Ever since, fighting between Christians and Moslems has spread throughout the country, as more and more northern states move towards implementing Sharia. As for the governor, he has gotten what he wanted, and to keep support he will continue preaching to Sharia to his followers. For India and Pakistan, the subject of contention is Kashmir. And most of the conflict resides in the Indian-controlled Kashmir, because it just happens to be that India is Hindu, Pakistan is Moslem and the majority of people in Kashmir are Moslem. The Kashmiris on the Indian side, being Moslem, want to become part.2. Survey on Religious Life in Indonesia
A Muslim's life in Indonesia is affected by what is known as Sharia law. Property disputes are not settled under Sharia, neither are many other legal disputes. But Sharia does play a more significant role in smaller, more isolated villages. The power of Sharia in Indonesia has been tested. The two were not allowed to be married because it was forbid under Sharia.3. The Islamic Country of Indonesia
Sharia can be amended according to changing social needs and this has occurred in Indonesia. Property disputes are not settled under Sharia, neither are many other legal disputes. But Sharia does play a more significant role in smaller, more isolated villages. The power of Sharia in Indonesia has been tested. The two were not allowed to be married because it was forbid under Sharia.4. Taliban Wars
This Northern Alliance shares critics' objections to the Taliban's extremefundamentalist methods and especially scorns Pashtun ethnic chauvinism.Today only Pakistan, the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia recognize the Talibanas Afghanistan's legitimate ruling party. The Taliban emerged in early 1994 from the Sunni religious schools(called madrassat) near Quetta, Pakistan, at a time when factional fighting and resultinglawlessness were at their height. APashtoon city, Kandahar has accepted the Taliban's version of sharia (Islamic law), which ismore or less consis.5. Terrorism and The Taliban: How It Is Affecting Our World
They seemed to be very honest and well intentioned, and as a result were readily welcomed by the citizens of Afghanistan as well as supported by neighboring countries, such as Saudi Arabia and Pakistan, who thought they could control and use the Taliban, as well as the United States. According to Ahmed Rashid, "the Taliban are poorly tutored in Islamic and Afghan history, knowledge of Sharia and the Koran and the political and theoretical developments in the Muslim world during the twentieth century. their exposure to the radical Islamic debate around the world is minimal, their sense of.
For Spring 2008, skirts, brights and metallics are all the rage! Banish the hard edges this spring and take out your prettiest looks. Brights liek coral and turquoise, white, chunky necklaces, metallic bags, shoes and wedges are some of the best looks for spring 08. Also high end designers have taken a step in a new direction. Political fashion has shown up on some catwalks this season, formally an avoided topic, politics has become a major fashion accesory. So if you want to be in style this season, follow these tips.
Biggest Trends for this season:
The Big Skirt:
Knee length or a bit longer, the full skirt makes the impat this season as proportions change to include lots of volume on bottom. The big skirt comes in many incarnations: circle, bubble bustled, tiere, layered with tulle underlays and even pleats.
When worn right, the big skirts cover a multitude of lower body sins. It bringsa new sense of proportions and excitement to fashion. To top off this look, accompany it with fitted cardigans or boxy jackets.
Jackets and knit layers are still great for spring
The Little Sweater: A cute addtion over basic knits and mix wiht everything from denim to skirts
The Trench: Classic, sexy, pratical
The Cropped Jacket: A great new boxy shape that makes your waist looks tiny.
The Blazer: Fitted blazers--ending above the hip-- look best. Looks best with jeans and metallic sandals; pair an embellished cardigan with a full skirt.
Brights and Whites:
Turquoise is the "it" colour of the season, as both an accesory accent(necklaces, earings) and head to toe hue. Coral, lime and lemon are citrusy hits that add tons of punch to warm winter clothing. Bright accesories are the easiest way to add a pretty splah of turquoise or coral. Chunky necklaces, funky flats, even a brightly coloured mock crocodile skin handbag are all new accents.
Gold and Silver go daytime for spring. Subtly as a shimer of a thread in.
21st century style. (1969, December 31). In MegaEssays.com. Retrieved 22:25, July 24, 2016, from http://www.megaessays.com/viewpaper/26225.html
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Below is an essay on "Asxc" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.
Present problems of Pakistan/CHALLENGES OF THE 21ST CENTURY AND PAKISTAN
In today Pakistan we are facing many problems. Like energy problems, terrorism, drones attacks, unemployment and inflation. These are main problems of today Pakistan.
First of all I am talking about energy crises
An energy crisis is any great shortfall (or price rise) in the supply of energy resources to an economy. It usually refers to the shortage of oil and additionally to electricity or other natural resources. The country needs a quantum jump in electricity generation in medium-term scenario to revert the possibilities of load shedding in future due to shrinking gap between demand and supply of electricity at peak hours.
Pakistan, with a population of about 16 million people has undergone a remarkable macro economic growth during last few years, but the core problems of the economy are still unsolved. Inflation is one of these core problems. Government claims that in order to keep the prices of essential commodities under control, it has been taking various measures throughout the year. It needs to be controlled by strategic planning. Domestic production should be encouraged instead of imports; investment should be given preference in consumer goods instead of luxuries, Agriculture sector should be given subsidies, foreign investment should be attracted, and developed countries should be requested for financial and managerial assistance. And lastly a strong monitoring system should be established on different levels in order to have a sound evaluation of the process at every stage.
