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Showing result 1 - 5 of 23 essays containing the word ASEAN.

1. Towards an ASEAN Human Rights Framework. Rapid Development in the Kingdom of Cambodia

University essay from Uppsala universitet/Teologiska institutionen

Abstract. The Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN) has since its origins in the late 1960’s been connected to the emphasis on Economic, Social and Cultural rights and the regional need for economic development. Through the intense years and debates that followed the first ASEAN Declaration the unity has made significant contributions to the Human Rights discourse due to the challenges and possibilities that surfaced. READ MORE

2. Exploration of Changes for Goods Distribution in the ASEAN Following the Implementation of the ASEAN Economic Community

University essay from Högskolan i Jönköping/JTH, Industriell organisation och produktion; Högskolan i Jönköping/JTH, Industriell organisation och produktion

Abstract. Purpose - The purpose of this thesis work is to explore how the fully implemented AEC affects cross-border trade in the ASEAN, and based on the findings determine how multinational companies should adapt their logistics strategy to the change. To achieve this purpose the following research questions will be answered:How will the AEC affect the distribution of goods in the ASEAN?How should a multinational company adapt their logistics strategy to the new conditions?Methodology - To explore the opportunities and threats regarding the fully implementation of AEC, the authors had to complete 4 phases including a pre-study, literature study, case study, and data analysis. READ MORE

3. The origin of goods and the act that undermines global trade: How the proliferation of free trade agreements creates an Asian noodle bowl that inhibits the world trade environment - A case study of Krusell Thailand Co. Ltd.

University essay from Göteborgs universitet/Graduate School

Abstract. MSc in Logistics and Transport Management. READ MORE

4. Expected interests, or just interesting expectations? - How the EU’s bodies promote and prioritize policies in the EaP and ASEAN

University essay from Göteborgs universitet/Statsvetenskapliga institutionen

Abstract. This thesis takes its starting point in that policy promotion previously has been discussedmainly as values or norms, and argues that policies are also constructed of interests. As such, this thesis examines the behaviour of the EU’s bodies when promoting and prioritizing policies in the Eastern Partnership (EaP) and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN). READ MORE

5. The impact of ASEAN-China free trade agreement on foreign-invested manufacturing locations in Asia: A case study of Husqvarna Construction Products AB

University essay from Göteborgs universitet/Graduate School

Abstract. Within the framework of the WTO, regional trade agreements have proliferated in recent years as a means to facilitate trade. While developed countries are struggling for growth, much attention has been directed towards the Asian emerging markets, and especially to China, in search for new business opportunities. READ MORE

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REGIONAL INTEGRATION IN ASEAN PROMOTING GLOBAL BUSINESS Essay by

REGIONAL INTEGRATION IN ASEAN PROMOTING GLOBAL BUSINESS

REGIONAL INTEGRATION IN ASEAN PROMOTING GLOBAL BUSINESS

Growth of ASEAN. The formation of ASEAN on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok has been an epochal event in South East Asia as it signified the growth of inter as well as intra regional trade. ASEAN has slowly grown into an economically powerful group of nations to include Brunei Darussalam Cambodia. Indonesia. Laos. Malaysia. Myanmar. Philippines. Singapore Thailand and Vietnam. The first benefit of regionalization was evident in growth of intra regional trade in ASEAN. Between 1967 and the 1970 's the trade grew significantly

within the region from 12 to 15. The progress of ASEAN into an ASEAN Free Trade Area or AFTA in 1992 has been the next stage and has resulted in consideration of the region as one trading unit facilitating global trade. AFTA has been the turning point for ASEAN as it has seen the rise of 28 .3 in three years. This has been the stage of transformation from regionalization to globalization (Solingen. 1998. The final stage will be the formation of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC ) by 2015. While originally this was scheduled to be in the year 2020. this has now been advanced by 5 years. thereby signifying the strong growth in the regional block (ASEASEC. 2006. With this ASEAN will resemble the European Union by 2015

