful levels of ozone, but those who are especially sensitive should contact their physician for more specific advice. Generally, in the event of a smog alert, outdoor activities should be scheduled for morning or early evening hours to avoid the mid-day peak when ozone levels are at their highest.

My opinion on the problem is that it is a very serious problem and something should be done. The only thing is, nothing jurastic enough will be done. People can’t just all of the sudden stop using cars and humans can’t just all of the sudden change their way of living. So smog and ozone levels will get worse but life will go on.

Racial Smog and Categorizing - Essay - 318 Words

Racial Smog and Categorizing

DjkdkdkdddjdddkDkkddkdkdkdkdkdkdkdkdkdkdkdkdkxkxkxkxkAfter viewing the video clip, Social Implications of Race, what do you think is meant by the term racial smog?

Racial smog in my terms is a artificial labeler. This also refers to peoples perception of a race and also the catergorizing. Racial smog in my case has been accepted as a form of racism. It has also played a strategic part in determining a person job role, housing, an even laws based on racial perceptions.

Racial catergorizing can deal a lot with your ethic group according to the shared culture and heritage. The separate identities of ethnic groups are commonly supported by distinctive customs, religion, food, clothing, and sometimes by the perpetuation of a distinctive language or by the belief that they are racially different from other group (Crapo, 2013). This has been very infectious because people or quick to view you based on your race, which is wrong. For example, I couple years ago I was a victim of racial profiling. Am a big fan of old school cars, I have a 69 Chevelle and as I was driving home I was pulled over by a white policeman. He stated that I fit the profile of a black man that had recently robbed a old lady. I argued with the cop that I wasn't, but he wanted to check my car to see if had drugs or any weapons. In my area white people categorize blacks riding in old school and even foreign vehicles as drug dealers, but that does not account for all white people. Honestly I can't remember I how many times I have been pulled over by the white cops due to the vehicles I drive.

Race should not determine whether a person gets a job, or a house. Unfortunately racial smog is real and it still plays a great part in catergorizing our generation.

Crapo, R. H. (2013). Cultural anthropology. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education.

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Реферат: Smog And Pollution Essay Research Paper Smog - Сайт рефератов, докладов, сочинений, дипломных

Smog And Pollution Essay Research Paper Smog

Smog And Pollution Essay Research Paper

Smog is one of the major forms of air pollution. It makes being outside a health

threat. Some of the major contributers to smog are automobiles factories and

other things of this nature. High temperatures stimulate the effects of smog

therefore the highest levels of smog are on hot summer days. This means that

most of the problems associated with smog occur in the summer months. Health

effects vary from person to person. There is evidence that suggests that it can

cause some short-term breathing problems. This includes coughing shortness of

breath and pain with deep breathing. Individuals with asthma are much more

sensitive to smog. There are a few factors that determine how unhealthy smog is

to a person. The first factor is the amount of ozone in the air. Since heat is

usually associated with ozone it will make the effects of smog greater. The

second is the length of the exposure. The longer a person is exposed to smog

the greater the symptoms are. Finally the third factor is how deeply a person

is breathing when exposed to smog. The heavier an individual breathes the

bigger dose of smog is going into their lungs. Scientific studies have suggested

that the lungs adapt to smog and other air pollution after prolonged exposure.

This defense mechanism disappears once a person is no longer exposed to

pollutants. Tests on rats which were exposed to a polluted environment for a

extended period of time concluded that there was no sign of lung cancer. The

government has stepped in to combat air pollution in general. They passed the

Clean Air Act in 1990. This act made provisions such as placing centralized

emissions testing facilities in high risk areas. The problem with the provisions

is that they cost a lot of money and the state governments do not want to pay

the exorbitant price tags. Locally a law was recently passed which will all car

owners to get an emissions test on their cars by May of the year 2001. If their

automobile does not pass the test they will have to get it fixed until it

passes the emissions test. The price of the repair is not expensive but it is

mandatory for the car to be able to drive on the road.

