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Limitations Of Schwartz Value Theory Essay

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Schwartz Value Theory

Schwartz Value Theory

Poland is a country where contemporary and traditional aspects exist side by side. Its past history has greatly influenced its current culture and this is shown in the visual arts, film and theatre. Media presentation, according to the Schwartz Value Inventory, is based on the achievement value. People who focus on achievement like to set goals and achieve them. For them, the more challenging the goal, the better. In addition, when others achieve the same goals that they have set out, they aim to pursue harder goals. The growth of Polish media after Communist rule was over allowed for new opportunities but also new challenges to maintain their position in the media market. This lead them to continue to aim for bigger goals to achieve.

Ukraine has been developing its own culture for many years but throughout history there have been many other cultural influences. Despite all this, Ukraine preserved its own culture within their media and customs. Because of Communism, Ukraine’s media presentation, according to the Schwartz Value Inventory, was ruled by the power value but this changed towards more of the universalism value. People who value the power value of the Value Inventory prioritize social status and prestige. They find this to be one of the most important things in life. Also, they find controlling others and resources very important. Since both influence someone’s status in society, they are taken into consideration. Contrary to this, people who value the universalism value seek social justice and tolerance for all. They promote peace and equality and try to prevent inequality in society. Ukraine’s media presentation switched from having very controlled media to being concerned with the equality of media.

Media presentation in Poland and Ukraine are both different because of what they value based on Schwartz’s Value Inventory. They show how the different values influence media presentation differently.

2 responses to “ Schwartz Value Theory ”

While I agree that the achievement value of the Schwartz Value Inventory can be applied to Poland’s media presentation, I believe that a more precise value exists to compliment her argument about the country’s post-Communistic media. After learning about Poland’s fluctuating media access, caused by the government’s political transition out of Communist rule, I believe that the increased media presence is caused by the citizen’s value of independence (self-direction). Once the media censorships and restrictions were lifted from the country, people grabbed onto this opportunity to act on their newfound freedom. Although there are still a few media restrictions, journalists have more opportunities to report on diverse information outside of the control of the Poland government and are acting upon this opportunity. That’s why I believe self-direction is the best value to match Poland’s current media system.
Regarding Ukraine, I find Laura’s view on the shift of values from power to universalism to be very insightful. Power is a top-priority for Communistic nations. When the shift occurred after the fall of Communism, the government and it’s citizens did a 180-degree flip to support peace and equality; power was no longer an important value. Her interpretation of the country’s values is supported by the definitions found in the Schwartz Value Inventory.

I personally find the topic of Schwartz’s value inventory to be of extreme interest – I feel it really defines how a country is run and works as a whole. Reading this post, I found it most interesting to see the dramatic in change in Ukraine’s ranking from power to universalism, or better yet, self-enhancement to self-transcendence.

This switch in media presentation clearly depicts the change of politics in the history of the country and what a large impact the two can have on each other.

I think Poland and Ukraine may actually be similar than they appear on the surface, though. While Poland is an achievement value, it still falls under the similar category of self-transcendence as Ukraine’s power value. Poland does clearly value setting goals more, but they do fall under the same umbrella.

Coming from an American standpoint, I feel we would be able to most relate to a little bit of each, having high values of power and achievement ourselves. It would be interesting to see all three countries next to each other on the value inventory.

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Comparison of schwartz value theory and self determination

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About Us More About Us Comparison of schwartz value theory and self determination

Published: 23, March 2015

A need is an innate drive all organisms possess and desire to fulfil to maintain optimal functioning of the self. The Self Determination Theory (SDT) developed by Ryan & Deci ( ) is a theory of motivation and personality which proposes that humans are active organisms who posses to strive for three basic, innately drive psychological needs; competence, autonomy and relatedness. These needs should be constantly satisfied to a degree that allows humans to develop and function healthily (Ryan & Deci, 2000). When the universal needs are fulfilled, intrinsic motivation occurs; this involves doing something from a sense of enjoyment and volition. The higher the intrinsic motivation, the higher the sense of well being. People goals and behaviour are aimed to fulfil these needs, creating a higher sense of self-determination.