Regional Integration Advantages

The advantages of regional integration are very substantial as summarized below :- (a ) Trade facilitation by reduction of b barriers. customs and communications integration and development (b ) Foreign direct investment is attracted en bloc as ASEAN. Thus the weaker states benefit due to the strong economies of the developed countries. ASEAN had succeeded in attracting FDI. of US 38 billion in 2005 (ASEANSEC. 2006 (c ) ASEAN bloc has provided a cushion for absorbing adverse impact of external as well as internal shocks to individual countries. This was most evident during the Tsunami disaster which had struck Indonesia (d ) Reduction in transaction costs and improved logistics facilitates trade. Each country does not necessarily have to develop its external transport structure and thus the less developed countries can take benefit of the developed infra structure of their richer neighbors (e ) Free flow of services greatly catalyses the movement of personnel within the region. thereby attracting the best talent for growth (f ) Single window clearance for the ASEAN bloc can encourage global trade (g ) The countries can act as a block market with uniform import tariffs to facilitate trade. Thus ASEAN was Hong Kong Special Administrative Region 's third largest market in 2002. which would not have been possible without regional integration (h ) The less economically developed countries benefit as they are treated at par with the more economically developed countries thereby creating investment opportunities for all (j ) Provides for macro economic stability which creates a concurrent effect. Thus even Vietnam and Philippines are reported to be achieving budgetary surplus in line with other richer states as Singapore and Thailand as early as 1998 (Camdessus. 1996

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2015 ASEAN Integration - College Essay - 675 Words

2015 ASEAN Integration

THE ASEAN COMMUNITY 2015: BENEFICIAL TO THE PHILIPPINES
By 2015, the ten nations that make up the Association of Southeast Asian Nations envisions an “ASEAN Economic Community,” which will establish a highly competitive single market and production through the integration of their economies. There will be free flow of goods, services, investment capital and skilled labor following the liberalization. These will include tariff reductions and streamlining of certain administrative procedures. Many businesses have begun preparing themselves three years ahead of time to meet the challenges and opportunities of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). The Philippines is committed to the goal of achieving this by 2015. This paper argues and is concerned with elaborating the benefits of the 2015 ASEAN Integration to the Philippines. As we all know, the ASEAN has significantly affected the Philippines in different aspects. It is very evident that the Philippines has made more allies and connections because of the ASEAN. Since the moment that the five foreign ministers from Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, and the Philippines sat down together in the main hall of the Department of Foreign Affairs building in Bangkok, Thailand and signed a document known as the ASEAN Declaration, the alliance was recognized as the most successful inter-governmental organization in the developing world today. Another advantage that the country could get is the job opportunities given to the Filipinos. As more investors are being attracted, businesses will grow and there will be more jobs and opportunities. The integration needs labor and labor means needing more manpower. The bonus is that members of the ASEAN enjoy visa-free privileges to ASEAN countries. This will surely offer convenience and accessibility to Overseas Filipino Workers or OFWs. These OFWs will be able to work in any ASEAN country of their choice. Trade is also rapidly burgeoning and will further boom. Through the.

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In 2003, leaders from the ASEAN bloc of nations agreed to establish an ASEAN Community by 2020, comprising three pillars, namely the ASEAN Political-Security Community, the ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community, and the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). Subsequently, they decided to hasten the establishment of the AEC to 2015 . The AEC is an initiative to transform the region into an area with free movement of goods.

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Yanda Swares Gita 016 201 200 111 IR<deff>2012 Class 1 Semester 5 I. Introduction ASEAN’s HISTORY In August 1967, when ASEAN was founded, Southeast Asia was at the center of world events. Indonesia had recently been at war with Malaysia, trying to prevent the creation of Malaysia out of former British colonies. The Second Indochina War was raging, following the withdrawal of France in 1954 and the end of the First Indochina War that year. In Malaysia, a powerful communist.

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 ASEAN2015 . CHANGING EMPLOYMENT LANDSCAPE ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY 2015ASEAN Economic Community 10 countries, single regional economic market by 2015 Free flow of goods, services, investment ,capital and skilled labor Professional mobility ASEAN2015 Benefit ASEAN ECOnoMIC COMMUNITY 2015 Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia.

