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Реферат - Reaction Measurement Essay Research Paper The reaction - Иностранный язык

Reaction Measurement Essay, Research Paper

The reaction time of ten subjects was measured. The subjects were asked to catch

a ruler ten times under five different conditions. The first condition measured

the subject’s simple reaction time. Each further condition added an additional

stimulus and the reaction times were measured. There was a clear increase in

reaction time with the addition of further stimulus, however the expected result

of a steady increase in response time with the addition of each condition did

not occur. The third condition displayed the highest response time where as the

final condition displayed the second lowest (after condition 1). Assuming that

no design problems in the experiment affected the results, it cannot be

concluded that cognitive processes occur in separate order and do not overlap.

Given the average reaction time of condition five was lower than condition

three, some cognitive adaption may have occurred to lower the response time of

the subjects or another reason may exist. One aspect not covered by the

experiment, but important to the results was the error factor. Pre-guessing the

experimenter caused a high rate of error, however it lowered the overall

results. Why measure response times? As the world moves forward with technology,

increasing pressure is placed upon humans to be quicker, be smarter and to

operate more efficiently. As the population increases systems are being put in

place to reduce incidences and accidents occurring. An example of this is a

study conducted by Cameron, 1995 examining the influence of specific light

colors, motor vehicle braking and the reaction time of the drivers to these

specific clouds and conditions to avoid rear end collisions. Donders subtractive

method holds that reaction times can be obtained by subtracting the simple

reaction time; or subtracting type A from type B etc. (Cameron, 1995). Given

this, it stands that the more stimulus provided (or thought processes required),

the longer the response time of the subjects. This theory is tested in the

measurement of ten responses to five test conditions. The trial provides

preliminary information to participants and it is expected that reaction times

will be shorter than if no information was supplied. (Rosenbaum, 1980.) Method

Participants Ten participants were selected, four female and six male. Ages

ranged from twenty-two to fifty three. All were fully able bodied and from

English speaking backgrounds. Materials A plastic yard rule was used. The yard

rule was six centimeters in width. Procedure Condition One The experimenter sat

one subject on a chair and instructed them to place their arm out in front of

them at a comfortable height. The yard rule was then placed between the

subject’s fingers at a height of 10 centimeters. The subject was then told the

condition 1 (Appendix A) and given three trials. The subject then completed the

ten tries at the condition and the results were recorded. All ten subjects were

tested in the same manner. No abnormal results were obtained. Condition Two The

experimenter sat one subject on a chair and instructed them to place their arm

out in front of them at a comfortable height. The yard rule was then placed

between the subject’s fingers at a height of 10 centimeters. The subject was

then told the condition 2 (Appendix A) and given three trials. The subject then

completed the ten tries at the condition and the results were recorded. All ten

subjects were tested in the same manner. An error rate and abnormal results

occurred. Condition Three The experimenter sat one subject on a chair and

instructed them to place their arm out in front of them at a comfortable height.

The yard rule was then placed between the subject’s fingers at a height of 10

centimeters. The subject was then told the condition 2 (Appendix A) and given

three trials. The subject then completed the ten tries at the condition and the

results were recorded. All ten subjects were tested in the same manner. An error

rate and abnormal results occurred. Condition Four The experimenter sat one

subject on a chair and instructed them to place both their arms out in front of

them at a comfortable height. The yard rule was then placed between the

subject’s hands at a height of 10 centimeters. The subject was then told the

condition 4 (Appendix A) and given three trials. The subject then completed the

ten tries at the condition and the results were recorded. All ten subjects were

tested in the same manner. A high error rate and abnormal results occurred.

Condition Five The experimenter sat one subject on a chair and instructed them

to place both their arms out in front of them at a comfortable height. The yard

rule was then placed between the subject’s hands at a height of 10 centimeters.

The subject was then told the condition 5 (Appendix A) and given three trials.

