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Capgemini Csd Research Paper

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Approaches to Improve Reliability of Service Composition

Approaches to Improve Reliability of Service Composition

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Nowadays, enterprises realize functionality as systems that are composed of services. This includes even mission critical parts of their business. Hence, the reliability of such systems including their composition and services is increasingly important. However, it is a challenge to establish a high reliability in this context because distribution of functionality increases the potential points of failure. Different approaches exist to increase reliability but they typically act on a restricted scope like network layer or software design. In order to obtain better results, it is often necessary to combine multiple approaches depending on the actual situation and the requirements. This paper classifies commonly used approaches according their scope and rates their effects on the reliability. Thereby, it supports the selection of approaches to improve reliability and finally helps to find a suitable solution for a given situation.


Reliability SOA Composition Service Quality of Service

Bhavin Turakhia, P.K. The compendium of load balancing strategies. Tech. rep. Wiki. Directi (2009)

Bocciarelli, P. DAmbrogio, A. A model-driven method for describing and predicting the reliability of composite services. Software and Systems Modeling 10, 265–280 (2011), doi:10.1007/s10270-010-0150-3 CrossRef

Canfora, G. Di Penta, M. Esposito, R. Villani, M.L. An approach for qos-aware service composition based on genetic algorithms. In: GECCO 2005: Proceedings of the 2005 Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computation, pp. 1069–1075. ACM, New York (2005) CrossRef

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Friedl, B. Zur optimalen Granularität von IT-Services - Eine Analyse relevanter ökonomischer Einflussfaktoren. In: Bernstein, A. Schwabe, G. (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, vol. 1, pp. 404–413 (2011)

International Organization for Standardization: ISO/IEC 9126. Software engineering – Product quality (2001)

Kokash, N. D’Andrea, V. Evaluating Quality of Web Services: A Risk-Driven Approach. In: Abramowicz, W. (ed.) BIS 2007. LNCS, vol. 4439, pp. 180–194. Springer, Heidelberg (2007) CrossRef

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Lee, K. Jeon, J. Lee, W. Jeong, S.H. Park, S.W. QoS for web services: Requirements and possible approaches. Tech. rep. W3C, Web Services Architecture Working Group (November 2003),

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Other articles

ComponentJS: Imprint

ComponentJS Imprint About Author

Ralf S. Engelschall, the ComponentJS author, is a 41-year old Computer Scientist and Open Source Software Hacker, living with his wife and three children in Munich, Germany. He is founder of the Apache Software Foundation (ASF), founder of the OpenSSL and OpenPKG projects, committer at the FreeBSD. GNU. OSSP. jQuery and Monotone projects and principal author of dozens of other popular Open Source Software solutions: Apache mod_ssl. Apache mod_rewrite. GNU pth. GNU shtool. OSSP uuid. etc. He is Department Manager at msg Applied Technology Research, a cross-division of the german, 4500-people large, custom software development company msg systems.

About Logo

The logo of ComponentJS is based on the lettering "ComponentJS", typeset in the font Adobe Myriad Pro, plus two symbolic design aspects. The first design aspect is that out of the first letter "o" a small component tree of three components and two communication paths were formed. This is a symbolic for the fact that ComponentJS' two primary features are the component tree and an event mechanism driven on it. Additionally, the event arrows go from a child component to the parent component and then from the parent component to another child component. This is a classical use case: instead of calling one child directly from another child, the communication is routed through the parent component in order to strictly apply the Separation of Concern architecture principle. The second design aspect is that the trailing "JS" is typeset differently and with a related dot, as a symbolic to the fact that ComponentJS in projects usually has the filename component.js. i.e. where "JS" becomes a filename extension.

Project History Phase 1: Trigger (2009/06-2009/11)

The idea of ComponentJS was born in summer 2009 when Ralf S. Engelschall and Thomas Lotterer in the OpenPKG GmbH tried to implement a small shopping card application as a Web-based Rich Client. The primary challenge was that multiple input dialogs caused multiple output dialogs to update and the corresponding JavaScript/jQuery code was rather tangled and hence nearly incomprehensible.