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ASEAN Economic Integration2015 As the world today becomes more complex in term of politics and economics, there are agreements or treaties created in order to maintain the stabilization and development. One of the significant things that most states mainly concern about is the economic development; as a matter of fact, since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the world has given more priority to the economic development. On top of that, there were.

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trade has sharply increased. Its regional integration agenda was meaningfully deepened in the year 2003 when its members adopted the ambitious goal of forming an ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by 2015 . The event indicates how rapidly approaching the association is into a new milestone. During their annual ASEAN Summit Meeting in November 2007 held in Singapore, the blueprint for realizing an ASEAN Economic Community (AEC).

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Name: Orn Dyna ID: 79037 Domestic Violence I. Introduction Throughout the world, it is believed that women who are in love are willing to do whatever it takes to maintain a relationship with their partner. Love is the foundation for every relationship and helps couples overcome any obstacle they face along the road. Unfortunately, after a while, this love that once existed goes away and is replaced by bruises and hurtful words. A relationship that was once a fairytale story is.

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CHAPTER 1 ECONOMIC INTEGRATION INTRODUCTION Economic integration is a process where barriers to trade are reduced or eliminated to facilitate trade between regions or nations. There are varying degrees of economic integration ranging from theoretically completely free trade to the use of preferential trade agreements to stimulate relationships between specific trade partners. Removing trade barriers comes with costs and benefits, depending on the.

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ASEAN . The integration effect Author: Tim Burroughs Asian Venture Capital Journal | 12 Jul 2012 | 13:03 Tags: Asian development bank | Axiom asia private capital |Southeast asia The Association of Southeast Asian Nations is gradually bringing the region’s economies closer together. Private equity investors stand to benefit but not all businesses are suited to cross-border expansion The trouble-hit euro zone is hardly a poster child for regional economic.

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The ASEAN was founded in 1967 for strategic and security reasons as a result of the ending of confrontation between Indonesia and Malaysia in 1966, and was made possible by a maturing of ideas about regional co-operation in Southeast Asia. It was also a reaction to the Vietnam War's uncertain outcome, and the need for the non-communist countries of Southeast Asia to get together in facing a possible withdrawal of the United States from the region. It is clearly seen that the establishment of this Association was due to political-security reasons. Aside from these reasons, however, the Bangkok Declaration of 1967 cites the promotion of economic, social, and cultural co-operation as reasons for the establishment of ASEAN. The Association was established on August 8, 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand with the signature of the Bangkok declaration by the five original member nations (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand). In 1984, Brunei Darussalam was admitted as the sixth member. In 1995, Vietnam also joined ASEAN. Lao People's Democratic Republic and Burma/Myanmar became members in 1997. Cambodia joined in 1999.

It was nine years later, in a Summit in Bali did the first concrete programs for economic co-operation come about, and they were further strengthened in 1977 at a Summit in Kuala Lumpur. In the first nine years, ASEAN's efforts were mainly to get to know each other and to learn how to co-operate with each other. It was also a time to develop a consensus on strategic views about the region, because there were real differences among the members. Among the member countries, only Indonesia was genuinely non-aligned with a foreign power.

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is the most successful regional grouping in the developing world. The EU, on the other hand is considered the most successful regional grouping in the developed world and is different from ASEAN on matters of enlarged member

Essays Related to ASEAN

Asean 2015 - Essays

Asean 2015

ILS Discussion Paper Series 2012

ASEAN 2015:
Implications of People Mobility and Services

Mary Grace L. Riguer

Working Paper Series 2012

For Discussion Purposes Only

ASEAN 2015: IMPLICATIONS OF PEOPLE MOBILITY AND SERVICES

Mary Grace L. Riguer

The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not reflect the opinion of the Institute for Labor Studies and the Department of Labor and Employment.

This paper examines the readiness of Philippines for worker mobility within the region of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). It focuses on the implications of the impending establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community by 2015 as specifically governed by rules and regional commitments on free flow services, mutual recognition of qualifications and skills, movement of natural persons, and movement of skilled labor.