The subject then completed the ten tries at the condition and the results were

recorded. All ten subjects were tested in the same manner. A high error rate and

abnormal results occurred. Results Then ten subjects all recorded faster

reaction times for condition one than any of the other conditions (Fig 1). On

the surface this result would support the theory that the more stimulus the

slower the reaction time of the subject. When examined as a whole, this is not

strictly the case. Condition one averaged 180.3 milliseconds, condition two

240.5, condition three 270, however, condition four averaged 254.4 and condition

five only 238.2 milliseconds. Fig 1 – Average responses of subjects over five

conditions. Initially the introduction of more stimuli slowed the reaction time

of the subject. The reaction time of the subject did not, however slow from

condition three to four and four to five with more additions. The standard

deviation for condition one was also lower than any of the other conditions (Fig

2). The deviation for condition one was 26.5, condition two 37.5, condition

three 31.1, condition four 31.7 and condition five 28.8. The high variation for

condition two may be explained by the fact that it is the first introduction of

an additional stimulus over and above the simple response. Fig 2. Average

responses of subjects and the standard deviation. Discussion The results show

that an initial increase in the complexity of a task increases the reaction

time. According to Donders’ Theory (Gottsdanker, R & Shraap, P. 1985)

results for Condition Five (Discrimination + Decoding + Response Selection)

should be greater than condition four (Discrimination + Response Selection) and

condition three (Discrimination and Decoding). Condition five, however, was

faster in reaction time that condition four and three (Fig 1). Shown only these

results the conclusion may be drawn that Donders theory is not entirely correct

until the source, method and type of experiment is examined. The biggest factor

in the reduction of response time between experiments three and four to

experiment five was the error ratio. It was clear in the experiment that the

subjects were pre-guessing the experimenter. This was providing the subject with

a better result than if the subject was legitimately waiting for instructions,

as there was no penalty for incorrect responses. Nine out of the ten subjects

saw the experiment as a competition and therefore concentrated more on speed

that correctness. As in the case when the subject drops the ruler himself or

herself or when pre-advised of the requirement, the results are shorter as the

processing time is shorter when the subject has pre-ordained the response they

will make. This limitation was due mainly to the type of experiment conducted.

Given the materials and the situation it was not an accurate measure of response

times as some subjects had thirty or forty attempts before ten correct responses

could be obtained. Although the logic of Donders’ Theory is relevant, in this

case it cannot be ascertained conclusively that an increase in tasks slowed the

reaction time of the subjects.

Cameron, D.L. (1995). Color-specificity to enhance identification of rear

lights. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 80(3): 755 – 769. Gottsdanker, R. &

Shraap, P. (1985) Verification of Donders’ subtraction method. Journal of

Experimental Psychology: Human perception and performance, 111(6), 765 – 776.

Hackley, S.A. Schaff, R. & Miller, J. (1990). Preparation for Donders’ Type

B and reaction tasks. Acta Psychologia, 74, 15 – 33. Rossenbaum, D.A. (1980).

Human movement initiation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Specification of

aim, direction, and extent. General 109, 444 – 474. Weiten, W. (1998).

Psychology, Themes and Variations (4th Ed.) California: Brooks/Cole.

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FREE Reaction Paper Essay

Topics in this paper Popular Topics

During my childhood I used to hear about the United States of America as the country of freedom, democracy and of course land of the rich people. It had a mythical unique stand among other countries. Even European countries could not be compared to the States. But when Chuck spoke last week, he certainly didn't speak of the land of the freedom, equality or democracy. I already have heard about the issues he pointed out, however, hearing someone's personal experiences, especially if this someone is as passionate as Chuck, made the Utopian American Dream dissappear for me.

Chuck pointed out the distinctive privilege for those who carry certain characteristics in the society. Although I was not surprised to hear that those who are white, male, heterosexual, and Christian are in a privileged status in the society, it still bothered me to hear about it. One of the reasons for this fact to irritate is the times we live in. In the 21st century, there shouldn't be segregation between human beings, but unfortunately, what I believe does not change the society we live in.

