Category: Research Paper
Nasa Essay, Research Paper National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) NASA The era of space exploration began in 1957, when the Soviet Union launched the first satellite, Sputnik, into Earth orbit October 4, 1957. The Soviet also were the first to launch a manned spacecraft when Yuri Gagarni, made one orbit around the Earth in 1961. Americans were electrified by the news. A year later the Soviets issued an ultimatum that the Western Allies evacuate Berlin. Next came a proposal that Berlin become a free city. There waere fears that the Cold War of coexistence could turn into a world war. America also had goals they wanted to fulfil. A year later the United States Congress passed the National Aeronautics and Space Act to promote and coordinate the United States
space program. In 1958 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration was established, commonly referred to NASA. Shortly after NASA s founding, the launching site at Cape Canaveral, Florida, and the Johnson Space Center in Houston Texas were planned and built. Thus creating the space race. According to the 1958 act, NASA s functions are: to conduct research on problems of flight within and outside the Earth s atmosphere; to develop, construct, tests and operate space vehicles; to explore space with manned and unmanned vehicles; to cooperate with other nations on projects for the peaceful uses of space; and to publish the results of its work. The planning and control of NASA s activities take place at the agency s headquarters in Washington, D.C. There are four program
offices that have been set up to develop and direct the activities of NASA s several field installation: Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology, Office of Space Science and Applications, Office of Space Flight, and Office of Space Tracking and Data Systems. The Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology is responsible for the continued development of advanced technology. This office set the guidelines for NASA s objectives, demonstrates the feasibility of the objectives, and proposes the necessary technology to carry them out. It also coordinates activities with other agencies to prevent duplication of effort. The office of Space Science and Applications directs the study of the nature of the universe through research in astrophysics, biology, Earth sciences, solar system
exploration, communications, micro gravity, and information systems. This office uses a vairety of devices to conduct its research. These include remote sensing equipment, automated spacecraft, sounding rockets, balloons, and aircraft. The Office of Space Flight is responsible for the space laboratories and all facets of the Space Transportaion System, or space shuttles of NASA. This office also directs several of the field installations and oversees the purchase of all hardware necessary for NASA s space programs. The office of Space Tracking and Data Systems Provides all the information necessary for the commencement and progress of space missions. The facilities that provide this information support are the Deep Space Network, the Space flight Tracking and Data Network, and
the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite systems. A global communications system coordinates the tasks of this office by linking all tracking sites, control centers, and data processing facilities.NASA has nine chief field installations. Many people who follow space launches know of the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Tex. and the John F. Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral, Fla. The Houston installation is a command control center, while the center at Cape Canaveral is the primary launching site. The other field installations are: Ames Research Center at Moffet Field, Calif.; Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.; the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif.; Langley Research Center in Hampton, Va.; Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio; George C.
Headquarters, Washington, DC
NASA has selected 43 researchers to receive grants totaling approximately $27 million over four years to conduct biotechnology research on Earth and in space. This research will create knowledge in important areas of biotechnology such as tissue engineering, gene expression and biosensor technology.
Sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research, this research offers investigators the opportunity to take advantage of the low-gravity environment of space and develop experiments for the International Space Station.
Twenty-three of the selected proposals are to conduct research in cellular biotechnology including projects on tissue engineering, gene expression and bioanalytical technologies. Twenty of the selected proposals are to conduct research in macromolecular biotechnology including projects on challenging problems in structural biology, artificial biomembranes and membrane proteins. Fourteen of the selected proposals are for the continuation of work currently being funded by NASA, but the majority (29) represent new research efforts.
NASA received 225 proposals in response to its research announcement in this research area. These proposals were all peer- reviewed by scientific and technical experts from academia, government and industry.List of Selectees by State
Release date: 07/01
Cellular Biotechnology Operations Support System (CBOSS) - Expedition Three
Experiment Components: Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC), Biotechnology Refrigerator (BTR), Gas Supply Module (GSM), Biotechnology Cell Science Stowage-1 (BCSS-1) and -4 (BCSS-4)
Missions: Expedition Three, 7A.1 (STS-105), with a return of science samples on UF-1 (STS-108) and 8A (STS-110), and experiment hardware components on UF-2 (STS-111).
Experiment Location on ISS: International Space Station (ISS) EXPRESS Rack 4 with BTR stowage in EXPRESS Rack 1
Principal Investigators: Jeanne L. Becker, Ph.D. University of South Florida, Tampa; Timothy G. Hammond, M.B. B.S. Tulane University Medical Center, New Orleans; J. Milburn Jessup, M.D. University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas; Peter I. Lelkes, Ph.D. Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pa.
Program Manager: Dr. Neal Pellis, Manager, Cellular Biotechnology Program Office, NASA Johnson Space Center
Project Manager: Melody Anderson, Cellular Biotechnology Program Office, NASA Johnson Space Center
Payload Experiment Developer: Fred R. Williams, Life Sciences Systems and Services, Wyle Labs, Inc.
Ovarian cancer cells nurtured in microgravity conditions are three-dimensional, much closer in true size and form to natural tumor cells found in cancer patients. Multicellular clusters like these can reach diameters of 0.4 centimeters. (University of South Florida)
Conventional two-dimensional culturing techniques produce a flat, uniform layer of ovarian tumor cells, as seen here under an electron microscope. This growth pattern does not reflect the way tumor cells grow naturally within a human body. (University of South Florida)
The objective of NASA's biotechnology cell science research aboard the International Space Station is to provide a controlled environment for the cultivation of cells into healthy, three-dimensional tissues that retain the form and function of natural, living tissue.
As normal human cells grow and replicate, they form complex "colonies" of fibers, proteins and other structures that make up living tissue. Studying this mechanism outside the human body is difficult, however, because cells do not easily associate to form these cellular colonies outside living organisms. Most cultivated cells form flat, thin specimens that offer only limited insight into the way cells work together. Scientists were excited, therefore, to discover that cells grown in microgravity -- the low-gravity environment inside spacecraft orbiting the Earth -- much more closely resemble those found in our bodies here on Earth.
Cell cultures are maintained in stationary or rotating "bioreactors," which provide the environmental and metabolic support necessary for cell growth. Bioreactor cell growth in a microgravity environment permits cultivation of in vitro tissue cultures of sizes and quality not possible on Earth. Such a capability provides unprecedented opportunities for breakthrough research in the study of human diseases, including various types of cancer, diabetes, heart disease and AIDS.
Cellular Biotechnology Program Overview
The Cellular Biotechnology Program at the Johnson Space Center uses NASA cell culture technology and the microgravity of space to advance ground-breaking research in biomedical science. The Program emphasizes research in:
Our investigator community extends throughout the country and includes research organizations such as the National Institutes of Health, headquartered in Bethesda, Md.
The Cellular Biotechnology Program develops ground-based and space bioreactors and support systems required for flight investigators' cell culture investigations aboard orbiting spacecraft such as the Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station. The Space Station Biotechnology Facility, scheduled to be carried to the Station in 2006, will be a complete research laboratory facility with static and rotating-wall bioreactors, analytical equipment for on-orbit analysis, systems for supplying gas mixtures to bioreactors and for low temperature stowage, computer systems and software to control and monitor facility and experiment hardware and for transmitting experiment data back to Earth.
The Cellular Biotechnology Operations Support System (CBOSS) is designed as an interim platform for cell-based research aboard the Space Station prior to the launch of the permanent Biotechnology Facility. The system is comprised of sub-rack modules that provide semi-automated bioreactors, gas supply systems, computer control systems and passive and low-temperature stowage systems. The system will enable investigations on normal and cancerous mammalian cells, including ovarian and colon cancer cells, neural precursor and human renal cells.
CBOSS will be launched aboard STS-105 and transferred to the orbiting facility as part of Space Station Expedition Three. The system is comprised of the Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC), the Biotechnology Refrigerator (BTR), the Gas Supply Module (GSM) and the Biotechnology Cell Science Stowage (BCSS).
The Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller can house 32 stationary tissue culture modules, operating at 56 watts of power during incubation to maintain the modules at a specified temperature in a controlled atmosphere. This unit, designated BSTC-303 is a modified version of the hardware that flew on the STS-86 (Mir NASA Increment 6) and STS-90 missions. Modifications include: the conversion from four small chambers to a single, large incubation chamber, the addition of a gas purge system, carbon dioxide monitoring, and a TCP/IP Ethernet connection to communicate with the EXPRESS Rack's Interface Computer.