1
I. INTRODUCTION

It is 2016 Filipinos can freely move for work anywhere in the nine (9) countries that comprise the Association of Southeast Asian Nations or ASEAN. Indonesians, Malaysians, Singaporeans, Bruneians, Myanmar, Cambodians, Vietnamese, Laotians can also do the same in the Philippines. Just the previous year, in 2015, the ASEAN Economic Community, as envisioned by ASEAN leaders in 2007, formally came to being, ushering in a region with a single market and production base characterized by free flow of goods, free flow of services, free flow of investment, freer flow of capital, and free flow of skilled labor. Like other ASEAN peoples, Filipinos, have now become more mobile across this regional economy.

What has just been illustrated is a scene in a future that takes shape in the ASEAN Community established through the Declaration of Bali Concord II (ASEAN Concord II). Agreed upon by ASEAN members in the 12th ASEAN Summit in 2007, ASEAN Community will have been formally established by 2015, consisting of three pillars: the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), the ASEAN Socio-Cultural.

Asean 2015 - Essay by Gdave29

Asean 2015 Essay

Below is an essay on "Asean 2015" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.

Kuala Lumpur – Chinese island-building efforts in the disputed South China Sea, where airstrips are being built on coral reefs, risk undermining “peace, security and stability” in the region, Southeast Asian leaders warned at a regional summit yesterday.

Beijing’s assertion to almost the entire strategic body of water – also claimed in parts by several Asian nations – has set off alarm bells with its neighbors and beyond as China stakes its claim with growing boldness.

A statement to be issued at the close of the one-day summit notes “serious concerns” over land reclamation on reefs whose sovereignty is contested and which has triggered fears of tightening Chinese control of the seaway.

‘’We share the serious concerns expressed by some leaders on the land reclamation being undertaken in the South China Sea, which has eroded trust and confidence and may undermine peace, security and stability,’’ said the statement by summit chair Malaysia, seen by AFP.

The closing statement instructs the region’s foreign ministers to ‘’urgently address this matter’’ under dialogue mechanisms set up between the bloc and China.

But it stopped short of a call by the Philippine foreign secretary, who on Sunday challenged ASEAN to ‘’finally stand up’’ to Beijing and demand an immediate end to the reclamation.

Albert del Rosario had warned his regional peers in Kuala Lumpur that China was ‘’poised to consolidate de facto control’’ of the sea.

“Is it not time for ASEAN to say to our northern neighbor that what it is doing is wrong and that the massive reclamations must be immediately stopped?” Del Rosario said. “On this most important issue, is it not time for Asean to finally stand up for what is right?”

China’s actions have caused uneasiness for neighbors such as Vietnam and the Philippines who also claim some of the waters. It agreed to talks with ASEAN over a code of conduct for the South China Sea in July, 2013, but little progress has been.

ASEAN essays

MegaEssays.com ASEAN

ASEAN, The Association of South East Asian Nations was formed on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok by Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand, only to be joined by Brunei Darussalam in 1984, Vietnam in 1995, Laos & Myanmar in 1997 and Cambodia in 1999.

ASEAN was formed to speed up the growth of the economy, social progress & development of culture through helping each other out in equality and partnership while promoting peace & stability throughout the region, having respect for justice and the rule of the law amongst the countries in the South East Asian region, to strengthen the foundation for community of Southeast Asian nations which is prosperous and peaceful.

The activities carried out by ASEAN are planned by the different member countries. As the environmental pollution is an issue, member countries plan activities that deal with environmental issues, have conferences, hold camps and hold a Green Week in conjunction with World Environment Day, to name a few. The representatives from the member countries hold meetings throughout the year in the various countries around the globe. However, most of these meetings are held in Asia. They also take part in courses and workshops on transport, terrorism and such. These meetings are usually based on the Transnational Issues that ASEAN is concerned about. These Transnational Issues are the Environment, Transboundary Haze, Transnational Crime & Terrorism, Legal Cooperation, Immigration, Drugs and Civil Services.

