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In this report I will set out to investigate the hypothesis of why horror films made in the late 70's/early eighties were banned, but now we are allowed to see them.
I aim to research a variety of sources for this report, primary and secondary.
Primary sources will include talking to people and e-mailing official bodies relating to the hypothesis.
Secondary sources will include books and the internet.
When the research is complete this will form the main body of the text, which will discuss the hypothesis. This will then give a better understanding of why these films have gone through such a lengthy process to get where they are today. There will also be arguments formed in the main body of the text.
Lastly a conclusion will be formed with my own thoughts on the hypothesis also included.
The British Board of Film Classification is a censorship body that regulates films, video and digital media. They then give them different classifications depending on the content of the film. The BBFC produce certificates on behalf of local authorities responsible for cinema licensing. They way in which the BBFC classifies a film has to be fair. It has to comply with the current guidelines in place and be in line with public opinion.
The way in which they find out if the film is in line with public opinion and which certificate rating it should receive is by showing the different films to the examiners. The examiners job is to watch the film and comment on the following issues in the movie:
Theme/Topics, Language, Nudity, Sex and Relationships, Violence and Threat, Dangerous Behaviour, Weapons, Horror and Drugs.
At the end of the film the examiners will get together and discuss what they thought about the film and then try to come to a final decision on what they think the classification should be.
In order to get a film classified there is a fee. The fee all depends on how long the running tThis Essay is Approved by Our Editor
Since the dawn of mass media, many countries have attempted to regulate, control, or even block certain messages or content from being exhibited to their citizens at large. Most states are primarily interested in "classifying” opposed to "censoring” media, especially movies into appropriate categories. Many parents want more information about the entertainment their children see.
A board of 8 to 13 members that make up the Classification and Rating Administration meet in Los Angeles to discuss the movie ratings. They came up with the following ratings for minors; G is for General Audiences, all ages are admitted. PG is Parental Guidance Suggested; some material may not be suitable for children under 13. R is restricted, people under 17 requires accompanying parent or adult guardian. NC-17, no one 17 and under admitted.
Television Content Rating now exists on televisions nationwide to help prevent children from viewing inappropriate material, but most parents do not really know what each rating means.
In February 1996, the television industry agreed to devise a television rating system, to give parents more information about the TV shows their kids watch.
TV-Y7 is designed for learning at a young age. These shows have no violence and no offensive dialogue. Shows with this rating will probably not be enjoyable to adults or older children. An example of a TV-Y7 show is Teletubbies.
TV-Y is usually, but not limited to cartoons. Shows with this rating do not contain violence and no offensive material. For the most part it stimulates the mind and is entertaining. An example of a TV-7 show is Howie Mandell's Bobby's World.
TV-G rated programs are suitable for all ages and should contain content that is entertaining for all ages. It should not contain extensive violence but may contain some. It should not contain offensive material. TV-9 directly mirrors the rating of G from the movie industry. An.Related Essays:
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Censor means to examine in order to suppress or delete any object that may seem objectionable. I believe censorship is wrong because certain materials may not be objectionable to some people. Censorship is used in radio and television to prevent the corruption of people’s minds. Censorship is wrong because individuals should have the freedom to listen or watch what they want, whether or not it offends some, without interference.
The television is one place where censorship is strongly used in many different ways. One of the oldest and most common ways used to censor inappropriate words is to use a “bleep.” I disagree with this method because whatever these people are saying is just words. Remember the saying “sticks and stone may break my bones but words will never hurt me?” These words will not harm anyone and if people are offended they don’t have to listen. Another popular method of censoring television is to cit out scenes. TV stations will cut out a certain scene or scenes from a movie or television. I disagree with this method because it changes the way that the producer of these shows or movies intended them to be. If TV stations plan on cutting out scenes they should not air the show or movie at all. One last method of censorship commonly used in television is rating labels. Again, this is a method of censorship I disagree with. Although these ratings allow parents to protect their children from bad things, if a show is on TV it should be viewable by all audiences. Also most things being censored will be seen by most people in their lives anyway. Censorship in TV is a bad thing and should be reconsidered.
The music industry is a place where people experience censorship. One form of censorship in music is to play and edited version of a song. While this method filters out some harmful words, I think this is bad because it changes the musicians original song.