The Biotechnology Refrigerator, designated BTR-304, is a thermo-electric, temperature-controlled unit which provides 0.53 cubic feet of on-orbit cold storage at 39.2 degrees Fahrenheit (4 degrees Celsius). Temperature-sensitive cell samples and stowage items are carried in the Biotechnology Refrigerator for launch and return aboard the Space Shuttle. The refrigerator operates on 160 watts and is 10.98 inches by 6.96 inches (27.9 cm by 17.7 cm). This unit is an upgraded version of the BTR-302, which successfully flew and operated aboard missions STS-86 (Mir NASA Increment 6), STS-89 (Mir NASA Increment 7) and STS-91. Modifications to the upgraded unit include an improved cooling system, increased structural strength, reduced power consumption and new data uplink and downlink capability for health and status reporting.
The Gas Supply Module supplies a continuous flow of metabolic gases to the Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller to support and maintain the chemical and physiological processes required to sustain cell cultures. The module is conceptually based on a gas supply module designed, flown, and operated aboard Mir from 1996 through 1998. The system is mechanical, requiring no electrical power. Two independent supply lines are available for multiple experiment support, and all four of the unit's gas cylinders can be connected to provide a common supply source. The Gas Supply Module can hold up to 634 quarts (600 liters) of gas when charged to 2,575 pounds psi (181 kilograms per centimeter).
Biotechnology Cell Science Stowage-1 and Biotechnology Cell Science Stowage-4 are stowage units designed to safely and efficiently package and transport cellular biotechnology equipment and materials required to conduct experiments during Flight 7A.1.
The crew is responsible for transferring all systems hardware and stowage from the Shuttle to the designated ISS EXPRESS Racks, as well as installation and activation of the hardware systems.
Once the Cellular Biotechnology Operations Support System is operational, the health and status of the Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller and the Biotechnology Refrigerator will be downlinked to the CBOSS operations flight control team at the Johnson Space Center's Telescience Center. The crew will support the experiment by periodic recording of scientific data, adding fresh media to the tissue culture modules and processing samples for return to Earth.
Periodically, the crew will perform preventive maintenance on system components. At the termination of the CBOSS experiments, the crew will deactivate all experiment hardware except the Biotechnology Refrigerator, which will protect and maintain cell samples until their return to Earth.
Though NASA has been dedicated to cellular biotechnology since 1983, cell science research conducted in the environment of microgravity is relatively new. The first experiments flown aboard the Space Shuttle were in the mid-1990s (STS-70, STS-85). Long-duration cellular biotechnology experiments were conducted in the Biotechnology System Facility on the Russian Mir space station from 1996 through 1998.
Cellular Biotechnology research conducted by NASA, its science investigators, and commercial partners has potential benefits and applications: Increased understanding of basic cell biology, as well as the effects of gravity on terrestrial cell biology; Potential production of living, functional replacement tissue for research and medical applications; Identification of new technologies that will advance science on Earth; Determination of potential health remedies and countermeasures for future long term space flight.
More information on NASA biotechnology research and other Expedition Three experiments is available at:
Published on February 10, 2014 at 6:56 AM
NASA has signed two patent license agreements with GRoK Technologies LLC of Houston to help develop novel biotechnology approaches that could have multiple applications in space and on Earth. The agreements are the results of the agency's Technology Transfer Program, which helps open up NASA's research and technology to the public for use and development.
The agreements grant rights for four patented technologies invented by NASA and GRoK scientists. NASA is interested in the potential these technologies present for regenerating bone and muscle. During long spaceflights, astronauts are susceptible to developing osteopenia, which is a condition arising from the loss of bone and muscle mass and bone density. The patented technologies could help GRoK develop breakthrough products for the research and medical communities and advance our overall understanding of biomedicine.
"Biotechnology research taking place on the International Space Station and at NASA centers around the country continues to push the leading edge of science," said Yolanda Marshall, director of the Strategic Opportunities and Partnership Development Office at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston. "This partnership will further enhance NASA's ability to share the unique breakthroughs made in space-based research."
GRoK will be able to use these patented methods on two platform technologies the company is developing.
The first platform, called BioReplicates, will allow users to create 3-D human tissue models that can be used to test cosmetics, drugs and other products for safety, efficacy and toxicity with greater accuracy, reliability and cost-efficiency. Additionally, using such models may reduce the industry's reliance on animal testing.
The second platform, called Scionic, could lead to the development of medical devices designed to target musculoskeletal pain and inflammation in humans and animals noninvasively and without the use of pharmaceuticals.
"The GRoK team is delighted we are now a NASA licensee with the opportunity to bring forward into the commercial sector technologies that have the capacity to improve the lives of people everywhere," said Moshe Kushman, GRoK's founder and CEO. "It's not just science fiction anymore. All indications are that 21st century life sciences will change dramatically during the next several decades, and GRoK is working to define the forefront of a new scientific wave."
NASA's Technology Transfer Program ensures that technologies developed for missions in exploration and discovery are broadly available to the public, maximizing the benefit to the nation. Making NASA technologies available promotes commercial activity, encourages economic growth, and stimulates innovation in business and commerce.
For information about NASA's Technology Transfer Program, visit:
With help from industry and commercial partners across the country, NASA continues to use space research to improve life on Earth. From anthrax-killing devices to artificial bone replacement materials to pharmaceutical drugs, the benefits of studying in space continue to provide advancements in science and technology. Those technologies and others have or are being developed by more than 150 companies — partners with NASA's Space Product Development Program and its 15 Research Partnership Centers.
Photo: Peggy Whitson inspects soybean plants growing aboard the Space Station. (NASA/JSC)
W hat do an anthrax-killing device, soybeans in space, artificial bone replacement materials, light-emitting diodes for wound healing, a new medicine to treat bone loss, a water bottle that filters out bacteria, a perfume, and advanced techniques for pharmaceutical drug design have in common?
These technologies and others have or are being developed by more than 150 companies that are partners with NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPDP) and its 15 Research Partnership Centers (RPC's) across America.
"Industry is interested in many of the same revolutionary products and technologies that NASA needs to explore the universe," said Mark Nall, director of the Space Commerce Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Huntsville, Ala. "When industry, academia and NASA come together, industry positions itself for growth in new commercial markets, while academia and NASA benefit from innovative research and technological tools for exploration," he said.
Space and Osteoporosis Research and Treatment
Muscle and bone loss is one health-related problem that both NASA and industry are tackling. Since bone loss occurs more rapidly in space, Amgen, a biotechnology company with headquarters in Thousand Oaks, Calif. used NASA's Space Shuttle as a test bed for a new medication to treat bone loss or osteoporosis. Amgen discovered osteoprotegerin (OPG) in the mid 1990s, and is conducting human clinical trials to evaluate its safety and effectiveness in treating osteoporosis and its ability to maintain bone density in cancer that has metastasized to bone.
"OPG appears to prevent bone loss in a variety of diseases, including cancer, and we anticipate that a drug based on this molecule will be effective in preserving bone mass, whether in astronauts or the millions of Americans suffering from osteoporosis," said Dr. Paul Kostenuik, a research scientist in Amgen's Metabolic Disorders group.
Amgen works with BioServe Space Technologies Inc. a NASA Research Partnership Center at the University of Colorado, which has completed 23 research missions in 12 years on both the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. BioServe and its industry partners are studying antibiotic production, mammalian cell culture and plant biochemistry.
Crops for Space and Earth
Identifying unique chemical and genetic traits of plants grown in space and using these traits to develop commercial products on Earth is the specialty of another NASA RPC: the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. With the help of astronaut Peggy Whitson, they grew the first crop of soybeans on the Space Station for their industrial partner, Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc. a DuPont subsidiary with headquarters in Des Moines, Iowa.
This experiment verified that WCSAR-developed plant growth technologies were capable of producing a major agricultural crop in space. The second objective was to see whether microgravity would alter the production of phytochemicals, such as proteins, oils and carbohydrates, and induce new genetic traits in the soybean seeds produced in space. DuPont pursued this research because it could significantly reduce the time and cost of introducing new varieties of crops with new types of phytochemicals to the marketplace.