As well as needs, every organism holds a set of values. Schwartz and Sagiv (1995) described human values as transitional, desirable goals which act as guiding principles in ones life, which varying levels of importance. The Schwartz Value Theory (SVT) (Schwartz, 1992, 2005) identifies ten motivationally distinct values which are derived from three universal requirements of the organism: social interaction, biological needs of individuals and survival needs of groups. Values become the focal point in ones cognition and influence peoples behaviours, attitudes and decisions. The ten universal values are: self-direction, stimulation, hedonism, achievement, power, security, conformity, tradition, benevolence, and universalism. The values have been found cross-culturally, with relation to the structure aspect and dynamic associations between them. This essay will compare the concepts of needs from the self determination theory with the concept of values from the Schwartz value theory based on the issues of the development of values/needs, research methods/measurement, and the pathway to well-being. The second part of this essay constitutes of a contemporary study based on SVT. It will be explained how this study can/cannot be researched using the needs from SDT.

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The first issue that will be compared for both theories is the development of needs and values, both of which differ. The main assumption of the Self Determination Theory is that humans are active organisms who possess innate tendencies for psychological growth and development in order for optimal functioning of the human body (Ryan & Deci ). Humans have evolved these tendencies to master challenges, integrating them with new experiences from various aspects of life which motivationally challenge the ongoing satisfaction of the three basic universal needs identified; competence, autonomy and relatedness, to develop a unified sense of self. Competence refers to the effectiveness of how one is with dealing with social pressures from the environment (White, 1959). Relatedness is defined as the need to be connected and interact with care for others (Baumeister & Leary, 1995), and autonomy is the cognition to be integrated with the self and to be the controlling agents in ones' life (Deci and Vansteenkiste, 2004). The extent to which these needs are satisfied will determine the effectiveness of human development and growth of the individual. However, the tendency for growth is not an automated process, but acquires nourishment from the social environment to adequately fulfil the basic needs. If the ongoing satisfaction is disillusioned by the social context in which one operates, the individuals optimum functioning will be impaired and the needs will not be fulfilled. In turn, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation will be thwarted and the dissatisfaction will result in ill-being or malfunctioning of the body.

Although SDT acknowledges that support and nutriments from the social context of the environment are sought for to satisfy growth development, the main assumption is that the development of needs are innately driven. In comparison to this, the Schwartz Value Theory assumes that values are initiated and developed through the socialisation process. Kasser, Koestner, & Lekes (2002) conducted a longitudinal study and found that values develop through identification, imitation and the need for satisfaction from early family experiences, which shape our adult values. A need which is not fulfilled as an infant will generate as a value in adulthood. For instance, if the need for security is not met in childhood, the individual will grow to value security and power. The SVT expresses that peoples ever-changing life circumstances allow expression for certain values over others, people adapt their values to their situation. Schwartz & Bardi (1997) convey that people raise the importance of values when necessary, and reduce the importance when obtainment is unachievable. For example, at times of economic crisis, the importance of the value power is increased. Value development and priorities of these values are also characterised by ones age, gender and education. These factors clearly emphasise that the development of needs occur via learning experiences and socialisation, in comparison to the needs from SDT which are innately driven. However, one aspect in which both theories are similar is that SDT also relies on some aspects of the social context to fulfil the needs to gain instrinsic motivation.

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Both SVT and SDT use similar measures to test the concept of needs and values. The main research method used is self report measures in the form of scales, although both vary in types. Schwartz first tested his ten basic values using the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) (Schwartz, 1992, 2005). This rating scale consists of two lists of value items; the first list consisting of 30 items described in noun form, and the second list consisting of 26/27 items in adjective form, describing desirable ways of acting. Participants were required to rate the value items on a 9-point scale in order of importance 'as a guiding principle in MY life'; 7 (supreme importance) to -1 (opposed to my values). The 10 values were found to be apparent in most of the 67 participating countries, and a vast majority of the 75,000 respondents viewed the values as mildly to very important. The self report measure allowed respondents to state their opposing values as well as conforming ones, which is vital for a cross-cultural study as people from differing cultures tend to have opposing views. For example, collectivist cultures may value tradition, whereas individualists value power.