ASEAN keeps close relations with other countries by having each member country to coordinate with the other different countries that do not belong in ASEAN. These other countries are Australia, China, European Union (EU), Canada, India, Japan, Republic of Korea, New Zealand, Russia and the United States of America. This coordination is held in 3 year cycles, rotating between the member countries to act as coordinators. ASEAN also holds conferences with the vario.

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Asean And History Of Cambodias Membership Politics Essay

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About Us More About Us Asean And History Of Cambodias Membership Politics Essay

Published: 23, March 2015

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations which is called in short, ASEAN, was created on 8 August1967 in Bangkok, Thailand, with the signing by the five countries including of Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Then Brunei joined on 8 January 1984 whereas Viet Nam on 28 July 1995. After that, Lao PDR and Myanmar on 23 July 1997, and finally Cambodia which is known as the tenth and last member jointed on 30 April 1999. After analyzing the establishment of ASEAN; objectives, fundamental principles, ASEAN Community, and its structure and mechanisms are the next components to be introduced in order to observe the ASEAN overview.

First of all, ASEAN aims, which have to speed up the economic growth, social and cultural development, and promote regional peace, cannot be reached if there is no fundamental principle. The fundamental principle was restricted in the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC) of Southeast Asia is: all Member States in the region must respect for another's sovereignty, not interfere in internal affair, solve intraregional disputes by peaceful method, and cooperate effectively.

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Besides the fundamental principle of ASEAN, ASEAN Community is also the important part of this region. ASEAN Leaders adopted The ASEAN Vision 2020 on the 30th Anniversary of ASEAN, shared vision of ASEAN as a concert of Southeast Asian nations, living in peace, stability and prosperity, which bonded together in cooperation, dynamic development, and in a full of caring community societies. However, at the 12th ASEAN Summit in January 2007, all the ASEAN Leaders declared their strong dedication that an ASEAN Community shall be shifted its establishment by 2015 which is comprised of three pillars such as the ASEAN Security Community, ASEAN Economic Community, and ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community.

In addition to ASEAN Community, structures and mechanisms of ASEAN are the last part to demonstrate in the introduction of ASEAN. ASEAN has two basic structures. First, ASEAN Summit is the most important meeting as well as the highest decision-making organ of ASEAN which is joined by the head of the government and states, and it is convened every year. Second, Ministerial Meeting is less important meeting which is joined by the foreign ministers, and it is held annually.

In brief, ASEAN is the association of cooperation in the economic, social, and cultural, and the encouragement of regional peace and stability of Southeast Asia nations which has included 10 member states. In fact, those states include Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam. Not surprisingly since we are ASEAN citizens, it is essential for us to study ASEAN member states in terms of membership history, benefits of becoming a membership, issues to faces and solutions, and future perspectives, so on and so forth. However, I choose only one member state, Cambodia, to point up in the next sections.

Cambodia is located on mainland Southeast Asia which sharing a land border with Laos to the northeast, Thailand to the west, Vietnam to the southeast, and a sea coast on the Gulf of Thailand to the northwest. In addition, Cambodia has a multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy as a type of government and Kingdom of Cambodia as a conventional form with Phnom Penh as a capital city. The basis of elections internationally recognized as free and fair, which was formed by the Royal Government of Cambodia with the intervention of UNTAC, was established on September 24, 1993. Nevertheless, there still had disputes of Political Parties between Ranariddh's FUNCINPEC's Party and Hun Sen's Cambodian People's Party. Factional fighting in 1997 ended the first coalition government, but a second round of national elections in 1998 led to the formation of another coalition government and renewed political stability. Therefore, Cambodia had not become a member of ASEAN regarding to the instability peace until 1999.

On Friday 30 April 1999, Cambodia officially and fully became the 10th member of the ASEANASEAN:Â see Association of Southeast Asian Nations.