Chuck also brought up facts from history such as the segregation between the white race and African American race. What was most interesting was the specific examples about the segregation. I had heard about separate schools, buses and so on in a broad sense, but never actually listened to someone give specific examples of it. Chuck talked about the impact of segregation on people's ever day lives. For instance, there were separate elementary schools for people of color. What upset me the most was hearing the example of separate hospitals. I didn't know that African Americans actually died in certain circumstances, due to not being admitted to the "white  hospitals. I just couldn't believe that a doctor would refuse to treat a patient because of skin color. Wouldn't that defeat the oath doctors take?

This Essay is Approved by Our Editor Essays Related to Reaction Paper

Caffeine Ruler Reaction Time Test - Research Paper - 367 Words

Caffeine Ruler Reaction Time Test

Caffeine Ruler Reaction Time Test

* OBSERVATION/ASK QUESTION
* INTRODUCTION/RESEARCH
* HYPOTHESIS
* EXPERIMENT/DATA
* CONCLUSION

Materials
· Ruler
· Paper
· Pencil
· Chart

OBSERVATION::
Those drinking coffee appear to be more alert in class.
Does drinking coffee improve mental and physical function?
>
>
<
<
Can the effects of coffee alter coordination?

HYPOTHESIS::
Caffeine improves your mental & physical reaction time to make you faster.

EXPERIMENT/DATA::
Here we have a simple test of the speed of one’s responses. The purpose of the test is to determine what effect coffee has on a person’s reaction time.

This experiment was conducted by asking an equal number of participants, 5 who had drank coffee, and 5 who hadn’t, to catch a falling ruler when prompted by a buzzer.

Participants were asked to stand with their arms at their sides, fingers 1in apart. As the buzzer sounded, the ruler was simultaneously dropped. Reaction times were recorded based on the time the ruler was caught.

COLLECTED DATA::
Drank Coffee | Did Not Drink Coffee |
| | ATTEMPTS | Avg | | | ATTEMPTS | Avg: |
PARTICIPANT | 1 | .275 .180. 250. 370 | .269 | PARTICIPANT | 1 | .320. 250. 175. 350 | .274 | | 2 | .275. 400. 385. 225 | .321 | | 2 | .350. 300. 285. 285 | .305 | | 3 | .380. 300. 175. 280 | .284 | | 3 | .250. 350. 320 | .317 | | 4 | .220, 275. 200 | .232 | | 4 | .175. 325. 235 | .276 | | 5 | .350. 350. 375 | .358 | | 5 | .250. 350. 350 | 317 |

| |
. CONCLUSION::
After testing the reaction times of individuals who had or had not consumed coffee on that particular morning, we have concluded that there was no significant difference between reaction times. Coffee drinkers had both the fastest and the slowest time recorded at 0.175 sec and .400 sec. The non-coffee drinkers had similar results but stayed within the.

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Реферат: Reaction Measurement Essay Research Paper The reaction

Reaction Measurement Essay, Research Paper

The reaction time of ten subjects was measured. The subjects were asked to catch

a ruler ten times under five different conditions. The first condition measured

the subject’s simple reaction time. Each further condition added an additional

stimulus and the reaction times were measured. There was a clear increase in

reaction time with the addition of further stimulus, however the expected result

of a steady increase in response time with the addition of each condition did

not occur. The third condition displayed the highest response time where as the

final condition displayed the second lowest (after condition 1). Assuming that

no design problems in the experiment affected the results, it cannot be

concluded that cognitive processes occur in separate order and do not overlap.