Bay Essay, Research Paper Environmental Economic Impact of Pollution in the Chesapeake Bay The Chesapeake Bay is the nation’s largest estuary with six major tributaries, the James, the Potomac, the Susquehanna, the Patuxent, the York, and the Rappahannock Rivers, feeding into the bay from various locations in Maryland, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and the District of Columbia (Chemical Contaminants in the Chesapeake Bay – Workshop Discussion 1).

The Lorax Essay, Research Paper Seuss addresses a growing crisis by employing nonsensical words and images, such as a Thneed, “a Fine-Something-That-All-People-Need.” The greedy Once-ler and his factories that sully the sky artfully inform the reader about the dangers of pollution, extinction, and deforestation.

Population Essay, Research Paper Brandon Cox Population Facts Some of the worlds problems are all over the world. One is in Los Angles it is sent in the desert and the water has to be pumped in from the Colorado River and

Emissions Essay, Research Paper People certainly seem to be very absorbed in living life well, entirely absent-minded towards our natural environment?s deterioration. This subject should have more of an outstanding effect on them considering pollution is a major issue in our lives.

Car Pollution Essay, Research Paper Since the invention of the automobile, man has put on this earth millions upon millions of cars. These automobiles that we so frequently use, are now polluting the environment we live in. Our cars are now the single greatest contributors of poisonous gases in our environment today.

Paper Air Pollution is the contamination of the atmosphere by gaseous, liquid, or solid wastes or by products that can endanger human health and the health and welfare of plants and animals, or can attack materials, reduce visibility, or produce undesirable odors. For example: air pollution can contaminate and kill many crops on a farm, it may also prevent them from ever growing on that land again.

Athens Essay, Research Paper When Athens became the capital of the new kingdom of Greece in 1833, it was a small town of Turkish-style houses clustered at the foot of the Acropolis. Beginning in the 1950?s, much of old Athens was demolished to make room for modern buildings. The movement of large numbers of people into the capital from rural areas has caused conjestion.

Research Paper Factory and business owners have the ability to prevent air pollution. The government should take action, requiring equipment to cut down on hydrocarbons in the atmosphere. The little spent regulating equipment used in factories can go a long way saving billions on health problems and other related issues.

Air Quality Essay, Research Paper Anna Spysz Oct. 18 1999 3rd Period Air Quality “Remember when atmospheric contaminants were romantically called stardust?” (5).

Driving Age Essay, Research Paper Turning the age of sixteen is a huge step in the life of a teen. When becoming the age of sixteen a new challenge is brought into a person?s life, the task of driving a car. But are sixteen year olds ready for this for this task. Driving a car is a task that should only be taken on by teens over the age of eighteen year olds because they are more responsible and understand the risk involved, there brain is underdeveloped and most of the driving they do is unnecessary.

Pollution In Georgia Essay, Research Paper Growing cities face many problems today. One problem is pollution. Most pollution in bustling cities is from improper land use. This affects the air and the water of these cities. Atlanta, the capital of Georgia, has this problem.

Air Pollution 3 Essay, Research Paper Every day, the average person inhales about 20,000 liters of air. Every time we breathe, we risk inhaling dangerous chemicals that have found their way into the air. Air pollution includes all contaminants found in the atmosphere. These dangerous substances can be either in the form of gases or particles.

Air Pollution in Ontario Air pollution is a major topic in our society it is a subject to be taken seriously because it causes many problems in our environment causing it to be very unhealthy for our living lifestyle. Air pollution is described as the accumulation of something where it is not wanted and the introduction of something into the environment that adversely affects the environment or the usefulness of it s components.

Health Essay, Research Paper Industrial Pollution :How it Contributes to Disease Air pollution occurs when toxic gases and particles are discharged into the air. In the 20th century air pollution has become a serious problem in most of the world s countries. This is mostly due to the rapid growth of industry throughout the world.

PROBLEMS OF THE WORLD In today s world there are many problems facing the welfare of humankind, which could affect our existence in the future. If these problems are not recognized, and the appropriate actions are not taken to slow down or put an end to them, then the consequences could be devastating. While the effects may not be evident on a daily basis, over time, the damage becomes much more clear.