Unemployment is also well known problem of Pakistan today facing. The unemployment rate in Pakistan was last reported at 5.50 percent in December of 2009. The labour force is defined as the number of people employed plus the number unemployed but seeking work. The non labour force includes those who are not looking for work, those who are.
Pakistan in the 21st Century: Vision 2030
A Vision is like a dream but which is experienced with both eyes open and With one’s feet on the ground. The Medium Term Development Framework (MTDF) 2005-10 launched by the Government in July 2005 presented the Vision of a “developed, industrialized, just and prosperous Pakistan through Rapid and sustainable development, in a resource constrained economy by Deploying knowledge inputs”. Vision 2030 extends that dream further and Higher in terms of space and time.
The draft document of Vision 2030 has been prepared, after a consultative Process spread over two years. It presents a strategic framework for Overcoming obstacles and challenges standing in the way of the preferred Future chosen by the people of Pakistan.
We aim to achieve the stated Vision within a generation, in a manner that Sustains a high quality of life and provides an equal opportunity to its citizens To reach their true potential. We plan to meet contemporary and future Challenges by deploying knowledge inputs and developing human capital. This, we believe, is the substance of the Vision in our mind. The Vision document necessarily combines idealism with a sense of the possible. Its goals reflect the aspirations and potential of our people in the Context of a fast-changing world. The Vision 2030 exercise considers a range Of futures with concomitant strategic alignments. Yet the underlying theme is To embrace needed transformation and to create new opportunities based on Our innate strengths. This is the basic theme of Vision 2030. Growing at a rate of around 7-8 percent per annum Pakistan expects to join The ranks of middle-income countries, with a GDP of around US $ 4,000 by 2030. This high growth rate would be sustained through developing its Human resources, and by developing the necessary physical and technological Infrastructure.
The citizen shall have greater access to quality education, as well as basic Amenities like health, water and sanitation. Freedom of enterprise and Enlarged opportunities will transform the lives of the majority but the benefit Of social protection will provide sufficient cushion to the most vulnerable. Vision 2030 acknowledges the forces of globalization and dispersion of Information and technology, which are likely to dramatically change the scale And character of human enterprise. By 2030 human lives, workplaces, Education, skills, trade and competition would stand transformed. We are Determined to manage these global forces of change to our advantage. We intend to make a mark in the various fields of knowledge which can add Value to our endeavors. What is posited is a quest for excellence, so that Pakistan can redefine and transform its institutions and structures as well as National policies, priorities and goals. We need to convert knowledge into a Socio-economic enterprise. It should transform the market place, the quality of its processes and products and the productivity of our human resource. The acquisition and dissemination of knowledge and the quest for excellence will be the driving force of our future destiny. Our vision is demanding and simple at the same time; we aim to transform ourselves into a state, society and economy dedicated to the generation of knowledge, the harnessing of technology and the practice of compassion. In making this transformation, we will continue to nurture the roots of our culture and remain uniquely Pakistani. We aim to make Pakistan and Progress synonymous with each other.
1.1 The Consensus
There is a remarkable consensus among the stakeholders about the future of Pakistan.
There is national consensus on the following fundamentals:
i. To build a nation whose development is measured by economic growth as well the quality of life enjoyed by its people;
ii. To evolve into a tolerant, and productive society, which is at peace with itself and with the rest of the world, within a
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The 21st century began on January 1, 2001 and last until December 31, 2100. There is still 93 more years till the beginning of the 22nd century. A new century beckons in new ideas and innovation. Things that were dreamt about centuries ago. This century easily tramps past centuries in the advancement of space exploration, alternative energy sources and technology.
Space exploration is one that made major strides in the beginning of this century. In 2001, Dennis Tito became the first space tourist to board the International Space Station. This made the first step towards civilian and tourism in space. In 2003, the Chinese space program launched it first manned flight. There are also many other countries establishing space programs including India, South Korea, and Japan. This could ultimately lead to a healthy space race between countries. In 2004, Opportunity, mars rover, discovered evidence that Mars was once covered by water. This is another step in understanding Mars and could lead to Mars colonization in the future. In 2006, New Horizons began its 10 year journey toward Pluto.
Oil is becoming scarcer and increasingly pricey. There is a greater initiative in the conservation of energy. With the beginning of this century, there is an increasing popularity of alternative fuels. Alternative energy sources such as solar power, biodiesel, and electric is given further research. With each steps at learning more about these energy sources and the implementation of it can reduce pollution. The Bright Green environmentalism emerged in the past years, aiming to use new technology to increase ecological sustainability.
New personal technology has made many lives more enjoyable. The Apple iPods are popular as ever. Simple user interface and quick iTunes transactions may have reduce piracy slightly. Further social networks in games such as the introduction of the PS3 HOME made further emphasis on community. Gamers alike will be able to interact with others and instantly takes friends into games for multiplayer. Also, with the introduction of the next generation consoles, the PS3, Wii, and Xbox 360, gaming is taken to the next level in terms of graphics and physics. Folding@home is a project designed for protein folding and other simulation to seek an understanding to many diseases made its way to the Playstation 3. Gamers can give back to the science community while playing their favorite games.
With this many advancements and achievements in the first 7th year of the 21st century, who knows what will awaits us in the remaining years. With the constant stride towards understanding things around us, humankind may have robot butlers and colonized Mars by the end of this century.
Please critique hard. This is for my senior memory book project. Which is due on Monday, May 7
I also have 2 more essays which I will post tomorrow in a separate topic. Thanks a lot.
