Benedict Tan Wei You
Ageing Population in Singapore
The Singapore government has had a heavy hand in dealing with the nation state’s demographics, specifically in areas such as the total fertility rate (TFR), and population density. Rated as one of the fastest ageing countries in the AsiaPacific region, it has been estimated that 25 per cent of Singaporeans will be above 60 years of age by 2030.1 The recommended subreplacement fertility rate in developed countries in order for the economy to remain vibrant and competitive is 2.1 children born per woman; however, as of 2014, the Central Intelligence Agency reported in its global statistical records that Singapore has one of the lowest TFR of 0.8.2 Some domestic issues related to the conspicuous ageing population trends include increased government spending on public facilities and resources to meet the growing social, financial and health needs of the elderly in Singapore. In order to treat the situation, a comprehensive and long term solution is required, involving the government, various nongovernmental agencies, and the community. Also, the various policy suggestions ought to be specific to the socioeconomic situation of the greying population in Singapore.
Various measures need to be implemented to encourage the elderly to remain active and eager to contribute to the workforce in different capacities (the elderly in this case can be taken to include both the pre and post retirement employees). Due to the rapid advancements in technology in a globalized world, an increasing number of services and manufacturing processes are becoming automated. In order to help the elderly remain integrated in the fast changing economy, a series of retraining and reemployment programs are necessary. Such resources will equip this sector of the population with the skills necessary to remain competitive in the information technology era. The Workforce Development Agency(WDA) in Singapore is a.
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"War can be defined as a struggle of an individual or group to uphold their beliefs or current position. " - GiangIn View of Singapore’s Aging Population, What Can Hr Dept Do to Help Their Companies Function Effectively When Most of Their Employees Will Be 50 Years Old and Above.
Date Submitted: 12/23/2012 02:49 AM Flesch-Kincaid Score: 42.9 Words: 1432 Essay Grade: no grades Flag
Topic: In view of Singapore’s aging population, what can HR Dept do to help their companies function effectively when most of their employees will be 50 years old and above.
Singapore’s workforce is aging rapidly and based on projection by the US Census Bureau, 57.4% of the Singapore population will be aged 50 and above by 2050. Recognizing the fact that the aging population and workforce may pose a number of challenges is therefore critical and urgent. HR Dept needs to implement several measures to be well prepared for their companies to remain competitive and productive.
New strategies must be based on greater understanding of the match between the workplace and the physical and mental changes of the employees. Schetagne (2001, p19) states that “less physically and demanding environment might help keep older workers on the job longer.” It is also pertinent for companies to retain the invaluable knowledge accumulated by experienced workers before it seeps out of the organization.
Managing older workers under a Total Reward approach (both financial and non financial aspects) such as the working environment, welfare, learning and development opportunities and experiences is highly recommendable.
This exercise will require effort and commitment from both the employers and their staff.
To facilitate this more efficiently, HR Dept “need to examine their practices to place greater emphasis on what individual can contribute and less on their age.”(Patrickson 1998, pp106)
To meet the challenges of creating a high-performance workplace, some of the avenues HR Dept needs to address for their companies to function more effectively are:
• Productive and safe work places
Understanding the different physical needs between the younger and aging workers will enable the employer to be better prepared and accommodate their workforces through appropriate workplace design.
Age will usually reduce the elasticity in almost all tissues of the body.
Express your owns thoughts and ideas on this essay by writing a grade and/or critique.
Singapore is an island country in Southeast Asia, just off the Malay Peninsula and 85 miles north of the equator. The country is young but well developed with leaning skyscrapers, diverse communities and unique buildings. Singapore has many cultures living within it, as a result there is a very diverse way of life with people speaking many languages and worshiping a number of different religions. Such a wide range of cultures makes the country very accepting of others.
In 1963 Singapore gained independence from the United Kingdom. Many of the people who lived in Singapore went there from India, Malaysia and China in seek of labouring work to earn money. After independence was granted the process of finding a single Singaporean identity began. The country has been called a society in transition because of the fact that the people who live there do not speak the same language, share religious beliefs or even come from the same culture. English is declared to be the nation’s first language, however in a census by the government, just 80% of Singaporeans were literate in English. The diverse culture can be noticed when you walk the streets to see mosques, synagogues and churches.