An alternative method to the SVS used to measure the ten values is the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ) constructed specifically for children, elderly and uneducated persons as the context is more abstract and free-flowing. The questionnaire consists of short verbal portraits of 40 different people, each describing the person's aspirations and goals directed towards the importance of a value. Each portrait was gender-matched with the respondent (Schwartz, 2005b; Schwartz, et al. 2001). Participants were required to respond to each portrait on a 6-point scale; 1 (very much like me) to 6 (not at all like me), answering 'How much like you is this person?

Similar to measuring values, the self determination theory also uses self-report measures to investigate the concept of needs. The concept of values is researched based on two distinct surveys which are widely used, however, there is no definite measure to research the concept of needs, but is investigated using a variation of scales in which the findings have been collaborated. Each scale administered investigates a different feature of the theory. One example is the Basic Psychological Needs Scale (BPNS), which consists of a set of questionnaires measuring the level of satisfaction one has for the three universal psychological needs; competence, autonomy and relatedness (Ryan & Deci,  ). In addition to this, as the values theory is based solely on surveys, the SDT formally compromises five mini theories derived from field and laboratory research, attempting to explain motivationally based phenomena. The self determination theory fails to account for individual differences but instead provides a one dimensional method for all participants. In comparison to this, the Schwartz value theory accounts for the variations between groups. For instance, the SVS is written in over 46 languages and is administered in 67 cultures with over 75,000 respondents. Also the PVQ was designed specifically for children, the elderly and uneducated persons. Therefore Schwartz value theory may provide a more thorough account for the concept of values.

Well-being is one attribute that both the Schwartz theory and self determination share, although both pose different means of achieving it. Schwartz value theory suggests that when people are successful in fulfilling a value, they feel a high sense of well-being. However, there is no value in particular which promotes well-being; rather the values of importance in ones life will create a higher sense of well-being when fulfilled. This is supported by Oishi et al (1999) who conducted a daily diary study and found that participant's experienced a higher sense of well-being when they succeeded in tasks that were attributed to the importance of personal values. STV proposes that certain environments assist in fulfilling important values, such as pursuing values relative to occupational environments. For instance, business students showed increased happiness if they valued power (Sagiv & Schwartz, 2000). The self-determination theory also shares the notion that when the needs are fulfilled, well-being occurs. SDT suggests that when autonomy, relatedness and competence are satisfied, intrinsic motivation occurs which in turn leads to higher task performance, increasing the level of positive well-being. Intrinsic motivation refers to completing a task or doing something with care and a sense of enjoyment. Therefore SDT poses that achieving goals and a sense of well being is sought for through the basic needs and intrinsic motivation, but when meeting these needs is somewhat frustrated, the level of well-being is diminished. When extrinsic goals such as fame and money become the centre of ones life, this results in indirect satisfaction of the three innate needs which causes dissatisfied fulfilment as they often are more stressful and thought provoking conducts (Ryan, Koestner & Deci, 1991). This demonstrates that intrinsic motivation is more satisfying to an individual and obtains a higher sense of well being than extrinsic motivation. This is supported by Sheldon & Kasser (1995), who found that people who accentuate extrinsic rather than intrinsic goals obtain a lower sense of well-being resulting in anxiety, depression and other physical symptoms.

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A contemporary study by Cohen (2010) uses Schwartz value theory to investigate the relationship between individual-level values with organizational and occupational commitment among Israeli Arabs teachers. The sample presented in the study is comprised of 369 Arab teachers (254 females and 115 males), from 14 various schools situated in the north of Israel. Each participant was tested for their individual values using The Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ). The hypotheses proposed that the two commitment forms would express a strong link with values of conformity, security, tradition, benevolence and universalism. However, no link would be discovered with the values of power, hedonism, achievement, self-direction and stimulation. The central finding demonstrates that organizational and occupational commitments were significantly effected by the two values; benevolence and conformity.