EF_Team2 Threads: 1
Author: Sarah, EssayForum.com
I'd be happy to help you edit your fine essay! Here are my suggestions:
The 21st century began on January 1, 2001 and will last until December 31, 2100. There are [not is] still 93 more years till the beginning of the 22nd century.
A new century beckons in new ideas and innovation--things that were only dreamt about centuries ago.
Space exploration is one that made major strides in the beginning of this century. -. one what? How about "one field. "?
This made the first step towards civilians and tourism in space. In 2003, the Chinese space program launched its first manned flight.
In 2004, Opportunity, a (or the) M ars rover, discovered evidence that Mars was once covered by water. This is another step in understanding Mars and could lead to Mars colonization in the future. In 2006, New Horizons began its 10 year journey toward Pluto. - You should mention what "New Horizons" is. some of us have never heard of it.
Alternative energy sources such as solar power, biodiesel, and electricity are being given further research. With each step, we are learning more about these energy sources and how their implementation can reduce pollution. The Bright Green environmentalism emerged in the past years, aiming to use new technology to increase ecological sustainability. - Again, I feel as if you are referring to something I know nothing about; a few more details would be great!
Simple user interface and quick iTunes transactions may have reduced piracy slightly.
Gamers [delete alike] will be able to interact with others and instantly take [no "s"] friends into games for multiplayer. - I don't know much about this, but I'm pretty sure multiplayer should be used as an adjective, not a noun. Can you say "take friends into their multiplayer games"?
Folding@home is a project designed for protein folding and other simulations to seek an understanding of [not to] many diseases. - The phrase "made its way to the Playstation 3" does not belong here, grammatically speaking. I can't really re-write it for you, since I don't understand quite how it works in relation to folding@home.
With this many advancements and achievements in the first seven years of the 21st century, who knows what will await [no "s"] us in the remaining years. With the constant strides we are making towards understanding things around us, humankind may have robot butlers and a colony on Mars by the end of this century.
OP samuraitom Threads: 23
Author: Phuoc Huynh
I tried to fix the Folding@home part by adding in
Sony in collaboration with Stanford brought Folding@home to the Playstation 3 console. Folding@home is a project designed for protein folding and other simulations to seek an understanding of many diseases. Gamers can easily help scientists discover cures for diseases from the comforts of their homes.
Also for the Bright Green environmentalism section, I rearranged some snippets to clarify
The Bright Green environmentalism emerged in the past years, aiming to increase ecological stability and economic growth through the use of new technology and innovative designs. Such through the use of environmentally friendly and energy efficient products.
Also for the New Horizons part.
In 2006, New Horizons, a robotic spacecraft, began its 10 year journey toward Pluto and its moon, Charon. Mankind is gradually venturing farther out of our solar system.
Is that ok? Does the essay demonstrate persuasive essay qualities? Is it effective? Thanks.
EF_Team2 Threads: 1
Author: Sarah, EssayForum.com
Yes, those passages are much easier to understand now! I just want to make a couple of editing suggestions:
Sony, [add comma] in collaboration with Stanford, [add comma]
Such through the use of environmentally friendly and energy efficient products. - This is a sentence fragment. Instead of "Such" start with something like "They accomplish this through the use of. "
Although it does have some persuasive essay qualities, I think you could strengthen that aspect of it. Words like "could" and "may" tend to make you sound tentative about what you are saying. Also, think about what it is you are trying to persuade someone to do; that could perhaps be a little clearer. It's more of a news report than a persuasive essay, it seems to me. What is your goal? Think about that.
I hope this helps!
The 21st Century Economy in the United States can be characterized as a very prosperous economy. The article "The 21st Century Economy.aE In Business Week describes how the 90"s are no fluke. When the United States came out of World War II, United States productivity growth was at high levels. The current expansion has commonly been referred to by economists as "The 1990"s Economic Boom", because the current growth of the United States economy is the longest ever in peacetime.2. 21st Century Economic issues
Money and Banking21st Century Economic issuesFebruary-10-1999Economic Issues for the 21st CenturyWe all have several questions. Will the standards of living in the United States continue to improve. In fact in the early 1990s the United States actually fell to less than 14%. S. industries and adequately compete in the ever-expanding global economy of the 21st century.6. In fact, the latter half of the 1980s, a period of unprecedented peacetime expansion of production in the United States, was also a period in which the United States government ran record peacetime deficits.1.3. United States Immigration Policy
They immigrated to the United States under refugee status. This led to the Cold War between the United States and Russia. The dawn of the 21st century has brought even more changes in the U.S. immigration policy. As the United States continues to strive for diversity in the 21st century, economic and political strains have been created in the country that can only be solved by decreased immigration. Since the turn of the 20th century the United States has received a massive number of immigrants.4. Racial Stereotypes of the 21st Century
Even though it's the 21st century, stereotyping still exist. Even though in history, we have had many very intelligent African Americans that has accomplished goals as great as the Noble Piece Prize, and the President of the United states of America without playing professional sports; However, the works still views us, African Americans as if that's the only option we have to succeed in life.5. Urban Sprawl
as we step into the 21st century, landscape more likely means a city-sized shopping mall or a few hundred acres of identical houses, held together by pavement and connected by turnpikes.The definition of urban sprawl is--"incremental spread of urbanized areas across the regional landscape". As the population of the United States shifted from around 40 percent urban in 1900 to more than 75 percent urban in 1990. Sprawl and its inherited problems will be the major issue facing us in the 21st century.6. Why America Allows Slavery In The 21st Century?