The main streets in Singapore are busy, colourful and filled with the inviting aromas of street food. It is here where you can devour delicious prawn noodles or a bowl of Wee Nam Kee chicken. Food from the street vendors is bursting with local flavours and is irresistible after a long day walking through the streets and shopping in the malls.
The island is small and the population is large at 5,312,400. The large population means that things can feel rather crowded in the main streets. Pedestrians and drivers have to keep to the left to ensure a smooth travel for everyone, whether on foot or in a car.
There are not too many private cars in Singapore, however taxis flood the roads. Car prices are much higher in the country and the cost for just obtaining a Singaporean certificate of Entitlement would buy you a Porsche Boxter in America. Just one in every 10 people own cars due to the expense, many choose the cheaper alternative of traveling by bicycle, on foot, bus, train and taxis.
In the dark of night the city of Singapore lights up. The stunning skyline reflects off of the Singapore River and illuminates the sky. On the river there aren’t just straight up skyscrapers, there is even a quirky building which has curved sides and looks as though a space ship has landed on top of its roof.
Singapore is warm and wet. The tropical rainforest climate means that there are no actual defined seasons. The geographical location means that the country has high humidity and lots of rainfall, with around 92.1 inches each year. The sun shines strongest in March, with the highest recorded temperature at 36 degrees. Singaporeans dress in clothes suitable for the heat and humidity, wearing T-shirts, shorts and slippers.
Population Size | 5.18 million |
Population Growth | 0.817% |
Age distribution | 0-14 years: 13.8% 15-64 years: 77%65 years and over: 9.2% |
Degree of Urbanization | 0.9% annual rate of change |
GDP/ GDP growth | 84,237 / 1.6% |
Contribution of GDP growth by manufacturing, service and agricultural sector | Manufacturing: -0.2%Service: 1.3%Agricultural sector: - |
Purchasing power/PPP | $314.5 billion [US dollars] |
Inflation | 4.6% |
Economic System | Free market economy |
Major export and import products | Exports: machinery and equipment, consumer goods, pharmaceuticals and other chemicals, mineral fuelsImports: machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, chemicals, food and consumer goods |
Major export and import tradition partners | Exports: Malaysia 11.9%, Hong Kong 11.7%, China 10.4%, Indonesia 9.4%, US 6.5%, Japan 4.7%, South Korea 4.1%Import: Malaysia 11.7%, US 11.5%, China 10.8%, Japan 7.9%, South Korea 5.8%, Indonesia 5.4% |
Balance of Payment | 6,264 million dollars |
ASEAN Framework Agreement on Multimodal Transport (AFAMT) is a critical support of transportation sector to the logistical and service in regional and international trade, ASEAN had worked to facilitate the door-to-door delivery of goods using various modes of transport under a single transport document with the AFAMT.
* Per capita consumption level of your product if applicable
* Country development level (may include GDP and GDP growth, inflation, Purchasing power and PPP in the last 3-5 years
The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Singapore was worth 222.70 billion US dollars in 2010, according to a report published by the World Bank. The GDP value of Singapore is roughly equivalent to 0.36 percent of the world economy. Historically, from 1960 until 2010, Singapore GDP averaged 48.1600 billion USD reaching an all time high of 222.7000 billion USD in December of 2010 and a record low of 0.6500.
The US will dramatically change in the next 30 years and so will its policies; there will be a new set of challenges that do not only stem from finances but also from an aging population, a declining birth rate and a growing ethnic diversity.
Since the 1970’s, the birth rate in the US have been 40% lower than at the heights of the baby boom. This baby boom by the year 2040 will have aged and thus will stop being an economic asset but a burden to the state. First, they will lower the labor force and thus lower the overall economic productivity. Secondly, it will be the cost incurred to care for the large number of retirees that by the year 2041,”social security will begin to run at a deficit in about eight years and will deplete its trust fund by 2041…”. As the birth rate remains low and the baby boom ages, spending on consumer household will fall per household and the number of struggling group will increase. Also if not tamed now, immigration to the US will reach unprecedented levels and thus strain on the already strained basic resources meant for the residents
Healthcare means to manage the resources that are used in healing. This has been complex and difficult to manage since the 1990’s and has since been changing rapidly and turbulently; this is likely to continue into the future for reasons within and outside healthcare. Continued rapid increases in the costs have transformed healthcare into a $1trillion industry but surprisingly from statistics the US the infant mortality and longevity are falling behind some industrialized nations as some 40 million residents in the US lack health insurance. Since the defeat of President Bill Clinton’s healthcare reform bill in 1994, the chance to reform healthcare seemed to have gone but somehow was renewed with the passage and signing of the bill with the Obama administration.