ASEAN

 in full Association of Southeast Asian Nations

International organization established by the governments of Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand in

Click the link for more information. was settled up a regional body encompassing by all of the Southeast Asian countries in Hanoi, Vietnam. After the signing of the ASEAN agreement was completed, the Cambodian national flag was raised at the Hanoi hosting the admission ceremony, joining the nine other flags of the ASEAN member countries. In like manner, a Cambodian national flag was also hoisted at the same time in front of the ASEAN secretariat in Jakarta, Indonesia. Previously, the Philippine Foreign Affairs foreign affairs

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Affairs concerning international relations and national interests in foreign countries.  Secretary, Domingo Siazon, and his counterparts from Indonesia and Thailand formed a "troika" that mediated political settlements in Cambodia resulting from the conflict between rival groups led by Prime Minister Hun Sen Hun Sen (hn sĕn), 1952-, Cambodian political leader, premier of Cambodia (1985-93, 1998-; second premier, 1993-98).  and deposed first Prime Minister Prince Norodom Ranariddh. Furthermore, Cambodia's membership into the group was delayed without letting up in July 1997, following the coup of Ranariddh from power by Hun Sen. Its admission into ASEAN was continued to hang on for the restoration of political stability in the country and the setting up of a Senate. A parliamentary election was held in the country on July 26 and Hun Sen-led government was inaugurated in 30 November. Thus, during an ASEAN summit held in Hanoi, all ASEAN members decided to proclaim Cambodia following the formation of a combination government between Ranariddh's FUNCINPECFUNCINPEC National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia

Click the link for more information. party and Hun Sen's Cambodian People's Party.

Since the moment Cambodia joined ASEAN, governance processes have been changed significantly in many areas such as trade, investment, tourism, and others. In preparation for membership, Cambodia was required to adjust in wide-ranging areas such as a collective way to institutionalize the ASEAN structure within the government in order to ensure effective coordination, and upgrading the legal framework for the tax structure to ensure the reduction of tariffs. As we can see, the participation in the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA), which require reducing import duty taxes, is known as one challenge for a new member as Cambodia. For Cambodia, this involvement is a hard commitment and has so far demanded huge workloads and restructuring since it is a poor and underdeveloped country which strongly depends on only agricultural products and a few export products. Indeed, the key ministries such as Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, Ministry of Economy and Finance, and Ministry of Commerce, as well as other line ministries, need to take part in ASEAN affairs. Besides, since there are three required basic cooperation in ASEAN such as politics, economics, and functional cooperation, Cambodia still need more financial and human resources in order coordinate the various institutions and ministries, and more effective policy frameworks. In contrast, if the government is not strategic in engaging with ASEAN, it might lead the country into the risk. What is more challenge for Cambodia are the requirements of national development as well as the globalization regarding to the ASEAN Vision 2020, ASEAN Community and the ASEAN+3. Hence, Cambodia has a very high pressure to catch up and to be well-suited with the rest of the ASEAN members which is known as an obstacle after becoming a full member of ASEAN for the reason that it has low levels of social, economic, human resources, technical, and infrastructural development.

However, even there are a few challenges by becoming one new member of ASEAN; Cambodia has never been dissatisfied; in contrast, it has a very strong and high commitment to work out with all those obstacles. Conversely, since being an ASEAN membership, Cambodia has received many benefits in terms of economics, politics, and security.

To begin with, Cambodia has developed its economics rapidly after joining an ASEAN. Regarding to economics term, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has flowed investment from ASEAN to Cambodia significantly since 1999. Moreover, FDI has contributed the market factors to Cambodia not only among ASEAN members, but also with the other ASEAN's dialogue partners such as Japan, China, South Korea, and European Union. Furthermore, the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA), which was launch in 1992 with the objective to create single production and market place of the region to be competitive in the world market, is another economic advantage for Cambodia. According to AFTA, Cambodia as well as the rest of the ASEAN members has enjoyed the free flow of goods, services, trade, and investment by reducing and eliminating the tariff barrier properly. However, toward reducing a high tariff, ASEAN has established the Common Effective Preferential Tariff, which is known as CEPT Scheme; in order to increase intra-ASEAN trade, increase region's competitive edge, and attract more foreign direct investment. Throughout the CEPT Scheme, Cambodia has received many benefits. For example, foreign direct investment from Japan has been flow swiftly to Cambodia in the figure of US$3.5 million in 2004 and US$30.9 million in 2007. Despite the FDI, Cambodia has also exported products increasingly not only in the region but also in the whole world market. Even though, the CEPT Scheme is going to eliminate of all imports duties by 2015 for Cambodia. Totally, Cambodia has gained its economy such as productivity, investment, income, and welfare after signing AFTA. Also, intraregional trade and investment has been growing quite remarkably, benefits Cambodian economy.