Phase 2: Inspiration (2009/12-2010/01)

At this time Ralf S. Engelschall was department manager and principal architect at the Capgemini sd&m's CSD Research (formerly sd&m Research ). One of the projects in his team was Quasar Client. an embattled and published architecture for a so-called "component-based user interface architecture". The obvious idea was to transfer those conceptual ideas of Quasar Client to the JavaScript world. The initial version of ComponentJS was developed by Ralf S. Engelschall during his winter vaction 2009/2010.

Phase 3: Conceptual Steroids (2010/02-2011/02)

Very quickly it became apparent to Ralf S. Engelschall that although the core concept of Quasar Client. the Component Tree. is a really great one, it was still by far not really maxed out from a conceptual perspective. He especially started to investigate on two main points: how to perfect the hierarchical state transitions and how to leverage more from the component tree when it comes to the communication between components. As a result, a rather advanced state transition mechanism was born (which needed a lot of time to really get right and bug free) and the event mechanism was really placed on steriods. As a result, even the service and hook mechanism now were based on the event mechanism.

Phase 4: HTML5 Single-Page-Apps Practice (2011/03-2012/01)

With the advent of HTML5 and the inherent complexity of so-called Single-Page-Apps (SPA) ComponentJS finally became absolutely vital. Ralf S. Engelschall. now department manager and principal architect at msg Applied Technology Research. started to apply ComponentJS to its first real-world HTML5 SPAs. The features of ComponentJS were already extremely useful and it worked as designed, but regularily one conceptual point still caused headaches: what roles should the individual components playing and what code to put into which component.

Phase 5: User Interface Component Architecture (2012/02-2012/08)

An User Interface Component Architecture was established, based on a modern variation of the all-dancing-all-singing Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture pattern which can be driven on a Component Tree with the help of ComponentJS. There, the View is observing and binding to the Model from one side, the Model is a fully passive Presentation Model and the Controller is provisioning and observing the Model from the other side. The triad of Model-View-Controller components then occurs an arbitrary times in the Component Tree.

Phase 6: Full-Blown Business Information System (2012/09-2012/12)

At msg Applied Technology Research. a full-blown Business Information System named Mission Control (an employee mission planning application) was developed. From the start it was based on the new User Interface Component Architecture and the implementation was based on ComponentJS and Sencha Ext JS. This was the final ultimate test case in industrial practice which ComponentJS had to survive. And it it mastered it with bravery.

Phase 7: Maturity and Architecture Dissertation (2013/01-. )

After such a lot of pre-investigation efforts, Ralf S. Engelschall finally officially started his doctoral thesis project at Prof. Dr. Alexander Knapp. with the User Interface Component Architecture and its underlying "Model-View-Controller on a Component Tree" architecture pattern as the central research topics. ComponentJS became the official reference implementation and also the ultimate proof that the concepts work perfectly also in practice. In parallel, more and more UIs of business information systems were developed with the help of ComponentJS and the UI architecture behind it.

Project Credits

As the history of ComponentJS indicates, many people have contributed (directly or indirectly) concepts, ideas, feedback, bugfixes and improvement requests. Without completeness, at least the following people (in chronological order of first contribution time) should be given credit for the major inputs ComponentJS absorbed over time:

  • Lisa Daske (msg Applied Technology Research, 2013): implementation
  • Prof. Dr. Alexander Knapp (Universität Ausgburg, 2013): UI architecture, constraints
  • Stefanie Grewenig (Universität Ausgburg, 2013): MVC/CT, responsive design
  • Philipp Langhans (Universität Ausgburg, 2013): implementation, MVC/CT
  • Axel Ruder (msg Applied Technology Research, 2013): UI architecture, data binding
  • Erwin Wacha (msg Applied Technology Research, 2013): implementation
  • Linda Turke (msg Applied Technology Research, 2012): implementation
  • Jochen Hörtreiter (msg Applied Technology Research, 2012): implementation, MVC/CT
  • Adrian Rumpold (Universität Augsburg, 2012): implementation
  • Christian Müller (Universität Augsburg, 2012): implementation
  • Christian Vaas (Universität Augsburg, 2012): implementation, MVC/CT
  • Thomas Lotterer (OpenPKG GmbH, 2009): UI architecture, MVC/CT
  • Martin Fowler (ThoughtWorks, 2010): UI architecture, MVC roles
  • Matthias Brusdeylins (Capgemini sd&m CSD Research, 2008): Quasar Client documentation
  • Dr. Martin Haft (Capgemini sd&m CSD Research, 2008): Quasar Client concepts
  • Bernd Olleck (sd&m Research, 2007): Quasar Client concepts
  • Prof. Dr. Bernhard Humm (sd&m Research, 2006): UI architectures

Student Working Papers

Student Working Papers

CSD Student Working Papers with the following topics:

  • Democratic regimes and climate change (Chris Biggs)
  • Democracy building in post-conflict situations (Shanila De Silva)
  • Elite culture and democracy in Colombia and Venezuela (Juan Carlos Gomez Benavides)
  • Democracy and the role of ethnicity in Zambia (Theo Bass)
  • Public opinion in Europe (Lucy Hatton)
  • Privatization and democracy in Mexico (Matthias Baumgarten)
  • Economic development and democracy in Asia (George Lindley)
  • Political leadership and regime type in Liberia (Sebastian Gehart)
  • The rise of China and its implication for democratisation (Jennifer Sibley)
  • Cosmopolitan democracy (Jack Stevenson)
  • Promotion of democracy abroad: the USA and EU compared (Amy McGlinchy)

Department of Politics and International Studies
Social Sciences Building, The University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, United Kingdom
To contact a member of staff, please use the staff directory

PhD in Department of Communicative Sciences and Disorders - Communicative Sciences and Disorders - NYU Steinhardt

Department of Communicative Sciences and Disorders Doctoral Studies

The doctoral program provides students with the necessary training to have successful careers as academic researchers and scholars. Through rigorous research experience, intensive coursework, and collaboration with faculty mentors, the doctoral program is designed to prepare students for careers as independent researchers in CSD.

Admission requirements and application deadline

The strongest applicants will have evidence of academic excellence, strong GRE scores, excellent letters of recommendation from scholars familiar with academic potential, and a clearly demonstrated interest in research. We encourage students with degrees in communicative sciences and disorders as well as related fields including psychology, linguistics, and neuroscience, with a strong and demonstrated interest in CSD-based research and scholarship to apply to our program. Prospective doctoral students do not need a master’s degree before applying.

Financial support

This five-year full-time program includes several academic research milestones and comes with a competitive funding program that supports tuition and living expenses .

Degree requirements

Degree requirements for incoming candidates with a master's degree:

  • Individualized doctoral coursework (minimum of 43 points) fitting student’s research and scholarship interests
  • Complete the candidacy research and scholarship requirements
    • Two qualifying papers in two distinct areas/approaches within CSD
  • Develop and defend a dissertation consisting of original research that makes a novel contribution to the field
  • Teaching experience to enable students to compete successfully for academic positions

Degree requirements for incoming students without a master's degree :

  • Complete additional content-related coursework in CSD (30 points)
  • All other requirements as stated above

While there is a general structure to the program’s requirements, each student will inform his or her coursework for the program based on interests and background, in consultation with his or her mentor. There are general requirements, however, highlighted by a rigorous training in research methodology and statistics (15 points) providing students with the skills to perform independent research. In addition, students are required to take a course in Seminal Readings in Communicative Sciences and Disorders (3 points) and are expected to attend the department Doctoral Seminar and Research Colloquia each semester. These one-credit classes will be taken for credit half the time (a total of 10 points). The remaining 15 points consist of in-depth coursework to help solidify the student's knowledge in his or her area of interest, and students are strongly encouraged to take courses outside of the department as appropriate.