Given the average reaction time of condition five was lower than condition

three, some cognitive adaption may have occurred to lower the response time of

the subjects or another reason may exist. One aspect not covered by the

experiment, but important to the results was the error factor. Pre-guessing the

experimenter caused a high rate of error, however it lowered the overall

results. Why measure response times? As the world moves forward with technology,

increasing pressure is placed upon humans to be quicker, be smarter and to

operate more efficiently. As the population increases systems are being put in

place to reduce incidences and accidents occurring. An example of this is a

study conducted by Cameron, 1995 examining the influence of specific light

colors, motor vehicle braking and the reaction time of the drivers to these

specific clouds and conditions to avoid rear end collisions. Donders subtractive

method holds that reaction times can be obtained by subtracting the simple

reaction time; or subtracting type A from type B etc. (Cameron, 1995). Given

this, it stands that the more stimulus provided (or thought processes required),

the longer the response time of the subjects. This theory is tested in the

measurement of ten responses to five test conditions. The trial provides

preliminary information to participants and it is expected that reaction times

will be shorter than if no information was supplied. (Rosenbaum, 1980.) Method

Participants Ten participants were selected, four female and six male. Ages

ranged from twenty-two to fifty three. All were fully able bodied and from

English speaking backgrounds. Materials A plastic yard rule was used. The yard

rule was six centimeters in width. Procedure Condition One The experimenter sat

one subject on a chair and instructed them to place their arm out in front of

them at a comfortable height. The yard rule was then placed between the

subject’s fingers at a height of 10 centimeters. The subject was then told the

condition 1 (Appendix A) and given three trials. The subject then completed the

ten tries at the condition and the results were recorded. All ten subjects were

tested in the same manner. No abnormal results were obtained. Condition Two The

experimenter sat one subject on a chair and instructed them to place their arm

out in front of them at a comfortable height. The yard rule was then placed

between the subject’s fingers at a height of 10 centimeters. The subject was

then told the condition 2 (Appendix A) and given three trials. The subject then

completed the ten tries at the condition and the results were recorded. All ten

subjects were tested in the same manner. An error rate and abnormal results

occurred. Condition Three The experimenter sat one subject on a chair and

instructed them to place their arm out in front of them at a comfortable height.

The yard rule was then placed between the subject’s fingers at a height of 10

centimeters. The subject was then told the condition 2 (Appendix A) and given

three trials. The subject then completed the ten tries at the condition and the

results were recorded. All ten subjects were tested in the same manner. An error

rate and abnormal results occurred. Condition Four The experimenter sat one

subject on a chair and instructed them to place both their arms out in front of

them at a comfortable height. The yard rule was then placed between the

subject’s hands at a height of 10 centimeters. The subject was then told the

condition 4 (Appendix A) and given three trials. The subject then completed the

ten tries at the condition and the results were recorded. All ten subjects were

tested in the same manner. A high error rate and abnormal results occurred.

Condition Five The experimenter sat one subject on a chair and instructed them

to place both their arms out in front of them at a comfortable height. The yard

rule was then placed between the subject’s hands at a height of 10 centimeters.

The subject was then told the condition 5 (Appendix A) and given three trials.

The subject then completed the ten tries at the condition and the results were

recorded. All ten subjects were tested in the same manner. A high error rate and

abnormal results occurred. Results Then ten subjects all recorded faster

reaction times for condition one than any of the other conditions (Fig 1). On

the surface this result would support the theory that the more stimulus the

slower the reaction time of the subject. When examined as a whole, this is not

strictly the case. Condition one averaged 180.3 milliseconds, condition two

240.5, condition three 270, however, condition four averaged 254.4 and condition

five only 238.2 milliseconds. Fig 1 – Average responses of subjects over five

conditions. Initially the introduction of more stimuli slowed the reaction time

of the subject. The reaction time of the subject did not, however slow from

condition three to four and four to five with more additions. The standard

deviation for condition one was also lower than any of the other conditions (Fig

2). The deviation for condition one was 26.5, condition two 37.5, condition

three 31.1, condition four 31.7 and condition five 28.8. The high variation for

condition two may be explained by the fact that it is the first introduction of

an additional stimulus over and above the simple response. Fig 2. Average

responses of subjects and the standard deviation. Discussion The results show

that an initial increase in the complexity of a task increases the reaction

time. According to Donders’ Theory (Gottsdanker, R & Shraap, P. 1985)

results for Condition Five (Discrimination + Decoding + Response Selection)

should be greater than condition four (Discrimination + Response Selection) and

condition three (Discrimination and Decoding). Condition five, however, was

faster in reaction time that condition four and three (Fig 1). Shown only these

results the conclusion may be drawn that Donders theory is not entirely correct

until the source, method and type of experiment is examined. The biggest factor

in the reduction of response time between experiments three and four to

experiment five was the error ratio. It was clear in the experiment that the

subjects were pre-guessing the experimenter. This was providing the subject with

a better result than if the subject was legitimately waiting for instructions,

as there was no penalty for incorrect responses. Nine out of the ten subjects

saw the experiment as a competition and therefore concentrated more on speed

that correctness. As in the case when the subject drops the ruler himself or

herself or when pre-advised of the requirement, the results are shorter as the

processing time is shorter when the subject has pre-ordained the response they

will make. This limitation was due mainly to the type of experiment conducted.