Why America Allows slavery in the 21st century. It is said that slavery ended somewhere along the 19th century, but the truth is that slavery is nowadays within us. But historians say that it all started as early as the 7th century. A living example is Disney, who pays 50 cents for producing a shirt in South America, and sells it for 20 dollars in the United States. They don"t belong to Mexico or to the United States, they are in the between the sword and the stone.7. The New Deal and the United States
After WW1, the United States suffered from a Great Depression. The long and devastating crash had never been seen before, it had a great impact on the United States economy. Americans were in great despair and had lost hope, but after four years, Franklin D Roosevelt became the new president of the United States and brought hope to the people with his New Deal. Indeed as its future appears unverifiable in the early piece of the 21st century, the American individuals now expected the administration to help them in their old age.8. Britain Vrs United States
Sociology Essay How useful is the concept of "elite" for understanding the distribution of power in either Britain or the United States. Moreover, the concept of natural aristocracy, or meritocracy, has a powerful resonance even in the United States of America. Historical Antecedents In understanding the usefulness of the term elite in American society, late 19th and 20th century history provides the pretext for what was called a " fluid society ". According to World Investment Report 1994, published by the United Nations, TNCs indirectly employed another 77 million people. Oligarc.9. Loving versus Virginia - Interracial Marriage
Prior to the 1967 United States Supreme Court case of Loving v. Americans born in the 21st century will shake their heads in disbelief on learning that 40 states once had laws prohibiting interracial marriage. On appeal, the United States Supreme Court ruled that interracial sex was not a violation of the equal protection clause because whites and non-whites were punished in equal measure for the offense of engaging in interracial sex. The United States has a long history of the existence of anti-miscegenation laws that forbid interracial marriage. Virginia, 1967, was a.10. Global Warming
The United States, along with the world, could become a very different place in the 21st century due to the increasing threat of global warming. In 2002 none of the lower 48 states have experienced below average temperatures. In the second half of the 1990"s many places in the United States had their hottest days or even seasons.Drought is also another consequence of temperatures rising above normal. The United States is not just the leading source of technological breakthroughs but we also hold the title of leading greenhouse gas producers (EPA, Emissions). We have the solution.11. The Independence of Palestine
In the 21st century, more and more countries in the Middle East, even the world, are concerned about the status of Palestine. Palestinians have felt injustice and unfairness from the United Nations partition plan of dividing Palestine into two states in 1947. The United Nations tended to favor Israelis, because Israelis got support from the United States at that time. Besides, the United States had given military support to Israel during its conflagration with other nearby Arab countries (Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Some Palestinians need to live in surrounding Arab states and in ref.12. 21stCenturySlavery
21st Century Slavery There are many different ways one can describe slavery. The amazing thing about modern day 21st century slavery is that it not only happens in countries like Sudan, India, Pakistan, Brazil, it even occurs right here in the Unites States. What parent would not want this for his child, especially when they can"t offer anything better to them The United States sexual slavery exists as well. Several years ago, The Attorney General created an interagency task force that documented the widespread traffic of women to the United States. In April, a CIA report verified.13. Tradition?
I would like to express my opinion about the traditions, customs and courtesies in the United States Marine Corps. I think the USMC needs to get with the 21st century. This is where we need to get with the 21st century.14. immigrant
The United State"s immigration policy has undergone great change since the turn of the 20th century. The early 1900s was a period of mass immigration for the United States. They immigrated to the United States under refugee status. This led to the Cold War between the United States and Russia. The dawn of the 21st century has brought even more changes in the U.S. immigration policy.15. The Future of American Power
WHAT IS THE PROSPECT FOR AMERICAN POWER IN THE 21ST CENTURY. Our independence ran ramped through two (plus) centuries and now the entire worldviews America as the bully on the playground. He argues that "the United States throws its weight around and would have the entire world follow in its footstepsaE. He continues to reinforce this theory by writing "if you are the 800-pound gorilla, you"re concentrating on your bananas, and everyone else is concentrating on you.aE Robert Kagan (Senior Associate, Carnegie Endowment) states that Europeans should better appreciate th.16. Nuclear Power In The 21 Century
As we awaken in the early days of the 21st century, the world population is an estimated six billion people. That number is expected to double by the end of this century. In one instance during the cold war officials at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation elected to pour waste directly into a nearby water way, the Columbia River became the most polluted river in the United States. They also point out that during security tests run by the United States Department of Energy at nuclear power plants that the plant"s security has an unacceptable rate of failure. Currently, the nuclear waste.17. Why does increasing population have a negative effect
1.)A child born today in the United States for instance, will by the age of 75 years produce 52 tons of garbage, consume 10 million gallons of water and use 5 times the energy of a child born in the developing world. The United States uses approximately quarter of the world's fossil fuels and is the largest contributor of carbon dioxide, undesirable combustion products, and chlorofluorocarbons, chemicals that contribute to greenhouse warming and attack the Earth's ozone shield. The world looks to the United States as a role model. 6.)The oil crisis of the late 20th Century will p.18. Undocumented Workers and Illegal Immigrants