Scientists are performing tests on the seeds brought back to Earth in October 2002. Some of the soybean seeds produced in space were planted and did prove to be viable, producing a new crop of plants with seeds on Earth. Scientists have found some of the space seeds' phytochemical compositions are different than those in seeds harvested from the ground control experiment. Researchers are continuing their analysis to determine if these changes in composition result in positive changes to seed quality. "We want to examine the seeds produced by plants grown on the Space Station to see if they have any unique, desirable traits," said Dr. Tom Corbin, a research scientist for Pioneer Hi-Bred. "If we find changes, then we want to know if the positive traits can be inherited genetically by future generations of plants for the benefit of farmers and consumers."
This commercial experiment and others that study plant growth are paving the way for improving crops grown on Earth, as well as potentially feeding people living in space. The Space Station gives companies a chance to grow plants that are larger and require several months to mature. Several new products, including an anthrax-killing device, a system derived from an ethylene scrubber that keeps fruits and vegetables fresher when they are stored or transported, wound healing and surgical tools, all evolved from technology that WCSAR originally developed to grow plants on the Space Station.
Drug Discovery Through Space Research
The Center for Biophysical Sciences and Engineering (CBSE), an RPC located at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, partners with industry to enable NASA to stretch research dollars. The CBSE, under the direction of Dr. Larry DeLucas, a payload specialist on Shuttle mission STS-50, is a leading structural biology center with one of the largest facilities in the world for X-ray crystallography, as well as a platform of proprietary high throughput technologies designed for structure based drug discovery.
CBSE has developed a suite of technologies to rapidly determine the biological structures necessary to produce new therapeutics and pharmaceuticals. This research has led to the development of drugs designed to treat various chronic and infectious diseases. The predictive power that comes from molecular research in the drug discovery process can significantly advance the launch of new drugs for the safety and health of humans on earth and those traveling in space.
The SPDP is part of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research at Headquarters in Washington. For more information about research and science programs, visit:
For information about NASA and commercial space exploration on the Internet, visit:
For information about the Space Product Development Program, visit:
For information about the BIO 2003 Conference, visit:
To download photographs to accompany this news release, visit:
Left: Ozone molecules in a planet's atmosphere could indicate biological activity, but ozone, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide -- without methane, is likely a false positive. Right: Ozone, oxygen, carbon dioxide and methane -- without carbon monoxide, indicate a possible true positive. Credit: NASA
Astronomers searching the atmospheres of alien worlds for gases that might be produced by life can't rely on the detection of just one type, such as oxygen, ozone, or methane, because in some cases these gases can be produced non-biologically, according to extensive simulations by researchers in the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory.
The researchers carefully simulated the atmospheric chemistry of alien worlds devoid of life thousands of times over a period of more than four years, varying the atmospheric compositions and star types. "When we ran these calculations, we found that in some cases, there was a significant amount of ozone that built up in the atmosphere. despite there not being any oxygen flowing into the atmosphere," said Shawn Domagal-Goldman of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. "This has important implications for our future plans to look for life beyond Earth."
Methane is a carbon atom bound to four hydrogen atoms. On Earth, much of it is produced biologically (flatulent cows are a classic example), but it can also be made inorganically; for example, volcanoes at the bottom of the ocean can release the gas after it is produced by reactions of rocks with seawater.
Ozone and oxygen were previously thought to be stronger biosignatures on their own. Ozone is three atoms of oxygen bound together. On Earth, it is produced when molecular oxygen (two oxygen atoms ) and atomic oxygen (a single oxygen atom) combine, after the atomic oxygen is created by other reactions powered by sunlight or lightning. Life is the dominant source of the molecular oxygen on our planet, as the gas is produced by photosynthesis in plants and microscopic, single-cell organisms. Because life dominates the production of oxygen, and oxygen is needed for ozone, both gases were thought to be relatively strong biosignatures. But this study demonstrated that both molecular oxygen and ozone can be made without life when ultraviolet light breaks apart carbon dioxide (a carbon atom bound to two oxygen atoms). Their research suggests this non-biological process could create enough ozone for it to be detectable across space, so the detection of ozone by itself would not be a definitive sign of life.
"However, our research strengthens the argument that methane and oxygen together, or methane and ozone together, are still strong signatures of life," said Domagal-Goldman. "We tried really, really hard to make false-positive signals for life, and we did find some, but only for oxygen, ozone, or methane by themselves." Domagal-Goldman and Antígona Segura from the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México in Mexico City are lead authors of a paper about this research, along with astronomer Victoria Meadows, geologist Mark Claire, and Tyler Robison, an expert on what Earth would look like as an extrasolar planet. The paper appeared in the Astrophysical Journal Sept. 10, and is available online.
Methane and oxygen molecules together are a reliable sign of biological activity because methane doesn't last long in an atmosphere containing oxygen-bearing molecules. "It's like college students and pizza," says Domagal-Goldman. "If you see pizza in a room, and there are also college students in that room, chances are the pizza was freshly delivered, because the students will quickly eat the pizza. The same goes for methane and oxygen. If both are seen together in an atmosphere, the methane was freshly delivered because the oxygen will be part of a network of reactions that will consume the methane. You know the methane is being replenished. The best way to replenish methane in the presence of oxygen is with life. The opposite is true, as well. In order to keep the oxygen around in an atmosphere that has a lot of methane, you have to replenish the oxygen, and the best way to do that is with life."
Scientists have used computer models to simulate the atmospheric chemistry on planets beyond our solar system (exoplanets) before, and the team used a similar model in its research. However, the researchers also developed a program to automatically compute the calculations thousands of times, so they could see the results with a wider range of atmospheric compositions and star types.
In doing these simulations, the team made sure they balanced the reactions that could put oxygen molecules in the atmosphere with the reactions that might remove them from the atmosphere. For example, oxygen can react with iron on the surface of a planet to make iron oxides; this is what gives most red rocks their color. A similar process has colored the dust on Mars, giving the Red Planet its distinctive hue. Calculating the appearance of a balanced atmosphere is important because this balance would allow the atmosphere to persist for geological time scales. Given that planetary lifetimes are measured in billions of years, it's unlikely astronomers will happen by chance to be observing a planet during a temporary surge of oxygen or methane lasting just thousands or even millions of years.
It was important to make the calculations for a wide variety of cases, because the non-biological production of oxygen is subject to both the atmospheric and stellar environment of the planet. If there are a lot of gases that consume oxygen, such as methane or hydrogen, then any oxygen or ozone produced will be destroyed in the atmosphere. However, if the amount of oxygen-consuming gases is vanishingly small, the oxygen and the ozone might stick around for a while. Likewise, the production and destruction of oxygen, ozone, and methane is driven by chemical reactions powered by light, making the type of star important to consider as well. Different types of stars produce the majority of their light at specific colors. For example, massive, hot stars or stars with frequent explosive activity produce more ultraviolet light. "If there is more ultraviolet light hitting the atmosphere, it will drive these photochemical reactions more efficiently," said Domagal-Goldman. "More specifically, different colors (or wavelengths) of ultraviolet light can affect oxygen and ozone production and destruction in different ways."
Astronomers detect molecules in exoplanet atmospheres by measuring the colors of light from the star the exoplanet is orbiting. As this light passes through the exoplanet's atmosphere, some of it is absorbed by atmospheric molecules. Different molecules absorb different colors of light, so astronomers use these absorption features as unique "signatures" of the type and quantity of molecules present.
"One of the main challenges in identifying life signatures is to distinguish between the products of life and those compounds generated by geological processes or chemical reactions in the atmosphere. For that we need to understand not only how life may change a planet but how planets work and the characteristics of the stars that host such worlds", said Segura.
The team plans to use this research to make recommendations about the requirements for future space telescopes designed to search exoplanet atmospheres for signs of alien life. "Context is key – we can't just look for oxygen, ozone, or methane alone," says Domagal-Goldman. "To confirm life is making oxygen or ozone, you need to expand your wavelength range to include methane absorption features. Ideally, you'd also measure other gases like carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide [a molecule with one carbon atom and one oxygen atom]. So we're thinking very carefully about the issues that could trip us up and give a false-positive signal, and the good news is by identifying them, we can create a good path to avoid the issues false positives could cause. We now know which measurements we need to make. The next step is figuring out what we need to build and how to build it."