The study postulates a greater understanding of teachers' organizational and occupational commitments in relation to Schwartz value theory; demonstrating how individual values are associated with commitment, even when their pursuits are controlled for by demographic characteristics such as gender and religiosity. Although the study found a significant relationship between the two commitment forms and benevolence and conformity, individuals were assessed on all ten basic values; some of which can be studied using the innate psychological needs from the Self-Determination theory. For example, the values universalism and benevolence are related to the need for relatedness as they all share the goal of care and welfare for others that they interact with. The value hedonism and need for autonomy share

In conclusion, both SDT and SVT share a number of aspects in which both are similar and differ. Both theories express the goal for wellbeing, satisfaction and wellbeing although pose different pathways to acieve it. Needs are driven by innate tendencies and develop through personal growth, whereas values are initiated through

Bardi, A. & Schwartz, S. H. (2003). Values and behavior: Strength and structure of relations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 1207-1220.

Cohen, A. (2010). Values and Commitment: A Test of Schwartz's Human

Values Theory Among Arab Teachers in Israel. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40, 8, pp. 1921-1947.

Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.

Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (2000). "The 'what' and 'why' of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior." Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268.

Flink, C. Boggiano, A. K. & Barrett, M. (1990). Controlling teaching strategies: Undermining children's self-determination and performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 916-924.

Ryan, R. M. & Deci, E. L. (2000). "Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being." American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.

Schwartz, S. (2002). Schwartz Value Inventory. Retrieved January 5, 2010 from http://changingminds.org/explanations/values/schwartz_inventory.htm

Schwartz, S. H. (2005). Basic human values: Their content and structure across countries. In A. Tamayo & J. B. Porto (Eds.), Valores e comportamento nas organizaç|Atoes [Values and behavior in organizations] (pp. 21-55). Petrópolis, Brazil: Vozes.

Sheldon, K. M. & Kasser, T. (1998). Pursuing personal goals: Skills enable progress but not all progress is beneficial. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 546-557.

Oishi, S. Diener, E. Suh, E. & Lucas, R. E. (1999). Value as a moderator in subjective well-being. Journal of Personality, 67, 157-184.

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About Us More About Us Greet Hofstedes Dimensions Of Culture Concept Business Essay

Published: 23, March 2015

Hofestede's "dimensions of culture" is emerged from his external organizational anthropology this is a research which is conducted from a period of late 1970s and early 1980s. Cultural dimensions were classified in 1984 and Hofestede was the first person to classify those dimensions and he made a research with the help of different students and with the employees of IBM. When Hofested worked for IBM he made a research and collected data from many individuals. After all his research he added some information to his research and developed different cultural dimensions.

"Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster." - Dr. Geert Hofstede

The different dimensions are

Power distance index (PDI)

Uncertainty avoidance index (UAI)

Long term orientation (LTO)

Power distance index (PDI)

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Power distance index is described as is defined as "the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally". (Hofstede,1994,p.28). Power distance index is classified into two and those two are a high power distance and a low power distance and both the factors explain about the inequalities of wealth and power in the society. Power distance index suggests that the level of inequality in the society is endorsed by the followers as much as the leaders

Individualism

Individualism concentrates on the society reinforces individual or collective and interpersonal relationships. The individual rights which are paramount in the society are indicated by the high individualism and the low individualism indicates the societies of the collectivist nature which is close ties between individuals. Hofstede defines this concept as "individualism pertains to societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after himself or herself and his or her immediate family. Collectivism as its opposite pertains to societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout people's lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty." (Hofstede, 1994,p. 51)

Masculinity/feminity

Both of the masculinity and feminity are equal. The nation which faces a high degree of gender variance is reflected by the high masculinity. The domination of male occupies a major place in these cultures and the females will be controlled by males. Low masculinity ranking shows the lower level of variance between the genders. Hofstede explains this dimension as "masculinity pertains to societies in which social gender roles are clearly distinct (i.e. men are supposed to be assertive, tough, and focused on material success whereas women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life); femininity pertains to societies in which social gender roles overlap (i.e. both men and women are supposed be modest, tender, and Concerned with the quality of life)." (Hofstede, 1994, p. 82-3).