The United States is home to a projected 12 to 15 million undocumented workers as well as their families who are living illegally in the United States. An increase in illegal immigration during the 1990's and the first part of the 21st century permitted unparalleled numbers of illegal aliens to inhabit inside U.S. borders with no benefit of government supervision or control. These rather extensive borders make it a significant task for the United States to control them. First, push the borders out and away from the United States shores. The potential for terrorists enteri.19. Societies After Conflict: Bosnia and Kosovo
Several terms that the greater part of the world has become very familiar with over the latter half of the 20th, and now the first part of the 21st century to describe the actions and processes that accompany a pre or post conflict region of the world. The United States along with her allies in NATO recognized the destabilizing threat that these conflicts posed to Balkan region and to Europe as a whole and acted with both diplomatic and armed force. The peace talks were sponsored by the United States and partners from the European Community to set out a course to stabilize the region.20. Unfamiliar Sociological Phenomena
Is the United States the world's most developed nation. Entering into the 21st century, the U.S. claims to police other nations globally. As a nation that has experienced two world wars since the Great Depression, the central axis of the world shifted over from Europe to the United States. The U.S. can be compared to England of the 19th and 20th century. In fact, choice in which gender to marry and be united with is up to the individuals.21. 21st Century Star Chamber
Reading an article online the other night made me remember the feelings of disgust and anger that only one that has been raised in a land such as the United States can feel. I thought this as I boarded a flight out of Boston Logan to Ireland on Thursday, September 21st, 2001. Will school children in years to come be studying about the 21st Century Star Chamber with the same feelings I experienced reading about the 17th Century version.22. Visual Analysis of My Tattoo
Majority of the time someone just sees the small, dark, bolded peace sign about the size of a golf ball tattooed on my wrist as your typical 21st century girl tattoo, but once I explain the meaning behind it people understand that there is a powerful story behind it and I did not just go and copy the singer Lady Gaga. This form of art had been used by people of all cultures and countries for centuries. However tattoos have recently gained social acceptance in the United States. Throughout the United States people are beginning to get tattooed more frequently and for various types.
Published: 23, March 2015
The age of globalization and modernization in which we are dwelling is not the consequence of abrupt changings but has been coincided since the dawn of civilization. Man passed through different stages and came off with flying colors. A shift from Stone-Age to Nuclear-Age is the testimony of such developments. Utilization of nuclear technology became the dominant theme of 20th century. But second half of 20th century saw rapid advancement in nuclear technology. In a short span of fifty years the world witnessed the gradual spread of nuclear weapons. Owing to such abrupt horizontal and vertical proliferation and transformation of nuclear technology, adherent of peace and scholars decided to prompt a mechanism, NPT, accordingly diffusion of nuclear and ballistic missiles technology would restricted because rampant and unbridled growth of nuclear technology has greater liabilities rather than assets. So we can say that nuclear proliferation is the product of 2nd half of 20th century and what would be the future of nuclear proliferation in 21st century, is the main concern of my term paper.
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With the development of New World Order and Regional Power Politics nuclear possession has become the bone of contention between global powers and emerging powers. In contemporary global political settings the future of nuclear proliferation is still based on a hypothetical observation i.e. will nuclear proliferation ensure peace in the world or destroy the status quo? Is nuclear proliferations overwhelming the concept of welfare state and jeopardize the development of economy? Why some states are pursuing nuclear weapons e.g. Iran, North Korea and why other influential states are not going for nuclear weapons e.g. Japan, Germany? In order to analyze the prospects of future nuclear diffusion let first discuss what nuclear proliferation really is? Nuclear proliferation is a concept which used to describe the spread or diffusion of nuclear weapons, fissile material, and weapons-applicable for nuclear technology and information, to nations who are not recognized as Nuclear Weapon States (NWS) by the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) or are not the signatory of NPT.A glance over Nuclear proliferation
In 1945, the United States was the only country possessing nuclear power. Owing to self security, national interest and question of status and prestige nuclear proliferation process was boosted and up till 1970's six states admitted to have nuclear weapons i.e. USA in 1945; Soviet Union in 1949; UK in 1952; France in 1960; China in 1964 and India in 1974. [1 ] Later on Pakistan also became a part of NWS's. Pakistan's attainment of nuclear power is also the outcome of security compulsions because after 1974 when Pakistan failed to get India to agree on Nuclear Weapon Free Zone for South Asia then it was realized that acquiring a nuclear capability is inevitable. Pakistan officially initiated her nuclear program in 1972 and expedited on the doctrine of Minimum Nuclear Deterrence. Both states raised the curtain from their secret nuclear programs and carried out series of nuclear explosion in May 1998. Aforesaid states are universally recognized NWSs, except Pakistan and India rest of the states are NPT signatories.
North Korea was signatory of NPT but after she violated it and withdrew form NPT barriers. Israel has never been confirmed as a nuclear power but it is widely believed that Israel has nuclear devices even more than India and Pakistan. Israel is pursuing her illegal nuclear program under patronage of America.