More information: The research paper is available online at: stacks.iop.org/0004-637X/792/90
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Advancements In Biotechnology - Introduction: Recent advances in science and technology has shown a great impact on all areas of the life. One of the most important fields of science and technology is Biotechnology. The advancement in biotechnology brought forward the solutions for many of the problems that human race were facing, including the problem of feeding a large population but at the same time, it poses some new threats and challenges to human beings as well. This short report discusses the merits and demerits of extensive applications of biotechnology, specially the impacts of genetically modified/engineered crops which brought up in market 1990s. [tags: Biotechnology]
Three Reasons Why Biotechnology Should be Pursued - Three Reasons Why Biotechnology Should be Persuade Today in the twenty-first century, technology, a practical act of applying that what came from science is spreading out in our everyday lives for the purpose of stabilizing problems in the world and also to make our life much easier. Now, companies are focused on their position in society and worldwide competition. As they become more effective in production, they keep improving their products. Improved production results from technology progression. [tags: Biotechnology]
Global Opportunities In Biotechnology For Indian Business Leaders - There are many definitions of biotechnology. It has been described as including any technique that uses living organisms to make or modify products, to improve plants or animals or to develop microorganisms for specific uses. It has also been defined as the industrial exploitation of biological systems or processes. In its broadest sense, biotechnology refers to the use of living systems to develop products. New scientific discoveries are allowing us to better understand fundamental life processes at the cellular and molecular level. [tags: Biotechnology Research Paper Globalization]
Active Rubisco in Biotechnology - Active Rubisco is the proportion of enzyme that is catalytically competent and can contribute to the process of CO2 fixation by carboxylation (Carfts-Brandner and Salvucci 2000). For Rubisco to remain activated, it requires the ATPase Rubisco activator enzyme known as RCA to facilitate the removal of sugar phosphates from the active site. In the absence of a molecular 3D structure of RCA, understanding the precise interaction details between RCA and Rubisco remains obscure. Until the 3D structure details are available, researchers deal with RCA as an ATPase from AAA+ protein family (Neuwald et al. [tags: science experiments, science, Biotechnology.]
Advancements in Biotechnology - Discoveries in DNA, cell biology, evolution, and biotechnology have been among the major achievements in biology over the past 200 years with accelerated discoveries and insight’s over the last 50 years. Consider the progress we have made in these areas of human knowledge. Present at least three of the discoveries you find to be the most important and describe their significance to society, heath, and the culture of modern life. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a self-replicating molecule or material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent in chromosomes. [tags: DNA, biology, genetics]
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Soundness of Biotechnology Advancements in Agriculture - The use of genetically modified organisms in agriculture is on the rise. Many scientists debate that genetic engineering in the agriculture field is the best way to answer many issues pertaining to poverty, environmental harm, food security, and the necessity for increasing competition in sales. In the other hand, others raise ethical issues relating to the health of the people who consume these genetically modified food, the potential damage to the environment as well as the welfare of the farmers and their food security. [tags: Genetically Modified Organisms, Agriculture]
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The Sociological Impact of Nanotechnology and Biotechnology - I elected to do my term paper on the sociological impact of nanotechnology and biotechnology (commonly called “bionics”) because of the vast potential for advances in medicine, space exploration and technology. These are but a few of the areas which will surely be affected by the development of new and never before imagined processes and engineered materials which have the power to change the way every aspect of one’s life is lived. I will generally focus on the Structural-Functional and Social-Conflict approaches for the majority of the paper, but will touch on some of the aspects as seen by the Symbolic-Interaction approach when considering the implications of the subject on society, as. [tags: technology, term papers, research papers]
Biotechnology: Genetically Modified Organisms - This paper is about placing the health of US citizens where it belongs, above the interests of corporate America. Today the food industry is controlled by a few large multi- national corporations, whose mission is to create profits for their shareholders. Profit itself is not bad and profit is not the issue, businesses are supposed to make money; But they do have an obligation to society to create products that do not harm people, animals, or our environment. According to the Coordinated Framework for Regulation of Biotechnology, “Along with the National Institute of Health, the Food and Drug Administration and the Department of Agriculture, the EPA regulates the biotechnology ind. [tags: food industry, corporations, seeds]
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Biotechnology and Genetic Testing - Genetic testing is becoming more and more common as advancements in biotechnology are being made. The term “genetic testing” refers to the use of a test that looks for changes in a person’s genes or structure of certain proteins (National Human Genome Research Institute [NHGRI], 2014). Genes are decoded and each letter of the DNA sequence can be determined. There are many uses for this type of testing, including, but not limited to, diagnosis of rare genetic disorders, risk analysis for hereditary diseases, and determining appropriate treatments for patients. [tags: dna, rna, patiens, research]
. 7 Works Cited
The Uses of Biotechnology - The Uses of Biotechnology The scientific rules of genetics were not known until the nineteenth century, when Gregor Mendel determined from his study of plants that particles that can not be seen carry traits that are passed on from generation to generation. In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick made the makeup of the genetic code called deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, the genetic material that is in all living cells. Deoxyribonucleic acid encodes the order of amino acids that have peptides and proteins. [tags: Papers]
The Biotechnology Industry - The Biotechnology Industry The biotechnology industry is a multi-million-dollar industry centered on the creation and implementation of genetically manipulated plant and animal products. This industry creates, “superfoods”, containing foreign genetic material, adding or enhancing properties in the original plant or animal. The American consumer is highly skeptical of the actual benefits of these “superfoods.” Fearing foreign genes and protein in staple foods such as corn and wheat, average American consumers shy away at the thought of genetically enhanced foods. [tags: Papers]
A Discussion of the Social Effects of Biotechnology - A Discussion of the Social Effects of Biotechnology The world of work in agriculture is in a process of rapid change. While "change" is by no means alien to agriculture, something new has entered the arena which promises and/or threatens to fundamentally alter agricultural practices across the globe. Biotechnology has already begun to be implemented resulting in what may be important shifts in not only agricultural production, but indeed changes in the very makeup of agricultural products themselves. [tags: Agriculture Agricultural Papers]
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Biotechnology - Biotechnology Over the past decade, Biotechnology has advanced much to the advantage of many people. We have learned that with certain chemicals, we are able to cut-and-paste the DNA of certain organisms, and alter them to comply to our sociable needs. But this can also affect modern medicine, political factors, economic, and societal balances in our nation. For medicine, Biotechnology has been a blessing, healing people who suffer from a sex-linked trait known as Hemophilia. Hemophilia is a condition where the person may die of blood loss when cut or wounded. [tags: essays research papers]
Biotechnology in the Rio Grande Valley - Biotechnology in the Rio Grande Valley When you get right down to it, the Rio Grande Valley is a lot like a cell. Everyone in the valley contributes to its existence, working day and night, keeping everything working. Our unique cultural blending serves as the DNA, and tacos seem to serve as our primary food source. Oh, and not to mention that the vast openness of the King Ranch serves as our cell membrane. The Valley, even though our quiet and simple life may not speak it, is well aware of the science taking place in the world around us, as well as in our own backyard. [tags: Genetics Biology Essays Papers]
Successes and Failures in Biotechnology Innovation - Successes and Failures in Biotechnology Innovation When I first started this paper I would have to admit that I was pretty green in the field of Biotechnology, I had a brief understanding but nothing near an in depth understanding of the field. So when I first started looking for a success story, I tied my views on successful innovation in the areas that I am familiar with to the biotech field. The major theme that emerged was that successful innovation equals a product that produces quality profits for a company. [tags: Business Marketing Strategy]
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Biotechnology - #1. a) The Use of a Bacterial Plasmid to Clone and Sequence a Human Gene The process begins with restriction endonucleases scanning and binding to double-stranded DNA at specific base-pair sequences, the recognition sites, in a predictable manner. The restriction sites are usually 4 to 8 base pairs long and are characterized by the palindromic sequences, with both strands having the same sequence when read in opposite direction. After the restriction endonuclease binds, it starts to disrupt, using hydrolysis, the phosphodiester bonds between neighbor nucleotides, causing the H-bonds between base pairs in the cutting region to be broken. [tags: essays research papers]