Uncertainty avoidance index

Hofstede explained this dimension as "the extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by uncertain or unknown situations." (Hofstede, 1994, p.113). The level of tolerance for improbability and indistinctness within the society was shown by the uncertainty and avoidance. The low tolerance of uncertainty and ambiguity of a nation was shown by the high uncertainty avoidance which creates a society that is rule oriented and it reduces the level of uncertainty. The less concern about ambiguity and uncertainty and the level of diversity of opinions was indicated by a low uncertainty. Low uncertainty avoidance takes more risks.

Long term orientation

Hofstede describes long-term orientation as "characterized by persistence, ordering relationships by status and observing this order, thrift, and having a sense of shame, whereas short-term orientation is characterized by personal steadiness and stability, protecting your "face", respect for tradition and reciprocation of greetings, favors, and gifts". Long term orientation shows the values of long term commitments of a nation and it also indicates the respect for tradition and it mainly indicates that the concept of long term does not reinforce and short term rewards have been expected from the people.

Limitations of Hofstede's model

The usefulness of Schwartz s ‘Values Theory’ in understanding consumer behaviour towards differentiated products - Kent Academic Repository

The usefulness of Schwartz's ‘Values Theory’ in understanding consumer behaviour towards differentiated products

Krystallis, Athanasios and Vassallo, Marco and Chryssochoidis, George (2012) The usefulness of Schwartz's ‘Values Theory’ in understanding consumer behaviour towards differentiated products. Journal of Marketing Management, 28 (11-12). pp. 1438-1463. ISSN 0267-257X. E-ISSN 1472-1376. (doi:10.1080/0267257X.2012.715091 ) (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided)

The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided. (Contact us about this Publication )

Abstract

The Values Theory adopts a generic framework whereby a set of values is employed across consumer decision-making contexts in a manner that makes no distinction among various product categories. The present study advances this theory by exhibiting the adaptation capability of the generic values instrument (the Portrait Value Questionnaire, PVQ), demonstrating that tailor-made PVQ versions can reflect consumers' motives towards differentiated products (i.e. organic foods). A questionnaire was completed by approximately 1000 households in each of eight EU countries (N = 8171). The organic food-relevant PVQ was developed through a preliminary qualitative phase (i.e. a means-end chain analysis), and its factorial design was validated through CFA, showing high statistical performance. PVQ-based European clusters with strong self-transcendence values comprised large numbers of organic purchasers. Moreover, results point to the fact that when a circumplex taxonomy, such as the PVQ, is applied in a real context (i.e. organic food purchases), the situation-relevant value domains merge into new hierarchical dimensions in absolute respect of the original taxonomy. This conclusion points to PVQ's robustness in adaptability to different situations of human value perspective.

Integration of Schwartz s value theory and Scheler s concept of value in research on the development of the structure of values during adolescence: Po

Polish Psychological Bulletin Integration of Schwartz's value theory and Scheler's concept of value in research on the development of the structure of values during adolescence

Citation Information: Polish Psychological Bulletin. Volume 42, Issue 4, Pages 205–214, ISSN (Print) 0079-2993, DOI: 10.2478/v10059-011-0027-5. April 2012

Publication History

Published Online: 2012-04-19

Integration of Schwartz's value theory and Scheler's concept of value in research on the development of the structure of values during adolescence