Given the materials and the situation it was not an accurate measure of response

times as some subjects had thirty or forty attempts before ten correct responses

could be obtained. Although the logic of Donders’ Theory is relevant, in this

case it cannot be ascertained conclusively that an increase in tasks slowed the

reaction time of the subjects.

Cameron, D.L. (1995). Color-specificity to enhance identification of rear

lights. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 80(3): 755 – 769. Gottsdanker, R. &

Shraap, P. (1985) Verification of Donders’ subtraction method. Journal of

Experimental Psychology: Human perception and performance, 111(6), 765 – 776.

Hackley, S.A. Schaff, R. & Miller, J. (1990). Preparation for Donders’ Type

B and reaction tasks. Acta Psychologia, 74, 15 – 33. Rossenbaum, D.A. (1980).

Human movement initiation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Specification of

aim, direction, and extent. General 109, 444 – 474. Weiten, W. (1998).

Psychology, Themes and Variations (4th Ed.) California: Brooks/Cole.

Реферат: Enzyme Action Testing Catalase Activity Essay Research - Сайт рефератов, докладов, сочинений, дипло

Enzyme Action Testing Catalase Activity Essay Research

Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity

Enzymes are proteins that serve as catalysts and accelerate chemical reactions in living organisms. Enzymes accomplish this by lowering the energy of activation of the organism it is acting upon however enzymes will only lower the energy of activation for specific organisms reducing chaotic chemical reactions. The reaction is carried out in it’s entirety in the active site of the enzyme. The substrate (organism acted upon) binds itself into the active site of the enzyme and the chemical process begins. The enzyme’s active site will reform itself for the substrate in order to form a perfect bond this is called induced fit. This is only one of the changes that could occur to accommodate the substrate. For example the enzyme might change the pH levels to promote the reaction.

There are numerous factors that can affect the rate of the chemical changes four have the greatest affect. They are the concentration of the enzyme the temperature the pH level and the salt concentration. The higher the concentration of the enzyme the faster the rate of change there is upon the organism. The temperature affects the rate in this way; each enzyme has a specific temperature in which it functions at an optimum rate too low of a temperature the enzyme will not function at all. However too high of a temperature produces the same results. Third the pH level will affect the rate H+ and OH- ions can cause the organism to change shape and become deformed denature and cause abnormal functionality. Finally salt concentration will affect the rate of chemical change because the inorganic ions in salts will interfere with ionic bonds in protein molecules.

There are very few factors that influence the function of the enzyme. Some enzymes require cofactors substances that assist the chemical reaction. Chemical inhibitors can inhibit the enzyme’s functionality (1) by attaching itself to the active site (competitive inhibitors) blocking the substrate; (2) by attaching itself to the enzyme in a place other than the active site and changing the shape of the active site thus disabling the active site. In this experiment some of theses factors will be tested concentration heat and pH levels. Much insight can be gained into their affects upon the rate of reaction. This experiment should show what the optimum concentration of the enzyme and pH level and temp that is needed for the enzyme to perform at it’s peak rate.

This experiment can be divided into three related sections the testing of concentration pH and temperature. The concentration was first to be tested. Four test tubes were labeled one to four respectively and 3ml of 3% concentration H202 was added to each. Test tube one received one drop of the enzyme then was shaken for twenty seconds. The test tube was then plugged and the rate of reaction was tested by measuring the gas pressure inside the test tube for three minutes. Test tube two received two drops of the enzyme once again shaken then gas pressure was measured. This process was repeated for test tubes three and four bot of which receiving three / four drops of the enzyme solution respectively.