Biotechnology and Genetically Modified Foods - Biotechnology and Genetically Modified Foods Are genetically modified foods safe. Genetically modified foods are crop plants created for human or animal consumption using molecular biological techniques. These plants have been modified to enhance certain traits like increased resistance to herbicides or improve nutritional content. This process traditionally has been done through breeding, but is not very accurate. Scientists have been using biotechnology to implant the gene that makes the plants act the way they want them to. [tags: GMOs, Genetically Modified Crops]
Petroleum Scarcity: Cellulosic Biofuels and Issues of Biotechnology - Faced with petroleum scarcity, it is vital that humans discover more alternative energy resources. Humans to support daily life productivity frequently use petroleum each day. However since petroleum is not a renewable resource some day in the future humans will consume up all the petroleum reserves and it will come to a point that human must alter their ways life. The scarcity of petroleum makes alternative energy a popular and heavily researched subject. Although we do have some alternative resources already in use in many parts of the world, such as solar power and wind power we need more options because these sources are hard to control and transport. [tags: energy, biofuels, organic matters]
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Food Products and Biotechnology - Food Products and Biotechnology INTRODUCTION This paper is about Biotechnology and its use in creating new food products. In researching this paper, I found there is a lot of information on this subject and a lot of debate on the creation of genetically altered food, medicine, crops, and more. I decided to do my paper on the genetically altered food part of the subject. I will discuss what biotechnology is, who is for it and who is against it, and what some of the ethical concerns are when it comes to growing genetically modified (GM) crops. [tags: Papers]
Could biotechnology solve food shortage problem? - Food shortage is a global problem and tragedy of the world. There are almost 1 billion people who suffer from incessant hunger. Every 6 seconds a child dies from hunger (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2010). It is unacceptable that number of hungry people is so high. Hunger is continuous, serious and structural problem, which could not be solved in one day. Different world organizations, scientists, economists, politics care about undernourished people and try to find ways for reducing their number. [tags: Hunger, FAO, Africa]
Biotechnology- food - Bibliography 1. http://scope.educ.washington.edu/gmfood Copyright 2000-2004 by the SCOPE Research Group (UC Berkeley, UW, AAAS), all rights reserved. 2. http://www.safe-food.org 3. http://www.englishnature.org.uk/news/story.asp?ID=230 © 1998 - 2004 English Nature, Northminster House, Peterborough PE1 1UA England 4. http://www.fda.gov 5. http://pewagbiotech.org/resources/factsheets/display.php3?FactsheetID=2 Copyright © 2004 The Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology Agricultural biotechnology is a collection of scientific techniques, including genetic engineering, that are used to create, improve, or modify plants, animals, and microorganisms. [tags: essays research papers fc]
Biotechnology Paper - Biotechnology Paper Biotechnology products are the yield of engineering labors that process biological material and agents to produce a modified biological substance. Examples of biotechnology drugs are monoclonal antibodies and recombinant DNA. Monoclonal antibodies are important reagents in the treatment and diagnosis of disease. They have been used for diagnosis of pregnancy, detection of presence and concentration of drugs in the blood, histocompatibility assay, and detecting shed tumor antigens. [tags: Biology Science ]
Biotechnology Study Guide - BIOTECHNOLOGY 1- Biotechnology is various methods that use living organisms to make products or provide services. 2- 4 Products of biotechnology are yogurt, cheese, bread, and beer 3- Selective breeding is breeding individuals with specific traits to get an offspring with similar traits. 4- Reproductive technology is the term given to an area of study involving cell biology and DNA 5- 3 Possible benefits of reproductive technology are. ,possible increase of the world’s food supply ,producing new types of foods ,uncovers treatment for various diseases 6- DNA is called a nucleic acid because it is found in the cell’s nucleus and is acidic. [tags: essays research papers]
Results of Taking a Biotechnology Company Public - Situation Analysis and Problem Statement In an ever changing business landscape and dynamic period of start-ups where change is the only thing than seems to be constant, organizations require two key entities: effective teams and transformational leaders. Effective teams are required to adapt to organizational changes, embrace and evolve with the change, and seize opportunities that come with the change to achieve the organizational goals. Transformational leaders require being inspirational in their vision, and through demonstration of commitment and belief to the vision, cause others to embrace and make significant sacrifices to achieve the common goal. [tags: Initial Public Offering IPO]
Business Strategy for the Biotech Field - Strategic planning has been the process by which most health care organizations systematically identify their resources, capacities, and capabilities for the purpose of generating profits and allocating capital resources (Campobasso, 2000). A component of strategic planning, business strategy may be viewed as the outcome of health care organizations meeting their external environments. With increasing competition in the industry, organizations must make decisions about strategic selections in products and services to compete in turbulent markets found that business growth and strategy changes by type of strategic positioning of the organization. [tags: Biotechnology, Business]
Genetic Modification of Forest Tree Species - Biotechnology can be defined as a “collection of tools for modifying tree physiology and genetics to aid breeding, propagation and research” (Burdon and Libby 2006). These tools include the use of tissue culture, genetic engineering (genetic modification) and the use of genetic markers for marker assisted breeding (Harry and Strauss 2010). Tissue culture is the process of growing plants in a cultured medium under controlled conditions from small plant parts. The plants produced in this manner are then transferred to the greenhouse and then grow. [tags: bioengineering, biotechnology]
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Human Enhancement is Immoral and De-humanizing - The advancement of progress in the fields of biology and technology and, by extension, the scion of these two fields – biotechnology – is generally being lauded by experts and laymen alike. Genetically modified foods, Dolly the sheep, stem cell research and therapeutic cloning are but some of the achievements in this field that have changed the scientific landscape, drawing attention to the past, present and also potential future exploits of men and women involved in biotechnology. Mainly because it is becoming increasingly apparent that the field may, in the near future, extend beyond therapy into human enhancement. [tags: biotechnology essays]
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Overview of the Importance of DNA - Discoveries in DNA, cell biology, evolution, and biotechnology have been among the major achievements in biology over the past 200 years with accelerated discoveries and insight’s over the last 50 years. Consider the progress we have made in these areas of human knowledge. Present at least three of the discoveries you find to be the most important and describe their significance to society, heath, and the culture of modern life. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a self-replicating molecule or material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent in chromosomes. [tags: biology, evolution, biotechnology]
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Issues with Gentically Modified Animals, Food and Organisms - Animals that have been genetically modified have adopted the name “pharm” animals. It is a mix between the word pharmaceutical and farm, and shows what the animals are used for. Such as the goat that was mentioned earlier, there are several other animals that are considered “pharm” animals. Many reporters, critics, and researchers alike all use this term to describe their dislike for the way that these animals are being used. “It is a mechanistic use of animals that seems to perpetuate the notion of their being merely tools for human use rather than sentient creatures.” A reporter from the Humane Society of the United States says in its position paper on the use of GM animals (Pollack). [tags: pharm animals, biotechnology, gmo]
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Genetic Engineering in the Modern World - Advances in biotechnology can be looked at two ways; both, positive and negative. People can also differ in what would qualify as a positive and negative way. Some may think that tinkering with Deoxyribonucleic acid also know as DNA, should not be allowed at all for any reason. Others may believe that manipulating human DNA can have many different beneficial outcomes. Biotechnology and genetic engineering can be looked at in two very different ways; can either be misused or unethical or it can be beneficial, ethical, and used for the better kind. [tags: biotechnology, DNA, abortion]
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The Case Against Perfection by Michael Sandel - Michael Sandel is a distinguished political philosopher and a professor at Harvard University. Sandel is best known for his best known for his critique of John Rawls's A Theory of Justice. While he is an acclaimed professor if government, he has also delved deeply into the ethics of biotechnology. At Harvard, Sandel has taught a course called "Ethics, Biotechnology, and the Future of Human Nature" and from 2002 to 2005 he served on the President’s Council on Bioethics (Harvard University Department of Government, 2013). [tags: ethics, biotechnology, genetic engineering]
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Imagining the Future: Science and American Democracy by Yuval Levin - Imagining the Future: Science and American Democracy Reading Imagining the Future: Science and American Democracy, by Yuval Levin, is an educational experience because the book challenges liberal values effectively and offers a unique historical analysis of American political values. Unfortunately, Levin’s errors of omission lead to logical errors throughout Imagining the Future. Levin’s biggest problem is that he painstakingly avoids the mention of religion in relation to American politics. [tags: biotechnology, liberals, religion]