A proposal is presented in the article of integrating Schwartz's circular model of values (1992, 1994, 2006) with Scheler's concept of values (Brzozowski, 1995). The main research goals were: 1) empirical verification of the attempt to include the values of Scheler into the circle of Schwartz's values; 2) use of the concept and measurement of Scheler's values to describe the development of the value structure during adolescence. Two studies were conducted in a group of 988 persons aged from 15 to 20 years. The Scheler Value Scale of Brzozowski (1995) was used along with the new version of the Schwartz's Portrait Value Questionnaire (Schwartz et al. 2011). In the first study, multidimensional scaling of multitrait-multimathod (MTMM) matrix was carried out, into which were introduced the indexes of Scheler's values and the indexes of Schwartz's value types. In this way, it was demonstrated that it is possible to include Scheler's values in the four higher order values within Schwartz's circle of values. In the second study, it was shown that by using the Schelerian values to analyse the development of the value structure, similar results were obtained to those that were acquired with the aid of instruments intended to measure values in Schwartz's approach. The structure becomes differentiated with age and takes on the shape of a circle.

Arnett, J. (2004). Emerging Adulthood: The Winding Road from Late Teens through the Twenties. Oxford: University Press.

Berzonsky, M. D. Cieciuch, J. Duriez, B. & Soenens, B. (2011). The how and what of identity formation: Associations between identity styles and value orientations. Personality and Individual Differences. 50(2), 295-299.

Bilsky, W. & Schwartz, S. H. (2008). Measuring motivation: integrating content and method. Personality and Individual Differences. 44(8), 1738-1751

Bilsky, W. Janik, M. & Schwartz, S. H. (2011). The structural organization of human values - Evidence from three rounds of the European Social Survey (ESS). Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 42(5), 759-776 [Web of Science]

Borg, I. & Groenen, P. (2005). Modern Multidimensional Scaling: Theory and Applications. New York: Springer.

Brzozowski, P. (1995). Skala Wartości Schelerowskich - SWS [Scheler Value Scale]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego.

Brzozowski, P. (2007). Wzorcowa hierarchia wartości - polska, europejska czy uniwersalna [A model value hierarchy - Polish, European Or Universal]. Lublin: Wydawnictwo UMCS.

Cieciuch J. Harasimczuk, J. & Döring, A. K. (2011). Validity of the Polish Adaptation of the Picture-Based Value Survey for Children (PBVS-C). Submitted for publication.

Cieciuch, J. (2009). Value priorities and structure in adolescence and early adulthood in 19 European countries. In: W. Zagórska, J. Cieciuch, D. Buksik (Eds.), Axiological Aspects of Development in Youth (pp. 47-72). Warszawa: Wydawnictwo UKSW.

Cieciuch, J. (2012). Big Five and Big Ten - between Aristotelian and Galileian physics of personality. Theory and Psychology. in press. [Web of Science]

Cieciuch, J. Davidov, E. Vecchione, M. & Schwartz, S. H. (2011). Evaluating the structure of 19 human values with confirmatory factor analysis. Regional Conference of International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, Istanbul.

Cieciuch, J. Harasimczuk, J. & Döring, A. K. (2010). Struktura wartości w późnym dzieciństwie [Value structure in late childhood]. Psychologia Rozwojowa [Developmental Psychology], 15(2), 33-45.

Cieciuch, J. & Schwartz, S. H. (2012). The number of distinct basic values and their structure assessed by PVQ-40. Journal of Personality Assessment. in press.

Döring, A. K. Blauensteiner, A. Aryus, K. Drögekamp, L. & Bilsky, W. (2010), Assessing values at an early age: The Picture-Based Value Survey for Children. Journal of Personality Assessment. 92(5) 439-448. [Web of Science]

Gurba, E. (2011). Wczesna dorosłość [Early adulthood]. In: J. Trempała (ed.), Psychologia rozwoju człowiek [Human developmental psychology] (s. 287-311), Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Harasimczuk, J. Cieciuch, J. & Döring, A. K. (2011). The circular structure of values in Polish children. 15th European Conference on Developmental Psychology, Bergen.