The next section of the experiment tests the effect of temperature upon the rate of reaction. Once again four test tubes were labeled (one to four); each receiving 3ml of 3% concentration H202. A tub of water was cooled to a temperature between 0-5 Celsius. The first test tube containing 3ml of H202 was then dropped into the water to be cooled to this temperature also. Upon reacting the 0-5 Celsius temperature inside the test tube two drops of the enzyme solution was added to the test tube and shaken for twenty seconds. Then the gas pressure was measured inside the test tube as before. This process was repeated for each of the remaining test tubes except test tube two was measured at a temperature of 20-25 Celsius test tube three was measured at 30-35 Celsius and test tube four was measured at 50-55 Celsius.

The final section of this experiment tested the effect of pH upon the organism. Three test tubes were labeled respectively and 3ml of 3% concentration H202 was added to each. Then an additional substance was added to each of the test tubes 3ml of pH 4 (for test tube one) 3ml of pH 7 (for test tube two) and 3ml of pH 10 (for test tube three). Then two drops of the enzyme solution was added to the test tubes shaken for twenty seconds as before and once again the gas pressure was measured for three minutes. This was repeated for test tubes two and three.

Data that was collected for this experiment on the rate of chemical reactions is summarized in the following tables and the graphs attached.

Enzyme Concentration 1 drop 2 drops 3 drops 4 drops Rate of Reaction (atm/min) 0.9 1.2 3.6 4.8

Table 1 summarizes the rate of reaction of the enzyme upon the substance (H202) by comparing different concentration levels of the enzyme ranging from one to four drops. One can reach the conclusion that the higher the concentration the higher the rate of reaction.

Temperature Range (Degrees Celsius) Actual Temp. In Test Tube (Degrees Celsius) Rate of Reaction (atm/min)

Table 2 summarizes the rate of reaction of the enzyme upon the substance (H202) by comparing different temperature conditions of the enzyme ranging from 0 to 55 Celsius. One can reach the conclusion that the optimum temperature of this enzyme is 30-35 Celsius. Each of the other temperature ranges produce results of either negative amounts or insufficient reaction rates.

pH Buffer Level Reaction Rate (atm/min)

Table 3 summarizes the rate of reaction of the enzyme upon the substance (H202) by comparing different pH levels the enzyme was exposed to ranging from a pH of 4 to a pH of 10. One can reach the conclusion that the optimum pH level of this enzyme is a pH level of 10.

The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effects that enzyme concentration temperature and pH had on the rate at which enzyme catalyzed reactions took place. The results of this experiment can be summarized as follows: This enzyme like others increases the rate of chemical change with an increase of concentration. This specific enzyme has an optimum temperature around 30-35 Celsius. Finally the enzyme has an optimum pH level of 10. However we cannot assume that the higher pH level there is the higher the reaction rate. More tests with different pH levels would have to be performed. This is the same case for the concentration of the enzyme in order to say the enzyme functions better at a higher concentration more experiments with a higher concentration rate would have to be performed. For the time being however it is safe to assume a steady increase in the rate of reaction with respect to an increase in concentration. A small amount of human error was included within this experiment for example shaking (inadvertently) the test tube while gas pressure was being measured. However these errors weren’t significant enough to have influential effects on the overall results of these experiments.

In conclusion this experiment leads one to assume increasing enzyme concentration and pH continually will increase reaction activity and increasing the temperature will increase the reaction rate up until a certain point.

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Biology Paper Essay, Research Paper Introduction In this experiment, I will be studying the activity of the enzyme catalase. Catalase breaks down of Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 into water H2O and oxygen O2.

Untitled Essay, Research Paper Affirmative Action The term affirmative action is applied to the use of racial, ethnic, or gendr prefrences set apart a variety of social benefits.

Drugs Essay, Research Paper In today’s society, drugs have been a very obvious problem espescially amongst teenagers and young adults. I feel that an answer can be found if people stop

Dna Replication Essay, Research Paper DNA replication is a complex cellular function that is necessary in order to sustain life and achieve growth. Many enzymes, proteins, and other molecules work together to ensure that genetic information is replicated efficiently, quickly, and accurately. Without any one of these components, replication would be very limited in its efficacy.