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Controversial Issues Involving Genetically Modified Organism - America is moving fast towards a new era of an electrical day and age. Everyday we find ourselves face to face with new forms of technology that many of us have only read about it science fiction novels. Several people have begun to believe that too much technology is bad for civilization, and several other people believe that technology is necessary for civilians to move ahead, to achieve greater. However, the term biotechnology has caused a great uproar, both from excitement and from disgust. Our society has taken technology to a whole new level, and we have started engineering living objects to our advantage. [tags: biotechnology, gmo, genetic alteration]
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The Pros and Cons of Genetically Modified Crops - For thousands of years, humans have transformed their surroundings and neighboring organisms to suit their needs. The transformation first took place when humans spread seeds onto the earth to grow their own food, and continued when humans reached out to provide food and shelter to other animals in exchange for labor, companionship and sustenance. When early agriculture proved successful, the best and strongest animals and crops were chosen for the next generation. This was the dawn of genetic modification, and it is as old as agriculture itself. [tags: biotechnology, genetic engineering ]
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Biotechnology a New Beginning - The world of biology and technology has been getting blurred more and more throughout the years. Undoubtedly you have asked someone the question why you look the way you do. There are also billions of dollars spent each and every week where people are trying to change the ways we look. Science might hold the answers to the question as to how people will be able to change their looks or much more. The key to everything is all in our genetic makeup. All of our features come down to our genetics. More than just our physical appearance these genes, our intelligence, tempers as well as all the hereditary diseases we have or will likely develop within our lifetimes. [tags: biology, dna discovery, genetics]
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Overview of Aldous Huxley's Brave New World - In Aldous Huxley's self-created dystopian society, controlled by biotechnology, genetics are edited to perfection and babies are manufactured in bottles through Ectogenesis1. After visiting America in the Roaring Thirties, Huxley admired the confidence, vitality, and "generous extravagance" he found in American life and the American people. However, he began to see the destructive spiral that Totalitarianism had on society, especially with his experiences in Italy under the reign of fascist leader Benito Mussolini (Barron's Educational Series). [tags: genetics, biotechnology, conditioning]
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Designer Babies: Way Too Far from Perfection - It is very usual to see a couple adjusting the features for their dream house up to their budge, however, due to the devolvement biotechnology, choosing the characteristic for a dream child is could be up to a couple’s budge too. Just imagine go to a genetic engineer specialist doctor’s office and being asked for the characteristic that you want for your next child. Sex. Male. Height. Six and a half food. Eye Color. Green. IQ. A genius please. Athletic. Yes, next Michael Phelps. Diseases. No one please. [tags: fetus, dna, biotechnology]
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Decolorization of Azo Dyes by Using Newly Isolated Strain Xanthomonase Compestris - Abstract Bacterium identified as Xanthomonase compestris MTCC 10,108 was isolated from dye disposal site of textile and dyeing industry of Ludhiana, India. The isolate was able to decolorize azo dyes ( Congo Red) and aim of this study to optimize culture conditions like growth medium, inoculum concentrations, static and shaking, pH, effect of dye consortia, and analysis of degradative capability of immobilized bacterial cell. Amongst growth media Nitrogen sufficient media supplemented with cong red (100mg/lt) inoculated with isolated bacterial culture. [tags: Biotechnology]
Replacing Synthetic Plastic With Bacterial Polyhydroxyalkanote - Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanote (PHA) is a good candidate to replace synthetic plastic due to its biodegradability. The main factor that hampered the commercialization of PHA is the high production cost with the recovery processes accounting for the most. The present study suggests a novel biological recovery method of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from Cupriavidus necator H16. The PHA granules have been extracted without the help of any solvent or chemicals. The lyophilized cells were used protein source for the laboratory rats and simultaneously recovered the PHB granules excreted in the faeces. [tags: Biotechnology]
Biotechnology: Nanoparticles and Delibery of siRNA Into The Cell - Liposomes are the most commonly used method of delivery for siRNA . The most effective type of lipids used in transfection liposomes have tertiary amines or cations in the head group, allowing for spontaneous conjugation and tight packaging of siRNA, with polyunsaturated tails. They provide protection from nucleases, fuse with the plasma membrane quite readily, and prevent siRNA clearance by RES . Additionally, lipid micelles conjugate with siRNA spontaneously, so they are relatively easy to prepare for siRNA delivery [2-4]. [tags: liposomes, siRNA, lipids]
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Statement of Purpose -. A bit about myself - I am a final year biotechnology engineering student and have constantly maintained a grade of ‘first class’. My first year of under graduate in S.I.E.S Graduate School of Technology, affiliated to the University of Mumbai, focused mainly on the general engineering concepts, strengthening my basics in mathematics, physics and chemistry, along with basic electronics and computer languages like C++ and java, all of which still prove to be useful for understanding this vast subject. [tags: biotechnology engineering, education]
Genetically Modified Produce - The remarkable advances in agriculture, medicine, and technology have led to the unprecedented growth in global population over the past 100 years. None of these advances occurred in a vacuum, but evolved within the broad public policy framework in which governments set policies in the area of health, education, and general welfare of its population, imposing strict safety standards (regulations) consistent with best practices. Since food is a primary necessity of life, worldwide governments have a substantial influence on the supply of foods offered for human consumption. [tags: biotechnology, crops, agriculture]
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What´s Genetic Engineering? -. Tassistant professor of biology at Elon University in North Carolina had this to say about genetic engineering: Once you realize that DNA is not fixed, and is in fact constantly changing, the notion of genetic engineering seems quite innocent. Changing DNA within an organism and transferring DNA from one species to another is not unprecedented, or even unusual. Microbes in nature are carrying it out every second. The only thing truly new about genetic engineering is that it transfers control from microorganisms to humans, from randomness to consciousness. [tags: biotechnology, scientific breakthroughs]
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Genetically Modified Foods - The history of biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) foods has a history of opposing sides. The two opposing sides argue on the ethical standpoint of the act of genetically modifying plants and animals. They also argue on the health problems that the foods may cause for people that eat it. Going towards the future, people question whether GM foods have a positive or negative effect on humans. GM foods cause many assorted viewpoints consisting of positive and negative effects based off of its recent history. [tags: Genetics, Crops, Biotechnology]
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One-step Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Casein Peptides - This study demonstrates a facile, one−pot preparation of casein hydrolytic peptides (CHPs)–conjugated crystalline AuNPs having average core size about 20 ±10 nm and morphology found to be hexagonal shaped. The CHPs are competent to form the monolayer on the AuNPs surface resulting electrostatic interparticles interaction, and plays an important role in stability for long periods of time (12 months). The X−ray photoelectron (XPS) spectrum, showed a strong peak for the pure ‘Au’ phase. The FTIR spectrum indicated that the electrostatic capping of the CHPs, which drives the formation of organic−inorganic CHPs−AuNPs composite. [tags: casein hydrolytic,biotechnology,nano synthesis]
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Reasons why GMOs are Safe to Consume - In today’s scientific topic trends, GMO production and consumption is one of the most controversial topics. The acronym GMO refers to “genetically modified organism.” Loosely put, it refers to when a gene from a species with specific traits is injected into an unrelated living organism leaving it genetically modified. (1) I shall introduce the supposed negative aspects of GMOs and clarify the issues stated against it. The basis of my research originates from a review article provided by Alessandro Nicolia and other Italian researchers who have complied “An overview of the last 10 years of genetically engineered crop safety research.” Specifically, the classification of 1783 scientific reco. [tags: modified organisms, biotechnology, gmo foods]
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Facial Feature Localizer - 3 Locating Eye Features Using LPT Eye feature extraction consists of two stages. In the first stage, also known as eye detection, the eye perimeter is extracted from the face image. In the next stage, the interest region has been searched for localizing the feature point(s). Many appropriated algorithms have been proposed in the literatures ,  for eye detection. Here, we concentrate on localizing features in this perimeter. Fig. 5. Result of performing LPT on the left eye image (59×91 pixels). [tags: Biotechnology]