Iran is suspected having nuclear weapon but United States National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) reported that Iran had halted his nuclear weapons program in 2003. [2 ] In the report they said that Iran Nuclear activity was peaceful since the beginning, but President Bush told in a White House Conference that Iran was dangerous, Iran is dangerous and Iran will be dangerous if they have the necessary to make nuclear weapon. Although it was also reported that Iran could have the capability to make a nuclear weapon by 2015 [3 ]. United Nations also imposed sanctions over Iran to halt nuclear weapon program.Future Prospects of Nuclear proliferation
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Nuclear proliferation has deep routes in international politics. This great tendency of nuclear proliferation has spread from America to Europe (Great Britain & France) and from Middle East (Israel) to South East Asia (India & Pakistan) and Far East (China & North Korea). This reveals the fact that possession of nuclear power is indispensable for one's national interest and security. But on the other hand situation reflects different dimension that countries like Japan, Germany, Switzerland and Taiwan etc are Non-Nuclear Weapon States (NNWS) but even securing their national interest and influencing their position over other states as well and are trade giants of the world. This signifies that high economy is also the mean of inducement, through which one state can dictate one's will on to others. Now a question arises that why states go for nuclear weapon? There can be more than one reason to justify this question but the most rational answer is that states have threat perception from their rival states. In order to neutralize the preponderance of one's state or to equalize power fulcrum, states prefer to pursue nuclear weapon to have their sway on to others. The second reason is states want to attain world power status e.g. USA, Russia and more likely China and to enjoy regional superiority such as India in South Asia and or Israel in Middle East. In view of Henry Kissinger "in certain cases nations view nuclear weapons as currency of power and prestige and regard them as essential for acquiring a 'high power status' at the regional and global level to serve their own politico and military interest." [4 ]
Here a new argument sparks a new debate that what would be the world like with the large number of nuclear weapon states? Is there any logical ground to justify the nuclear proliferation or the spread of nuclear weapons? Because if 5 recognized and 4 non recognized NWS become a threat for global peace than what would be the situation of world having a dozens of nuclear powers. Can the spread of nuclear weapon ensure a secure, peaceful and stable world, emphasizing on the commonweal of masses and economic development? To get answers of aforesaid questions we will project two aspects or dimension of nuclear proliferation which will ultimately manifest the future either in positive or negative senses. These two dimensions or school of thoughts can be chalked out as:-Nuclear Proliferation: A Debate Proliferation Optimists Proliferation Pessimists
(Bright Aspects) (Dark Aspects)
Let's discuss in detail to grasp the essence of future prospects of nuclear proliferation.Proliferation Optimism
Proliferation optimists are of the view that every state has the right to preserve her self interest and proliferation can be justified on the basis of state's security and survival in the anarchical world where every one has an axe to grind. This school of thought is pioneered by a Neo-realist Kenneth N. Waltz in the early 1980s. [5 ] He believes that it is the national interest that plays the most dominant rule in persuading the state to become a nuclear power. For this school the spread of nuclear arsenal would make the state more rational logical and responsible with regard to its utilization because of anticipated reaction or retaliation and Mutual Assured Destruction. Political theorists like John Mearsheimer, William Ricker and Peter Havoy are the great adherent of this school of thought. They are of the opinion that gradual spread of nuclear weapon is better than either no spread or rapid spread.
In order to justify their arguments this school supports their thesis with the effective and logical theory of "Deterrence". Deterrence is persuading an enemy that attacking you will not be worth any potential gain. [6 ] It is the deterrence theory that successfully prevented nuclear war during the long lasting Cold War era 1945-91. The only occasion when enmity between two Great Powers did not result in direct military conflict. This was because of nuclear weapons which promote caution and sense of responsibility in decision-makers. Installation of nuclear missiles by USSR in Cuba also proved a wild goose chase just because of MAD logic. This whole scenario was labeled as Balance of Terror by Winston Churchill [7 ] because it was an equilibrium based on catastrophic nuclear weapons. Neither Washington nor Moscow would risk nuclear Armageddon to advance their territorial or power goals, resultantly peaceful circumstances ensued.
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Absence of Deterrence was witnessed by the world for the first time on 6 August 1945 in the shape of great disaster when as many as 100,000 people were killed within a few seconds. If America had the precision of anticipated reaction from the Japan or if Japan had also the Nuclear Weapon than it was obvious that America could not drop bomb on Japan. So in this regard proliferation optimist opined that possession of nuclear weapon will ultimately lessen the chances of war and is the gateway toward peace.
In the late 1950s and early 1960s, Gen. Pierre Gallois of France, an adviser to Charles De Gaulle, argued in books like The Balance of Terror & Strategy for the Nuclear Age, that mere possession of a nuclear arsenal, what the French called the force de frappe, was enough to ensure deterrence. [8 ] Thus we can conclude that the spread of nuclear weapons would increase international stability while establishing Balance of Power.
The future prospects of Nuclear Proliferation are brighter enough just because of deterrence and MAD concepts. The country like America world's Hyper power, even after the collapse of Soviet Empire, is still going on to enhance her nuclear capability. US Secretary of Defense in his 1998 report to us Congress mentioned that "the United States must maintain the nuclear strategic forces and the missile system to deter any hostile foreign leadership with access to nuclear weapons, from acting against US vital Interest." [9 ] This reveals the fact that if a super power has an external threat and is developing her nuclear strategic weapons to cater the hostilities then how one state has no right to possess nuclear weapon to secure her prestige and national security in this anarchic world. So nuclear proliferation is good and has positive future prospects.
Let's take an example form contemporary global political scenario with regard to nuclear proliferation. If Iran is going to develop her military capability through the Nuclear weapons it dose not mean that Iran is planning to attack on Israel with nuclear weapons. In fact such stupid step would unleash a nuclear Armageddon on her own country. The only purpose to attain nuclear capability by Iran would be to deter Israel from a First Strike. Gwynne Dyer is of the view that, nuclear proliferation maintains the balance between regional powers and also at the global level. [10 ]
Let's take another example form South Asia with regard to India and Pakistan. Economically, geographically and demographically India is five times bigger than Pakistan and innate rival of Pakistan since its inception 1947. Both states fought with each other on the eve of Runn of Kutch Crisis 1964, War of 1965 and 1971 and Kargil War 1999. These crisis and wars sabotaged the regional peace and degrade the internal socio- economic and political conditions day by day. Now it is the presence of nuclear deterrence between them that has introduced a new chapter of responsibilities with regard to their decisions and created a kind of strategic stability not only between these two states but also in the region where approximately half a world's population is dwelling.