Research milestones

The doctoral program is structured around the completion of research milestones.

Qualifying papers (QPs): Students complete two qualifying papers (QPs) of the quality expected in peer-reviewed research journals. Each QP provides depth in an area of CSD research, and is conducted and written by the student under the guidance of a faculty mentor. Students achieve breadth in their research training through the completion of two different QPs, which have different empirical and/or theoretical approaches and are typically done with different mentors as part of a lab rotation. Each paper is submitted to a committee consisting of the mentor and two readers, and is followed by an oral defense which includes a department-wide presentation about the research paper. It is expected that this work will form the basis for conference presentations and journal article submissions. Students are expected to complete these two papers within three years.

Dissertation proposal and dissertation: In the final years of the program, students develop, write, and defend their dissertation proposal and ultimately their dissertation. The dissertation is supervised by a faculty mentor(s), but reflects the ideas and empirical contribution of the student, and will further our field’s knowledge in the area of inquiry.

More information

To read more about the PhD program, view the 2015-2016 PhD Student Handbook .

For specific research queries about the doctoral program, please contact the faculty member whose interests most reflect your own. Learn more about our faculty members' active research.

For general questions, please contact Professor Adam Buchwald. director of the PhD program.

This site, and all its contents, are Copyright © by New York University. All rights reserved.
NYU Steinhardt - Communicative Sciences and Disorders - 665 Broadway, 9th Floor, New York, NY 10012

Research Paper Writing - G-T CSD Libraries

APA electronic reference formats
"Please note. changes in APA's style guidelines for electronic resources with the release of the APA Style Guide to Electronic References." -from the website

Citation Style Guides
AAA, APA, Chicago (Turabian), MLA. From Seattle Central Community College Library.

Hacker's Research & Documentation Online
MLA, APA, Chicago and CBE. An extension of the Hacker handbook used widely by college undergraduates, this website also provides comprehensive instruction for finding and documenting sources.

How to Cite Bibliographic Forms: Turabian
Kate Turabian's guide is based on the Chicago Manual of Style. This brief pdf version, prepared by the UI Libraries RLI staff, requires Adobe Acrobat to view.

Karla's guide to citation styles
Guides to APA, MLA, Chicago and Turabian styles, and resources on copyright, legal citations, and footnoting electronic sources.

Reference site to search dictionaries, encylopedias, thesauri, quotations, world atlas, CIA World Factbook and fine artists. On a single page.

MLA style for documenting web sources
The official Modern Language Association web site provides a summary of guidelines that cover the World Wide Web.

OpinionArchives provides electronic archives for journals of opinion, including The Nation, Commentary, The New Republic, Commonweal, Dissent, NACLA, American spectator, National review, Harper's magazine, New York review, and the New Yorker. The OpinionArchives metasearch tool provides cross-journal searching for all titles in the archive.

Research-It! NEW NAME iTools
A useful collection of sources including maps, phone, currency, etc. Especially useful are the language tools: English dictionary, pronouncing dictionary, thesaurus, translator, language identifier, conjugator and acronym finder.

Pearson Education resources (formerly The English Pages)
Formerly Manuscript development, by Longman Publishing: chapter structuring for a book.

Using Modern Language Association (MLA) format
Learn how to write footnotes, endnotes, and bibliographic citations according to MLA guidelines. Examples are provided by Purdue University's Online Writing Lab.

William Strunk: Elements of Style
This classic reference book gives in brief space the principal requirements of plain English style and concentrates attention on the rules of usage and principles of composition most commonly violated. Browse table of contents or search the text by keyword.

Model-Based Testing: Achievements and Future Challenges

Model-Based Testing: Achievements and Future Challenges Abstract

Software systems are part of our everyday life and they become more complex day by day. The ever-growing complexity of software and high quality requirements pose tough challenges to quality assurance.