The Effects of Biotechnology on the Individual Consumer - “I’m beginning to think that what I like best about these particular biotech potatoes, what makes them different – is that I have this choice. And until I know more, I choose not” (Pollan 475). After many months of tending to his New Leafs, and numerous hours of gaining knowledge of them, Michael Pollan still chooses not to consume his New Leafs after harvest. Pollan goes to show in his writing the benefits and risks of farming biotech crops. He included the perspectives of conventional farmers, organic farmers, the biotech industry, advocacy groups, and government agencies in his discussion, but he failed to mention how we as consumers are affected by this new trend of biotech crops. [tags: Papers]
Organisms: Radiation-Resistant Extremophiles and Their Potential in Biotechnology - Introduction Most organisms on earth are able to live in their habitat under certain conditions. Others are able to live under very extreme conditions like extreme temperatures, pH, salinity, pressure and radiation just to name a few. These organisms are called extremophiles and they are polyphyletic. According to (Singh et al. 2011), microorganisms, but specifically bacteria are especially well adapted for surviving extreme conditions. Lately scientists have become very intrigued by extremophiles because of their biotechnological and commercial value to humans. [tags: biotechnical, commercial value]
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Genetic Engineering and Developing Countries - The genetic engineering of foods has been the subject of much controversy since its first appearance in the mid 1980’s. As scientists began to learn more about genetically engineered foods and the benefits of such foods, their potential also began to be realized. Developing countries, because of poor nutrition, would benefit the most from modified foods. Millions of people in developing countries die each year form lack of nutrition and hundreds of thousands go blind. Overpopulation is another problem facing developing countries and without food and nutrients survival will be tough. [tags: Biotechnology Science Essays]
Uses and Abuses of Biochip Technology - Topic: Biochip Technology; Uses and Abuses Working Hypothesis: What is the correlation between the prophecy of "the mark of the beast", and current trends in biochip technology. Intro/Thesis statement: Technology is chipping away at our personal freedoms. In the New Testament, Revelations 13 warns " He also forced everyone, small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on his right hand or forehead, so that no one could buy or sell unless he had the mark, which is the name of the Beast or the number of his name. ". [tags: Biotechnology]
Blood Glucose Monitoring S-Curve - Blood Glucose Monitoring Introduction Blood Glucose monitoring has seen many different technologies. From the basic needle testing technology to now used insulin pumps, the technology has seen many disruptive innovations, which together have shaped the market to the way it is now. In general, the major disruptive technologies in the blood glucose monitoring market can be summarized as follows: 1. Needle-prick detection- This technology involved the use of a needle to collect blood on a strip. The blood was later analyzed using a glucose meter to give the reading of blood glucose level. [tags: Biotechnology]
Embryonic Stem Cell Research - Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research Embryonic stem cell research is a highly controversial topic in today's society, this kind of stem cell commits to regenerate any type of tissue. Unfortunately, Embryonic Stem Cell Research has a dark side. To obtain these cells will kill the embryo automatically. In other words, the acquirement of the Human Embryonic Stem Cell includes performing an abortion. To obtain these cells, it would kill the embryo. This has created controversy since abortion is such a divisive topic. [tags: Biotechnology]
Human Microchip Implants - As the complexity and convenience of technology increases, some of the new advancements such as microchip implant for humans and animals can be very controversial. At first, the implants may seem to have benefits but in the long run they will actually cause more trouble than they are worth. These potential "troublemakers" are about the size of an elongated grain of rice and are injected in the skin under the arm or hand (Feder, Zeller 15). The chip is not powered by battery and there is nothing that can possibly leak out into the body (Posada-Swafford 8). [tags: Biotechnology]
Stem Cell Ethics - Stem Cell Ethics The study of stem cells have brought about many recent ethical questions and been a topic in many recent ethical debates. What is all the talk about. What exactly is stem cell research and why does it raise so many ethical questions. Stem cell research is on the forefront of regenerative medicine and biological science. It is the study of certain cells in the inner mass of the embryo that are produced a few days after the embryo forms during the blastocyst stage. They are the most primitive of all human cells. [tags: Biotechnology]
Support for Cloning and Other Genetic Practices -. When it comes to cloning it can be a touchy subject, but for those who are qualified they can do wonders with such advancements. One scientist that works in this field is Gregory E. Pence, and he has written many books detailing the events of the birth of Dolly and what it means for the field of cloning. Dolly was the first ever cloned mammal and began a huge wave of animal cloning that ranged from mice, cats, wolves, and carp all the way to animals that were once extinct such as the Pyrenean ibex. [tags: biotechnology, bioengineering]
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Protein Improvement: Hermodynamic and Kinetic Stabilities - hermodynamic and kinetic stabilities contribute to the thermostability of an enzyme. Thermal stability is a critical property for many proteins biotechnological applications as it implies longer life-times and frequently higher tolerance to the presence of organic co-solvents, extreme pH values and high salt concentration or pressures (Vania Brissos e.t al. 2014). Directed evolution through the error-prone PCRs is the procedure to carry out iterative mutagenesis for the protein parent genes. Enzyme azoreductase can reduce azo dye whose compounds are linked to bladder cancer in humans and to nuclear anomalies in intestinal epithelial cells in mice. [tags: biotechnology, mutations]
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Human Implants - Human Implants People have a lot of questions about if a microchip should be implanted in humans or animals. The system would be admitted slowly at first to try and let people get use to the idea of a microchip in their arm. The reason for this admission slowly of the new microchips is to keep them from there unease of the system usage and appearance the microchip may give off. Many people would benefit from a microchip implant in their children, to have immediate access to their medical records and even to a person's criminal background. [tags: Biotechnology]
Microorganisms - Microorganisms play an important role in our life: helps us to digest our food, decompose wastes and participate in various life cycles. They are diverse and have adapted to inhabit different environments including extreme conditions, such as hot vents under the ocean to ice caps; hence known as extremophiles. There are more microorganisms present in us than there are cells, and the various microorganisms are bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. Many people associate microorganisms as death and diseases causing agents; also frequently compared to dirt. [tags: Biology, Bacteria, Biotechnology]
Are Genetically Modified Organisms Safe in Our Common Food Supply - GMO stands for genetically modified organism; Today, Health and local.com explain that a genetically engineered food is a plant or meat product that has had its DNA artificially altered in a laboratory by genes from other plants, animals, viruses, or bacteria, in order for the plant/meat product to take on the positive qualities of the added DNA. This process produces a new plant that can be more resistant to pests, able to grow in harsh weather conditions, or contain an improved nutritional profile (Today Health). [tags: gmo, biotechnology, food supply]
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Frankenfoods - Frankenfoods Biotechnology and genetically modified organisms have gained quite a bit of notoriety in the past decade. Proponents of biotechnology are claiming that genetic modification will revolutionize agriculture and medicine and overall benefit human kind far beyond the reaches of imagination. On the other side of the issue, there are those who claim that genetic modification is dangerous and unneeded. But is either side correct. Will GMOs revolutionize the food and health industries or will they cause damage and downfall. [tags: Biotechnology Farming Agriculture Essays]
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Gender Selection of Babies - For centuries there had been one sex that dominated the development of society. Laws, religion and lifestyle all revolved around the idea that one sex, the male sex, was dominant. Oppressed and considered inferior, women would obey the men, forgo all rights and accept all responsibility. Only recently, with the emergence of the women’s liberation movement, have both sexes been considered equal. For the first time in human history, both sexes have been given the chance to fulfill their potentials without discrimination. [tags: Biotechnology Genetics Parenting]
Genetc Engineering - Genetic engineering is in our food; it is on the shelves of our local supermarket; and in test tubes at the laboratory. They are created from the shuffling and manipulating of genes from one species to another. Examples include the transferring of fish to tomatoes or from human to pig. Genetic engineering also includes cloning, which is the attempt to copy a set of DNA from one species and recreating that species. The proper definition of genetic engineering is, "Genetic Engineering, the alteration if an organism's genetic, or heredity, material to eliminate undesirable characteristics or to produce desirable new ones"(Encarta 1). [tags: Biotechnology Genetics]
Biotech Dawn - Biotech Dawn Ebrahim Oomerjee English 1C Prof. Cross 14 May 2002 Biotech Dawn Long time ago, from the great plains of Africa rose a new form of life. They were apes, walking upright. There was something strange about them. They had something no other living being had ever had before. They possessed unlimited intelligence. In a short period of time the apes would change the world forever. Humans have come along way from the caves. At first mankind the only thing mankind knew about life was giving it and taking it away. [tags: Biotechnology Science Essays]