Liem, G. Martin, A. Nair, E. Bernardo, A. & Prasetya, P. (2011). Content and structure of values in middle adolescence: evidence from Singapore, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Australia. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 42(1), 146-154. [Web of Science]

McCrae, R. (2009). The physics and chemistry of personality. Theory and Psychology. 19(5), 670-687. [Web of Science]

Peterson, C. Seligman, M. E. (2004). Character strength and virtues: a handbook and classification, Washington: APA Press.

Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theory and empirical tests in 20 countries. In: M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology. vol. 25 (pp. 1-65). New York: Academic Press.

Schwartz, S. H. (1994), Are there universal aspects in the content and structure of values? Journal of Social Issues. 50, 19-45. [CrossRef]

Schwartz, S. H. (2006). Basic human values: theory, measurement, and applications. Revue française de sociologie. 47(4), 929-968.

Schwartz, S. H. & Bilsky, W. (1994). Values and personality. European Journal of Personality. 8, 163-181.

Schwartz, S. H. Cieciuch, J. Vecchione, M. Davidov, E. Fischer, R. Beierlein, C. Ramos, A. Verkasalo, M. Lönnqvist, J.-E. Demirutku, K. Dirilen-Gumus, O. Konty, M. (2011). Refining the theory of basic individual values. Under review.

Schwartz, S. H. Melech, G. Lehmann, A. Burgess, S. & Harris, M. (2001). Extending the cross-cultural validity of the theory of basic human values with a different method of measurement. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 32(5), 519-542.

Spini, D. (2003). Measurement equivalence of 10 values types from SVS across 21 countries. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 34(1), 3-23.

Related Content

Schwartz s Value Inventory

Schwartz's Value Inventory

Shalom Schwartz (1992, 1994) used the 'Schwartz Value Inventory' (SVI) with a wide survey of over 60,000 people to identify common values that acted as 'guiding principles for one's life'.

Ten 'value types' are identified that gather multiple values into a single category.

Power

This takes value from social status and prestige. The ability to control others is important and power will be actively sought through dominance of others and control over resources.

Achievement

Value here comes from setting goals and then achieving them. The more challenge, the greater the sense of achievement. When others have achieved the same thing, status is reduced and greater goals are sought.

Hedonism

Hedonists simply enjoy themselves. They seek pleasure above all things and may, according to the view of others, sink into debauchery.

Stimulation

The need for stimulation is close to hedonism, though the goal is slightly different. Pleasure here comes more specifically from excitement and thrills and a person with this driver is more likely to be found doing extreme sports than propping up a bar.

Self-direction

Those who seek self-direction enjoy being independent and outside the control of others. The prefer freedom and may have a particular creative or artistic bent, which they seek to indulge whenever possible.

Universalism

The universalist seeks social justice and tolerance for all. They promote peace and equality and find war anathema except perhaps in pursuit of lasting peace.

Benevolence

Those who tend towards benevolence are very giving, seeking to help others and provide general welfare. They are the 'earth mothers' who nurture all.

Tradition

The traditionalist respects that which has gone before, doing things simply because they are customary. They are conservatives in the original sense, seeking to preserve the world order as is. Any change makes them uncomfortable.

Conformity

The person who values conformity seeks obedience to clear rules and structures. They gain a sense of control through doing what they are told and conforming to agreed laws and statutes.

Security

Those who seek security seek health and safety to a greater degree than other people (perhaps because of childhood woes). Though they may worry about the potential of military force, they welcome the comfort that their existence brings.

Super-grouping

Note how these values form something of a spectrum, with successive values often having a close relationship. This is perhaps unsurprising as they are groupings of a larger number of values. They can also be collated into larger super-groups:

  • Openness to change. Stimulation, self-direction and some hedonism.
  • Self-enhancement. Achievement, power and some hedonism.
  • Conservation. Security, tradition and conformity.
  • Self-transcendence. Universalism and benevolence.

These can be arranged in a circle or square, as below, with these four variables forming two dimensions of focus on the self or not, and seeking stability or change.

So what?