Enzyme Coursework Checklist Essay, Research Paper Introduction. Have you answered these questions? ·What is an enzyme? (Lock and key) ·What is a Catalyse and what jobs does it do?

Enzyme Action Essay, Research Paper Introduction “Enzymes are biological catalysts that carry out the thousands of chemical reactions that occur in living cells” (Eberhard, 1985). Enzymes are groups of proteins that are made of long chains of amino acids. They serve as catalysts by lowering the activation energy for chemical reactions.

Enzymes Essay, Research Paper Enzymes. The majority of the reactions that occur in living organisms are enzyme-controlled.

Enzymes Essay, Research Paper An enzyme is a catalyst, which is a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction. The reactant that an enzyme acts on is called its substrate. While the enzyme is bound to the substrate, the catalytic action converts the substrate to the product.

Enzyme Report Essay, Research Paper Enzyme Activity Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to test the effects of different sugar types with pH and temperatures. We are testing to see if there is a difference in reaction and reaction time when placed into different temperature and pH. We are looking for changes in color, solidity, reaction time, etc.

Enzyme Activity Essay, Research Paper Enzyme Activity Aim: To investigate enzyme activity by testing for changes in a starch solution when the enzyme amylase is added and how this reaction is affected by heat, pH, ratios etc.

Animal Experimentation 2 Essay, Research Paper Lab experimentation involving animals is inhumane. Animal testing is cruel because an animal s life is just as important as a human s life, people are exploiting animals, and animal testing doesn t show whether or not a product is safe for humans.

Background Knowledge Introduction: Enzymes are biological catalysts made up from protein. As we know, catalysts are substances that speed up the rate of a reaction without itself being used up.

Enzymes Essay, Research Paper Enzymes are proteins, composed of polypeptide chains and non-protein groups. Their function is to help with the reactions of many cells and

Spinal Injury Essay, Research Paper Discusses a possibly new treatment for spinal injury. Scientists may have discovered a new treatment for spinal cord injuries by regenerating the cells in the brain and the spinal cord. The key to is to regenerate the damaged nerve fibers. The major problem is that damage to the brain and spinal cord is permanent and does not heal by itself.

Concentration Essay, Research Paper In this experiment different concentrations of sucrose were tested to determine which leads to the most respiratory activity in yeast. Yeast is a heterotrophic anaerobic fungus which lacks chlorophyll. Yeast is used commercially to ferment the sugars of wheat, barley, and corn to produce alcohol, and in the baking industry to raise or expand dough.

Enzyme Activity Essay, Research Paper Enzyme Activity in the Liver Lab #6 Jenniffer DeSimone Monday Lab Lab Performed: 11/6/00 Lab Submitted: 11/13/00

Pathway Essay, Research Paper 1. The cell membrane structure is vital to the life of the cell. The cell membrane is shaped as having a phosphate head at the very outer surface, and two fatty acid tails hanging from it. The membrane is double, so at the tip of the fatty acid tails, there are two more fatty acid tails attached to another phosphate head.

Paper Argument Essay Where would we be Without Animal Testing? Is the use of animals in research justified? Should animal experimentation be permitted? Should these animals be liberated? A logical person would say the benefits justify the research. Without animal testing, products would be based on theory.

Fermentation, Photosynthesis, Osmosis, Essay, Research Paper This paper is on the processes of fermentation, cellular respiration, photosynthesis, diffusion, osmosis, and enzyme activity. What do these

Trypsin Lab Essay, Research Paper Title: The Effects of Substrate Concentration and Temperature on the Rate of Hydrolysis of the Enzyme Trypsin. Abstract: Quantitative measurements can relate both temperature and substrate concentration to the enzymatic activity of trypsin. By analyzing the data, it is suggested that at BAPNA concentrations below those corresponding to Vmax are rate limiting, as less active sights are available for adhesion.

Paper Gene Regulation Using the Lac Operon Abstract Gene regulation in cells has been studied extensively in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Gene control is employed as a way of saving the cell energy by only producing those enzymes it needs. In eukaryotes, genes are regulated so as maintain levels of cell specificity.