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Secondly, ASEAN has also created politic settlements to Cambodia. In the ground of politics, Cambodia has received many opportunities in the world prestige. Specifically, in 2004, Cambodia has become a full member of World Trade organization (WTO). Besides Cambodia has jointed many important international meetings such as ASEAN Summit and ASEAN Ministerial, etc which help Cambodia to increase confidence in the international community. In addition, ASEAN Charter has playing a very essential role in facilitating the political conflicts by peaceful method of Cambodia among ASEAN memberships. In accordance with the ASEAN Charter, which is served as a legal document, Cambodia has taken pleasure in promoting human right and democracy. What is more, Cambodia has been respected its sovereignty and non inference by other countries as a result of TAC. In adding together, Cambodia also never experienced in the threat or use of force with the ASEAN member states as well as the other countries since joining the TAC. All in all, Cambodia, as one member of ASEAN, has been enormously in achieving in political stability and collaboration as we can see the mentioned points above.

Last but not least, security is another imperative advantage. As we can see, before being an ASEAN member, Cambodia has never obtained both state and human security notably. For instance, in the late 1970s, Cambodia used to have disputes and use of arm force with Vietnam; nonetheless, as a result of being an ASEAN membership, ASEAN factor has convinced both parties to settle the dispute peacefully. As a consequence, Cambodia has strengthened its relation with its neighboring countries especially with Vietnam. Besides, concerning to human security of Cambodia as well the other members, ASEAN has been taken into consideration seriously. In fact, ASEAN has helped Cambodia extensively to control, detect, and prevent the spread of diseases such as bird flu, swine flu, etc by providing experts and sharing information. Hence, Cambodia had contained all those infections successfully. In spite of pandemic, ASEAN also has helped Cambodia to work out effectively with many transnational crimes such as human trafficking, drug trafficking, and pedophilia, etc. Due to the fact that ASEAN always concerns about every common regional issue, ASEAN tries hardly to find resolution. Actually, ASEAN has established many programs and actions in providing information exchange, law enforcement, and institutional capacity-building, etc in order to combat transnational crime. More recognizing, there are many basic frameworks for regional cooperation on fighting transnational crime such as the ASEAN Ministers Meeting and Senior Official Meeting at least once a year. According to all above actions, Cambodia and also other members in ASEAN have abolished the transnational crimes from year to year. In brief, in the field of security, ASEAN has always assisted Cambodia in various ways; therefore, Cambodia has reduced harm and threat to its both state and human security effectively.

In addition to many benefits of becoming a membership of ASEAN, Cambodia has achieved almost effective solutions from ASEAN regarding to the common issues. But I will illustrate a few issues which effect to Cambodia with resolutions only. Those problems include the border conflict between Cambodia and Thai, human trafficking, and drug abuse.

Conflict of border between Cambodia and Thai has been resolved formally more than forty years ago since the International Court of Justice awarded sovereignty of Preah Vihear Temple to Cambodia. However, the dispute erupted again in 2008 when UNESCO declared Preah Vihear Temple as a world heritage site. Because of the opposition politicians in Bangkok strongly opposed the UNESCO bid; it forced the Thai government to withdraw his support which leaded to an armed clash along the border and the outbreak of some fighting near the Preah Vihear territory. Moreover, then in 2009, Prime Minister Hun Sen of Cambodia appointed the fugitive Thaksin Shinawatra as one of his economic advisors. This event made Thai felt really disappointed which leaded to the diplomatic tension between both countries. As is commonly the case in the region, ASEAN does not stay still; it has tried hard to find any kind of method in order to bring the peaceful resolution to both parties. But the most effective one that we can see is the embarking on quiet diplomacy. ASEAN gave the mandate to neutral envoys and sent them separately to Bangkok and Phnom Penh which had aims to build up the confidence and begin the repairing of relations. As a result, Cambodia stopped to comment on the Thai political affair at the same time of Thai stopped to raise the issue of Preah Vihear Temple.