The quality of a software system can be measured by software testing. However, if manually done, testing is a time-consuming and error-prone task. Especially test case design and test execution are the most cost-intensive activities in testing. In the previous 20 years, many automation tools have been introduced for automating test execution by using test scripts. However, the effort for creating and maintaining test scripts remains. Model-based testing (MBT) aims at improving this part by systematizing and automating the test case design. Thereby, test cases or automatable test scripts can be generated systematically from test models.

MBT is already known for several years, but it currently gains a great momentum due to advanced tool support and innovative methodological approaches. This chapter aims at giving an overview of MBT and summarizes recent achievements in MBT. Experiences with using the MBT approach are illustrated by reporting on some success stories. Finally, open issues and future research challenges are discussed.

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Michael Mlynarski leads a team of test consultants across the German branches of the NorCom AG. He holds a PhD in computer science from the University of Paderborn. His research focus lies in holistic model-based testing approaches for business information systems as well as agile testing. He is one of the founders of the model-based testing community ( ) and contributes to the testing-related work of organizations like Gesellschaft für Informatik (TOOP/MBT) and ETSI. He regularly publishes and hold talks at testing events in Germany. He is an ISTQB Certified Test Manager.

Baris Güldali is researcher and doctoral student at s-lab – Software Quality Lab at University of Paderborn. His main research field is model-based testing in the domain of business information systems. He has a B.Sc. degree from Computer Engineering department at Middle East Technical University in Ankara and Diplom Informatiker degree from University of Paderborn. He worked as software developer for the industry and as technical assistant at the University of Paderborn. He currently works for s-lab in industrial projects on test process optimization, test management and test automation for software. He is the co-speaker of german working group “Testing object-oriented Software/Model-based Testing” (TOOP/MBT) at “Gesellschaft für Informatik” (GI).

Gregor Engels. born 1955 in Gelsenkirchen, Germany, received his PhD in Computer Science in 1986 from the University of Osnabrück, Germany. Between 1991 and 1997 he held the position of Chair of Software Engineering and Information Systems at the University of Leiden, The Netherlands. Since 1997, he is Professor of Informatics at the University of Paderborn, Germany. Since 2005, he is the Director of the s-lab – Software Quality Lab, a joint research and development institute run by the University of Paderborn along with nine industrial partners. Since 2005, he is also Scientific Director of Capgemini CSD Research, Munich, Germany. Since 2012, he is also the Director of C-LAB, a joint research and technology transfer institute run by the University of Paderborn together with ATOS. His research interests are in the area of model-driven software development, software architecture, and software quality assurance. He has published more than 200 papers in scientific journals, as book contributions or articles at international conferences and workshops.

Stephan Wei ßleder is research manager for testing at the Fraunhofer-Institute FIRST in Berlin. His main interests are in quality assurance, certification, test automation, model-based testing, and in bringing together academia and industry. Stephan holds a Dr. rer. nat. from the Humboldt-University in Berlin. He brings in several years of industrial experience in software engineering and system testing. He is also the author of several publications about testing and modeling and also organized several corresponding academic and industrial workshops. Stephan is a member of the German Testing Board (GTB), co-speaker of the working group “Testing object-oriented Software/Model-based Testing” (TOOP/MBT) at “Gesellschaft für Informatik” (GI), and member of the Model-Based Testing Community. He is also an ISTQB Certified Test Advanced Level – Test Manager.

Capgemini Placement Papers

Placement Papers - Capgemini Why Capgemini Placement Papers?

Learn and practice the placement papers of Capgemini and find out how much you score before you appear for your next interview and written test.

Where can I get Capgemini Placement Papers and Aptitude Questions?

IndiaBIX provides you lots of fully solved Capgemini Placement Papers and aptitude questions with answers. All students, freshers can download Capgemini Placement Papers with answers as PDF files and eBooks for free. You can easily solve all kind of placement test papers by practicing the exercises given below.

How to prepare for Capgemini placement interview?

You can easily solve Capgemini placement interview questions by practicing the previous year papers which are listed below.

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Building the New Connected Enterprise – Capgemini case study

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