This censoring takes out parts of the song he intended to be there. I think the radio shouldn’t play these edited version, but play unedited version. Another popular method of censorship is to put parent advisory labels on CD’s. These labels are bad because they don’t allow underage people to buy certain CD’s. Why should these underage people not be able to listen to bad words or inappropriate themes if it is part of real life. The government is trying to put a blanket over children’s eyes until they get older.
They want to brainwash the children so they will stop corruption in the world. One last way music is censored, just like television, is using “bleeps”. These bleeps are terrible, annoying, and useless. They ruin songs that you are listening to. Who wants to sit and listen to a song littered with “bleeps”, because I sure don’t! If people don’t want to hear “bad” words they should buy country music, and leave the rest of the world alone.
Censorship is a terrible thing and it should be outlawed at some point. The government should stop trying to control the way the U.S. citizens live and focus on more important issues like the war in Afghanistan. Citizens should be left alone to live and not be constantly bothered by the annoyances of censorship.
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Television Censorship Essay, Research Paper
WHAT IS CENSORSHIP?
“Censorship is the supervision and control of the information and ideas that are circulated among the people within a society. In modern times, censorship refers to the examination of books, periodicals, plays, films, television and radio programs, news reports, and other communication media for the purpose of altering or suppressing parts thought to be objectionable or offensive. The objectionable material may be considered immoral or obscene, heretical or blasphemous, seditious or treasonable, or injurious to the national security. Thus, the rationale for censorship is that it is necessary for the protection of three basic social institutions: the family, the church, and the state.
Censorship and the ideology supporting it go back to ancient times. Every society has had customs, taboos, or laws by which speech, play, dress, religious observance, and sexual expression were regulated(Microsoft Encarta 95).”
CENSORSHIP OF OBSCENITY
“The beginning of a new legal approach may be traced to the action of the federal courts in the 1930s, when they held that Irish author James Joyce?s Ulysses was not obscene and could be freely passed through customs. The courts ruled that the use of “dirty words” in “a sincere and honest book” did not make the book “dirty.” Since the 1950s many obscenity cases involving books, magazines, and film have been brought before the Supreme Court. In the cases during the 1970s the court ruled that laws against obscenity must be limited ” to works which, taken as a whole, appeal to the prurient interest in sex; which portray sexual conduct in a patently offensive way; and which, taken as a whole, do not have serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.” The Court has further held that obscenity should be determined by applying “contemporary community standards” rather than national standards (Microsoft Encarta 95).”
WHO DOES TELEVISION CENSORSHIP EFFECT?
CENSORSHIP AFFECTS MINORS AND ADULTS
Does censorship affect both minors and adults? One incident in Ohio led a mother of a 5 year old boy to believe so. The boy?s mother attributed his actions to the influence of the popular MTV cartoon show Beavis and Butthead. In response to watching this cartoon the boy set his house on fire which killed his younger sister. In response to criticism about the show?s violence and appeal to younger viewers, MTV moved the cartoon to a later time slot, to prevent young children from viewing it (Microsoft Internet Explorer).
In another incident a teen-aged boy was killed and two others seriously injured while lying down along the centerline of a highway. The boys were imitating a scene from the movie The Program. The accident and the publicity that followed prompted Touchstone films to remove the scene from the movie, but leaving many other violent scenes, including one in which a student purposely smashes his head through a car window (Microsoft Internet Explorer).
I also believe that not only children but perhaps an “impressionable adult” for whatever reason could feel moved to commit these same acts of violence that are portrayed on uncensored movies and television. Many of these movies contain countless instances of torture and unnatural suffering, mass killings and ethnic persecution. Some of these same crimes are being committed as we speak by minors and adults all over the world. Who is to say that people are not influenced by viewing a movie that lacked proper censorship?
WHAT ARE SOME OF THE GUIDELINES THAT GOVERN TELEVISION CENSORSHIP?
FILM INDUSTRY GUIDELINES
“One US industry, the film industry has for many years practiced a form of self-censorship. In the 1920?s, responding to public demands for strong controls, the Motion Picture Association of America imposed on its constituents a Production Act; compliance with its standards gave a movie a seal of approval. A system of film classification was begun in 1968 and has been revised several times since then. Films are given ratings, as follows: G (general audiences), PG (Parental Guidance advised), PG-13 (may not be suitable for pre-teens), R (persons under age 17 not admitted unless accompanied by parent or adult guardian), and NC-17 (persons under age 17 not admitted, replaced the X rating in 1990) (Microsoft Encarta 95)”
TELEVISION AND RADIO GUIDELINES
“For the television and radio industries the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has generally established vague rules about program content containing an implied threat that a license can be revoked for repeated poor judgment involving program content. In 1987 the FCC responded to public complaints by adopting measures to restrict the use of explicit language about sex and bodily functions from the broadcasting media. Another code, designed by the National Association of Broadcasters, is voluntarily adhered to by station operators. The major networks also have their own self-regulating system. The Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), for example, has a staff of people who review scripts and watch everything that is aired on CBS-TV, including commercials; every contract with a producer provides that the project is subject to approval under this s
ystem (Microsoft Encarta 95).”