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Biometrics - Biometrics Biometrics is a new term for many, but it is not a new idea. The idea of Biometrics first began with finger print analysis. Today, Biometrics has expanded to not only your fingerprints but also ear, face, facial thermogram, hand vein, hand geometry, iris, retina, signature and voice analysis. Technology has gone from science fiction to reality. This paper will include a brief description of each of the types of Biometrics and who is using them. The answer to "Who is using Biometrics?" may surprise you. [tags: Biotechnology Science Essays]
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History Genetically Modified Organisms - Introduction What is Genetically Modified Organism. Plant Biotechnology is continuing its development within modern day science. With the increase understanding of scientific studies has led the improvement of plant productivity, quality and health. This understanding also contended potential issues on plant growth (Monsanto 2011). Plant biotechnology uses genetic engineering, which is the process of manipulating genes through isolation and reintroducing the DNA into the cell. This gave birth to Genetically Modified Organism, which are organism according to Dr. [tags: Genetically Modified Organism]
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Biosafety Protocol: Is There A Need For One? - Biosafety Protocol: Is There A Need For One. Outline Thesis statement: An international biosafety protocol should be created to establish and maintain control over the products designed with biotechnology. I. The existing laws and regulations that govern the release of transgenic organisms are inadequate or nonexistent. A. The developed nations of the world are using regulations that were designed to control and monitor crops created with traditional technologies. B. Biotechnology is regulated by three different agencies. [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Genetic Engineering: The Tremendous Benefits Outweigh the Risks - Wouldn't it be great to improve health care, improve agriculture, and improve our quality of life. Genetic engineering is already accomplishing those things, and has the potential to accomplish much more. Genetic engineering, also referred to as biotechnology, is a fairly new science where the genes of an organism are modified to change the features of an organism or group of organisms. Genes are found in the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) of an organism, and each gene controls a specific trait of an organism. [tags: Genetic Engineering Essay Examples]
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Important Trends in Bioeconomy - Important Trends in Bioeconomy 1. Bio based industries have impact on other industries. The impact of bioeconomy can also be seen in the multiplier and ripple effect of bioeconomy. It is seen that with bioeconomy there is both economic multiplier and ripple effects. This is especially important when assessing the creation of jobs in industries in a bioeconomy. As an example, the multiplier effect of direct economic contribution of the consumer supplement industry is examined and found to extend beyond direct employment, goods and services purchased, and taxation payments. [tags: Technological Innovation]
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Global Positioning System: Decreasing Crop Chemical Application on with Technology - Decreasing Chemical Application with Technology Works Cited Not Included Many people may wonder why it is so important to decrease chemical application on the farm. When people go to the store they often do not think about what goes into the apple or piece of bread they eat. The more chemicals that farmers use on the crops that are sold to the general public increase the chance that those chemicals get into the food we eat. There are many ways that the government and farmers are trying to reduce the amount of chemicals they are using. [tags: Environment Agriculture Biology Esays]
Moral and Ethical Issues in Gene Therapy - Due to the fact that the field of biotechnology is very serious and potentially dangerous, rules must be set down in order to keep the research in check. The high risk research of genetic therapy needs guidelines that have to be followed in order to keep the study just. The articles that are discussed in this essay focus on ethical issues and ideas that should be followed in the field in order to keep research safe and valid. In an article titled “The Ethical Implications of Gene Therapy” the group of advisers on Ethical Implications of Biotechnology of the European commission states issues and rules that should be abided by, along with beliefs on the direction of biotechnology. [tags: Gene Therapy Essays]
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The Benefits of Genetically Modified Crops - For the last several decades, the world has been plagued by widespread starvation and poverty. Economies are failing in numerous countries, and developing nations struggle to feed their inhabitants. As a result of the world’s mounting overpopulation, food has become scarce and resources are rapidly dwindling. However, modern science has provided a solution: agricultural biotechnology. Genetically engineered crops represent the bright future of agriculture. Crops like cotton, corn, and soybeans can have genes inserted or deleted into their cell membranes; this modification facilitates pest and virus resistance, drought tolerance, and even provides nutritional enhancement. [tags: Genetically Modified Foods]
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Analysis of Amgen’s Acquisition of Biovex - 1. Description of products and technology. Include a discussion of what the acquired company had that made it an attractive target. Amgen, since 1980 is one of the best biotechnological companies to bring safest and effective therapies in medicine. It has been proved as a pioneer because of the flawless remedies being provided for Bone Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Cancer and Kidney related diseases (amgen.com, 2014). The pipeline of Amgen is very broad and is proven to be very potential and effective to the treatments. [tags: Amgen Acquires BioVex]
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Genetically Modified Food in Canada - A trip to any supermarket in Canada will reveal nothing out of ordinary, just the usual of array of fresh and packaged goods displayed in an inviting manner to attract customers. Everything appear familiar and reassuring, right. Think again. A closer microscopic inspection discloses something novel, a fundamental revolution in food technology. The technology is genetic engineering (GE), also known as biotechnology. Blue prints (DNA) of agricultural crops are altered and “spliced” with foreign genes to produce transgenic crops. [tags: Genetic Engineering]
Drug Discovery, Development, and Manufacturing - Drug Discovery, Development, and Manufacturing The process of producing a new drug into the market involves drug discovery, drug development, and drug manufacturing. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are both properties responsible for bringing about a new drug. Pharmacokinetics is the study of what the body does to a drug and of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Pharmacodynamics is the study of what a drug does to the body. It is the relationship of the resulting effect of the drug and the site of action (Introduction to Pharmacokinetics, n.d). [tags: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics]
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Schizophrenia: Critique of Research Study - Schizophrenia is the most common and complex mental disorder that has an impact on many people worldwide. Not only is the disorder complex but devastating. Schizophrenia starts in the early lives of an individual and can lead to lifelong disability (Moritz, 2010). In this paper schizophrenia will be introduced as well as why this topic and discipline were chosen. There will also be a research study that will not only be critiqued by the research that is given but also how the research was presented as well. [tags: Research Paper]
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Book Review: "Enough: Staying Human in and Engineered Age" written by Bill McKibben - Over the years humanity has experienced a significant increase in the world population, and today that number continues to rise. With an increase in people, the demand for food goes up tremendously. Agricultural science has continuously developed new technologies that have enhanced the efficiency and value of agricultural production. Although the enhancements increase the production of agricultural goods, it’s important to understand the impacts it has on our environment and food system. In this book review, I will discuss both the cultural and natural dimensions of Agricultural Biotechnology, and how it relates to our current problems in Human Relations. [tags: Book Review]
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The Debate Over Gene Patenting - In June 2000, the publicly funded Human Genome Project (HGP) and the private firm Celera Genomics Inc. announced that they had completed sequencing the human genome. This unprecedented accomplishment is expected to enable doctors to diagnose, treat and even prevent numerous genetic diseases. As these two entities worked on sequencing the human genome, there was also a separate and less publicized race to patent as many human genes as possible. The patenting issue gained some attention when President Bill Clinton and Prime Minster Tony Blair jointly called for the release of raw genetic data into the public domain (CQ 405). [tags: Genetic Engineering Essays]
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Limited Knowledge of Agriculture in our Society - Many have heard the phrase, “Where would we be without agriculture. Hungry and Naked.” Ye,t the understanding of this phrase seems to be very limited. Knowledge of agriculture, as a whole, is very limited, to the point where people think that food comes from the grocery store instead of from the farms of hard working men and women who spend their days working in the fields and pastures. The combination of unrealistic legislation, corporate greed, and an ignorant consumer, that is today, four generations or more removed from the farm, has led to a huge gap in agriculture literacy in this country. [tags: food police, farms, ignorant consumer]
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