Another problem which affects seriously to Cambodia is human trafficking. On the one hand, the cross-border trafficking (out of Cambodia), most of Cambodia victims are trafficked to Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia and further abroad, and they are forced into sexual and labor exploitation. Mostly victims are the children aged from six to thirteen years old who have low level of education and come from the rural area. On the other hand, the internal trafficking (into and within Cambodia) includes victims from Vietnam, further abroad (China and Eastern Europe), and Cambodia itself. In similar way, they are forced to work for sexual commerce. Consequently, this type of transnational crime has given a harmful impact to violation of human right not only in Cambodia but also in the whole region. In respond, ASEAN has created a framework namely the Treaty on Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters which has a purpose to promote the effectiveness of laws enforcement such as prevention, investigation, prosecution, cooperation, and mutual legal assistance. Cambodia, in order to combat human trafficking in internal country as well as in the region, joined this framework on 29 November 2004.

Furthermore, drug abuse is also an issue for Cambodia as well as an ASEAN has been taking into consideration. Because there is a threat to the regional security and stability of illegal drugs trafficking and abuse, ASEAN has implied in many frameworks and meetings in order to control and combat this problem. First of all, a Drug-Free ASEAN by 2015, which was established in July 2000, at the 33rd ASEAN Ministerial Meeting, is a very important program and commitment of all ASEAN members to address and eliminate the manufacturing, trafficking, and abuse of illegal drug. However, in order to accelerate the progress toward the objectives, ASEAN government has created some frameworks such as ''ASEAN and China Cooperative Operations in Response to Dangerous Drugs or ACCORD was intended to outline specific actions that go beyond national efforts and are guided by a cooperative framework for the benefit of all drug control stakeholders in the region'' (Drug-Free ASEAN 20015). Besides, the ASEAN Senior Officials on Drug Matters (ASOD), which is a group of drug control senior officials for all countries in ASEAN, has an aim and action to monitor the drug abuse and reviewed regularly by Member States. Last but not least, another program is known as the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) has provided a broad range of assistance to handle demand and supply aspects of drug control since 1993.

By demonstrating the history of membership since before Cambodia becoming a member in ASEAN until now, we can see even though Cambodia has met a few challenges, Cambodia has achieved many benefits in terms of economics, politics, security, and as well as the resolutions regarding to the common issues. Besides, ASEAN has played a very crucial role not only in the region but also in the whole world affair. Consequently, most people really speculate that what ASEAN will like in the future if it has played a crucial role for more than three decades.

Here are the answers. According to mostly high status people in this international organization, ASEAN is believed that its future is full of optimism. As long as ASEAN has served regional interests including maintaining peace and stability, boosting economic growth, and promoting the regional identity, so on and so forth then all members still need it. Moreover, ASEAN will strengthen its relation and expand its influence from a small sub regional organization to the world affair. By facing a future with confidence, ASEAN never be tired in putting the hard commitment to the ASEAN goal of 2015, ASEAN Community. However, if the ASEAN Community will not reach by 2015, it does not mean that the Community is unsuccessful or failed. In contrast, 2015 is not the end of the road; it is just the beginning which is a commitment to persuade all ASEAN members to try hard in developing their countries. Furthermore, no matter it achieves or not, the main point is to move on and cooperate together.

In brief, I strongly believe that if Southeast Asia minus ASEAN, it will equal to political and economic instability. So Southeast Asia countries will never stay without ASEAN depending on the above clarifying, instead ASEAN will continue to develop itself and also enlarge the relationship and the cooperation not only among the member states but also the world as possible as it can.

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