’ozone Essay, Research Paper Qu’est-ce que la couche d’ozone? L’ozone (O3) est un gaz incolore dont la formule chimique s’apparente a celle de l’oxygene (O2). L’ozone de l’atmosphere se trouve surtout dans la stratosphere, une couche de l’atmosphere situee entre 15 et 35 kilometres au-dessus de la surface de la Terre.

Horses Essay, Research Paper Horses, magestic and beautiful brown, trotting forth like a carriage in snow subtle, yet friendly fierce, yet tame gentle, yet free

Air Polution Essay, Research Paper AIR POLLUTION Some causes of air pollution are Smog, Acid Rain and Nuclear Problems. Smog is a word that discribes a mixture of smoke and fog. In some places you are advised to stay indoors when smog is bad. One of these places is Mexico City in Mexico. It has some the worst air pollution in the world.

Pollution 4 Essay, Research Paper Pollution As time advances pollution is every where, humans more and more rely on machines to live their lives. Machines like cars and trucks, airplanes, computer; all of which produce some kind of pollution. Maybe air, water, and even noise pollution are cause by these machines.

Industrial Pollution Essay, Research Paper There are all of types of pollution. Industrial pollution is the air, water, and chemical pollution caused by industries. There has always been pollution. Industrial pollution began when our country went through the Industrial Revolution. Most all parts of the world are affected in some way by industrial pollution.

Research Paper The Damaging Effects of Acid Rain Modern society is becoming overwhelmed with great amounts of pollution from cars, factories and an overabundance of garbage. The immense amounts of sulphur dioxide emitted into the air causes high levels of acid in the atmosphere. When this sulphuric acid is absorbed into moisture in the air, poignant rainfalls can be damaging to the external environment.

Air Pollution Essay, Research Paper Each time you drive to work or school, use your heater, clean your windows or even gel your hair, you create air pollution you make choices that can reduce pollution. You are not expected to not make any air pollution, (even though that would be good). You are only expected to reduce it by not making to much waste.

Air Pollution Essay, Research Paper In 1948, the industrial town of Donora, Pennsylvania suffered 28 deaths because of the thick smog. Air pollution is an ecological problem having to do with toxins in the air. There are a few things the human race has done to try to prevent air pollution from taking such a serious toll.

Air Pollution Essay, Research Paper INTRODUCTION Air Pollution, addition of harmful substances to the atmosphere resulting in damage to the environment, human health, and quality of life. One of many forms of pollution, air pollution occurs inside homes, schools, and offices; in cities; across continents; and even globally.

Paper The Problems of Air Pollution Problem What causes pollution? What can we do to prevent it, and get rid of it? Is it fair to the children of the future to have to suffer the consequences that pollution causes? Why not take care of the problem now? Factory and business owners have the ability to prevent air pollution.

Air Pollution Essay, Research Paper Air Pollution With the great concern surrounding the destruction of the earth’s atmosphere due to air pollution, the immediate and direct harm caused to the human body is often over

In HOuse Pollution Essay, Research Paper Introduction The phrase ?House? isn?t a strange thing for us. Everyone in the earth wish to has his or her own house to live in. People use their house for shelter and a place to sleep, cook, bath, relax and many more. What?s the most important is that they could spend their time with their families.

Paraphrase Essay, Research Paper Pollution Control: Costs and Benefits By deTocqueville The root words for ecology and economy share the same meaning, they both

Environmental Pollution Essay, Research Paper ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Automobiles like these are around the world everyday, and their exhaust destroys our air everyday.

Pollution Essay, Research Paper Pollution. What is pollution? According to the Merriam Webster Dictionary pollution is ?the action of polluting esp. by environmental contamination with man-made waste. The United States runs on power. Much of the United States? powers come from various nuclear power plants all across the country.

Ocean Pollution Essay, Research Paper Ocean Pollution Ocean Pollution is a problem that directly affects ocean organisms and the natural balance. It indirectly affects human health and resources. Oil spills, toxic wastes and the dumping of other materials all contribute to the broad term ‘Ocean Pollution’.

Untitled Essay, Research Paper Gifted Chemistry IB Alternative Assessment Photochemical SmogHistorically, the term smog referred to a mixture of smoke and fog, hence the name smog.

According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, driving a car is the single most polluting thing that most of us do.