PRIVATE ACTION GROUP GUIDELINES
“In the US, many different private groups attempt to influence radio and television and broadcasters and other communication media to suppress material that they consider objectionable. Religious, ethnic, and racial groups have tried to prevent plays, movies and television programs from being presented because of elements they deem offensive.”
“One private group, the American Civil Liberties Union, promotes the open flow of all types of information in the belief that individuals should have free access and opportunities for the exercise of their personal discretion and that no group should limit the availability of the resources from which such choices are made (Microsoft Encarta 95).”
TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPETITION AND DEREGULATION ACT OF 1995
“This Act is intended to establish a national policy framework designed to accelerate rapidly the private sector deployment of advanced telecommunications and information technologies and services to all Americans by opening all telecommunications markets to competition, and to meet the following goals:
1) To promote and encourage advanced telecommunications networks, capable of enabling users to originate and receive affordable, high-quality voice, data, image, graphic, and video telecommunications services.
2) To improve international competitiveness markedly.
3) To spur economic growth, create jobs, and increase productivity.
4) To deliver a better quality of life through the preservation and advancement of universal service to allow the more efficient delivery of educational, health care, and other social services (Telecommunications Bill 1995, Internet).”
The Congress makes the following findings:
“Competition, not regulation, is the best way to spur innovation and the development of new services. A competitive market place is the most efficient way to lower prices and increase value for consumers. In furthering the principle of open and full competition in all telecommunications markets, however, it must be recognized that some markets are more open than others.”
“More competitive American telecommunications markets will promote United States technological advances, domestic job and investment opportunities, national competitiveness (Telecommunication Bill of 1995, Internet)”
VIEWERS HAVE OPTION TO WATCH VIOLENCE ON TELEVISION
One Associate Night Editor, Daniel C. Stevenson, wrote a column called, “Viewers Have Option To Watch Violence On Television”. In this column, he states, “It should not be the responsibility of the government to decide what is good and bad for viewers, it should be the responsibility of the viewers themselves. A film or book that is vulgar or horrifying to one person might be seen as beautiful art or entertainment to another. Such value judgments should be left up to each person, not formulated by the government. Any kind of government control that seeks to expose children only to ?good?
events and actions is a violation of an important freedom?the freedom to see both sides of an event, to observe both good and bad (Microsoft Internet Explorer).”
Another viewpoint is that of Pat Paulsen, TV personality, on January 7, 1968. He states, “Many people feel that censorship is a violation of Freedom of Speech?Bull Feathers?Censorship is NOT unconstitutional. Censors have the right to censor what you hear. Without censorship of television, how else can you, the American public, have the protection you want from vulgar scenes, over-exposed bodies and all the other sights you like to see?Without the censors we would all be at the mercy of the warped minds of the television industry and Deity only knows what you would see, probably some of the most foul, nasty, disgusting, vulgar, funniest, greatest stuff in the world (Microsoft Internet Explorer).”
CENSORSHIP OF TELEVISON – VIEWPOINTS
SHOULD TELEVISION SHOWS BE CENSORED?
One private individual, Mitchell Gene Zaninelli states, “I will start with the censorship of television. The government of the United States of America has been getting very involved in what they think is appropriate to be on television. I want to know why they get to decide what I want to watch. I feel that it should be a person?s choice. They say they are concerned with what children are viewing, or that some things such as nudity and swear words offend people. Parents should monitor what their children watch. If a parent does not want their child to see something in particular, then it is the parent?s responsibility to see that they do not, not the government?s (Microsoft Internet Explorer).”
What do you think? Should our government continue to enforce television and film censorship as it has been? Or should all forms of censorship be abolished completely?
“It is the purpose of this Act to increase competition in all telecommunications markets and provide for an orderly transition from regulated markets to competitive and deregulated telecommunications markets consistent with the public interest, convenience, and necessity (Telecommunications Bill of 1995, Internet).”