In the age of technological advancement the concept of nuclear proliferation is not only restricted over Weapons of Mass Destruction. As today through hydro-carbon resources most of the needs are personified but in the coming future these tangible resources will vanish and nuclear technology would be the alternative source which is more powerful than all. Uranium which is mandatory for developing a nuclear weapon but also utilized for the production of electricity. In 2009, 13-14% of the world's electricity came from nuclear power. [11 ]
On the basis of aforesaid arguments and examples we can say that nuclear proliferation is a shift from threat to deterrence and ultimately lead toward peace. Apparently nuclear diffusion seems to be an ultimate destruction but it dose only happen when there is absence of other NWSs and deterrence, as happened in WWII. Moreover it is the nuclear weapon, through which states secure their national interest, thus K.Waltz's arguments for the spread of nuclear arsenal are most rational and granted strong guarantee to regional and global stability.Proliferation pessimism
The support for the proliferation of nuclear weapon has been bitterly criticized by the proliferation pessimist. Scott D. Sgan [12 ] is the great adherent and pioneer of this school of thought. He is of the view that contemporarily weak and undeveloped states are acquiring nuclear weapon which is not a sign of good juncture. He justifies his argument on the basis that future nuclear armed states are likely to run by military or weak civilian governments, lack of patience and effective leadership will ultimately sabotage the situation and could lead to a nuclear civil war. This domestic disorder on one state would generate the fear in the neighboring states. It would initiate a nuclear race which would paved the ways for a full fledge nuclear war.
His argument can be counter as it is impossible to develop a nuclear weapon for politically unstable and economically under developed state. The priority of under develop state's leader is to consolidate political stability and develop economic structure. It is also absurd that nuclear weapon would be used in a civil war against civilians and national of the same country.
Secondly, nuclear pessimist also set aside the mechanism of deterrence according to their point of view deterrence is mean to enhance arm race which ultimately extravagant military expenditures. Cold war era is the best example and justification of their argument because arms race was at the highest level during this period. The noted American Cold war historian John Lewis Gaddis had admitted that we faced a lot of music because of our policy of containment towards Soviet Union. [13 ] The reason was that our resources and goals are not interlinked and there was ample gab between our ever- expanding goals and policy towards Soviet in order to overpower her. Historically American foreign policy is a swing of pendulum between gab of resources and desired goals. Even now America is under debt of $ 1000 Million. This reveals the fact that nuclear proliferation and arm race is greater liability rather than assert.
Constant spending on military defense and acquiring or enhancing Nuclear weapon capability turns the objective of welfare state into nuclear state, which ultimately economically degrades one's credibility. Let take the example of India and Pakistan's economic structure when they deployed the Nuclear weapons they totally dependent on aids.
According to this school of thought even limited number of proliferation will boost the nuclear spread through out the world and one country in a region having the nuclear weapon will ultimately escalate regional tension. Let's take an example with regard to US-India Civil Nuclear Deal. Noam Chomsky revealed the fact that, the Indo-US nuclear deal violated the US law and bypasses the principles and rules of Nuclear Supplier Group, a group of 45 nations that have established the strict rules to lessen the danger of proliferation of nuclear weapons. He is of the view that the Indo-US nuclear agreement is deserved to derailed, because the threat of nuclear war is extremely serious and part from the reason is that the nuclear states simply refused up to their obligation or simply will violate NPT rules. US Nuclear Weapon Specialist Gray Milhollin said that the agreement will increase regional tension. [14 ] Thus, nuclear proliferation is more liability rather than asset. It increases regional tension that totally jeopardizes the economic strength of the states.
The adherent of nuclear proliferation put forward the logic of MAD which they consider is a sort preventive shield against nuclear Armageddon. On the contrary nuclear pessimists propounded Nuclear Utilization Theory (NUT). Nuclear Utilization Theorists have claimed that a low level nuclear war can occur. Strategic analysts envision many possible scenarios. Following aspects can be the reason of nuclear utilization.
Irrational Leadership: A leader who is fanatical, constant drunker or otherwise out of control is one possible cause of nuclear war. Just imagined if Hitler possessed the nuclear bomb than what were the consequences. According to report Russian Generals were very much worried about the nuclear arsenals under a drunker president Boris Yelstin [15 ] .
Calculated Attack [16 ]. means when one country believes that if she delivers a nuclear bomb on the territory of her rival which would disable all or most of its opponent's strategic forces. But such strategy can not be applied on those states who have large area e.g. Russia, India, US, China, Pakistan etc. International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW) 1999 study Bombing Bombay? Effects of Nuclear Weapons and a Case Study of a Hypothetical Explosion estimated that the explosion of a 15-kiloton nuclear weapon in Bombay would cause between 160,000 and 866,000 deaths, depending on where in the city the bomb was detonated. [17 ]
Inadvertent nuclear war: we are dwelling in the world where our calculated precision may turn into misperceptions. Perception lessens the rationality in the decisions of nuclear holder authority. For instance, in 1995 Russian radar detected a missile fired over a Norwegian Sea, and Moscow prepared to launch a retaliatory stick on the United States. Only at the nick of time it was determined that the radar blip was an outgoing Norwegian scientific rocket, not an incoming US missile. Russian Defense official said that "for a while the world was on the brink of nuclear war" [18 ]. If we put the same case in Pakistan India situation who both share border and there would not ample time to observe a lot or to confirm reports that a nuclear attack has been launched or is about to be launched.
Virtual Nuclear Arsenals: is another mean that is free from deterrence dependence. Means thereby that the next generation of "near nuclear" military capabilities produced by the revolution in military technology that would put strategic nuclear weapons of mass destruction at the margins of national security strategies by removing dependence on them for deterrence. [19 ] For instance, a futuristic weapon as Electromagnetic pulse bombs (EMP) eradicates the presence of deterrence.
Nuclear Terrorism: nuclear terrorism is most severe apprehension since 9/11. It's a an apprehension that what if terrorists at the end of the day buy or steal nuclear weapon or fabricate a Dirty Bomb from nuclear radioactive waste? Bruce Blair, a nuclear weapons expert, estimates that a casket-sized radiological dispersion weapon loaded with spent fuel from a nuclear power plant and detonated in New York City at mid-day would cause 2,000 immediate deaths and injure thousands more, overwhelming medical facilities ill-equipped to manage a large number of radiation-related casualties. [20 ] Nuclear pessimist is of the opinion that there are more chances of such mishandlings and mismanagements in nuclear proliferation regime. There are umpteen epitomes of such botch even in USA and Russia, who are considered to be more reliable nuclear weapon states and who have very effective nuclear security measures.
On the basis of aforesaid scenarios we can say that some time concept of deterrence and logic of MAD is go behind the scene some sudden situations can overwhelm the deterrence which would ultimately paved ways for world wide nuclear Armageddon.Forecast of Nuclear Weapons' Detonation
Let's have a glance over more realistic view of nuclear weapon utilization consequences. According to the study on consequences of a regional nuclear war we can be best evaluate the prospects of future nuclear proliferation which totally represent dark and horrible picture.
The report was presented at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union in December 2006 found that even a small-scale, regional nuclear war could produce as many direct fatalities as all of World War II and disrupt the global climate for a decade or more. In a regional nuclear conflict scenario where two opposing nations in the subtropics would each use 50 Hiroshima-sized nuclear weapons (15 kiloton each) on major populated centers, the researchers estimated fatalities from 2.6 million to 16.7 million per country. Also, as much as five million tons of soot would be released, which would produce a cooling of several degrees over large areas of North America and Eurasia, including most of the grain-growing regions. The cooling would last for years and could be "catastrophic" according to the researchers. [21 ]
Some analysts and strategists consider nuclear weapon utilization as Nuclear Winter. Which means, the expected freeze that would in the earth's climate from the fallout of smoke and dust in the event when nuclear weapons were used, blocking up the sun light and destroying the planet and animal life that survived from the original blast. It has been estimated that "the single US SLBM Sea Launched Ballistic Missile, may be enough to initiate nuclear winter.conclusion
Nuclear proliferation in the 21st century is an ultimate reality for the development and technological advancement because it is not only the matter of destruction but nuclear utilization is a great asset for a nation with regard to economic strength and national security. No doubt Scott Sagan and other opponents of nuclear proliferation are right in expressing their deep concerns over the diffusion of nuclear power. The very existence of nuclear weapon jeopardizes not only the regional status quo but also sabotage global peace and stability. Moreover only the possession of nuclear weapon is not free of cost and out of threat to human life because nuclear accident remains valid until and unless a state has nuclear arsenals. For instance Chernobyl Incident in former Soviet Union on 26 April 1986. [22 ] In which a large explosion ripped the roof off number 4 power unit at the Chernobyl. Consequently nuclear radiation was carried on the prevailing winds across the several boarders. A large number of animal casualties and human diseases came to light which were considering enough to end surrounding human existence.
On the contrary Waltz argues that the world in which we are dwelling is anarchic. There is no eternal friend and foe but the only eternal thing is national interest. Through power and status one can preserve and promote one's interest. To achieve the status of nuclear power is strengthening of security status. As in 1950s Mao Tse-dong claimed that "Chinese would go without pants if that was what was required to develop nuclear capability." [23 ] For militarily weak and vulnerable states nuclear weapon is the only mean to gain maximum level of security from powerful states. The fact is that no any powerful state like England, Russia, Japan or China would come to safeguard the borders of weak state like Iran against mighty aggressive actor like Israel or America. So for deterrence, nuclear possession is indispensable which is the synonymous of peace and stability in the world. The logic of nuclear deterrence is worth mention is a sense that it ensures the peace and strategic position of Pakistan to maintain balance of power in South Asia. Through nuclear weapon Pakistan neutralized Indian preponderance in the region. In the words of Winston Churchill deterrence is the balance of terror, so we can generalize the result that nuclear arsenal ensure the peace and security to every nuclear country.
In the end, it would be no exaggeration if we say that nuclear proliferation is not a wild goose chase. Today, desire for nuclear weapon just for annihilate the mankind is not rational because many international agencies and organizations have learned the lesson from WWII explosion. As Chomsky pointed out that International Atomic Energy Agency has proposed that no state should develop nuclear weapon materials and all high enrichment should be done under the patronage of international agency. This agency would evaluate the objectives of nuclear technology desired state. He further pointed that Iran was the only country that accepted the El Baradei's proposal. [24 ] This reveals the fact that the prospects of future nuclear proliferation is out of danger and has more bright future in 21t century than 20th century.Request Removal
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