The bill passed by Obama administration claims to make insurance affordable by reducing premium costs for the middle class millions, set up a new competitive health market thus enabling more Americans to make a choice of insurance same as members of the congress, end discrimination and bring to an end discrimination against Americans with pre-existing condition. Overall, it will reduce the budget deficit by “. More than $1 trillion over the second decade-by cutting government overspending and reining in waste, fraud and abuse” (Martin 34)
But with the current changes, this will push healthcare systems out of reach and thus into a crisis and chaos in the US bloated healthcare industry, “some analysts have predicted its collapse. ” (Jonas, Knickman, 664). The advancement in technology will also reach unprecedented levels as the US has always led in scientific discovery. The US will continue to dominate partly thanks to brain drain from third world and from emerging economies. The US scientists will be ahead in genetics, robotics, nanotechnology and IT.The Aging Population. Custom The Aging Population Essay Writing Service || The Aging Population Essay samples, help
The economy of Singapore is increasing rapidly yet it is also facing the threat of declining birth rate which causes the aging population. This fact is cited in two articles of Wendy Tan and Grace Chua from The Strait Times Interactive Website which are attached in this report. It can be argued that Singapore is not alone among developed nations in having a declining birth rate, however, the aging population, for a small population like Singapore, can be quite serious. It has also been noted that family and marriage are not only the private matters left to individual but also have impacts on our nation and society. Therefore, it is very important for the entire community to find out the problems and solutions for them as well. This can be support and strengthen the formation of families to raise birth rate of Singapore.
As can be seen from these two articles, some reasons were shown such as rising infertility rate, liberal view towards marriage commitment, child-bearing, pragmatic government etc. This paper, hence, aims to evaluate these causes individually based on the theories of Kou & Wong (1979), Salaff (1997) and Straughan (1999) as well as give some recommendations, add some reasons that have not included in the articles and argument in other side of this matter.
II. Extent of the problem
In recent year, we have seen a gradual shift in long-held attitudes towards relationships, marriage and family. More Singaporeans are remaining single, delaying marriage and having fewer children. More Singaporeans place priorities on careers and other material life goals. All of these factors lead to the decreased birth rate in Singapore. Hence, we look at three main problems: The family values, the work and family environment and the role of government. These problems can be the reasons for the outcomes stated.
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Healthcare services and setting had evolved as early as 1980s, the changes occurred are to meet the high demand of care required and also to improve the standard of practice. However, shortage of nurses has always been the issue happening world-widely, as the turnover rate of nurses is high and hospitals had difficulties in recruiting nurses. Therefore many countries are promoting nursing as a profession through developing and enhancing the nurse’s role (Hunt, 2009). Nursing profession is a rewarding and challenging career, as the career pathways are developing, and this allows nurses to move towards the specialty that they are interested in. Through these act, it also increases their job satisfactory as their nursing roles are being enhanced. The different routes of pathways that nurses can choose are management role, educator role, clinician or advanced practitioners. Besides having an exciting and challenging experience, advanced practitioner nurses are also required to be professionally knowledgeable, obtaining higher level of decision-making skills and clinically competent for extended practices (Denisco & Barker, 2013). This essay will discuss the development of the role of advance practice nurse (APN) in Singapore, the influence of advance practice nurse on nursing in Singapore, the contemporary nurses’ role in relation to advance practice nurse, the current and potential impact of advance practice nurse on the healthcare system in Singapore, the politics of advance practice nurse in nursing practice as well as the different perspectives of advance practice nurse had on healthcare and health.
In the United States, the entry level set for APN is the completion of a Master program. If a nurse wants to practice as an APN in states, certification is required to recognize that the individual has met certain predetermined qualification. Such qualifications include graduation from an accredited or approved program, acceptable performance on a qualifying examination, and completion of a given amount of work experience (Fulbright, n.d.) Similarly in Singapore, we had National University School that conducts a two years Master of Nursing program that comprises of 80 modular credits (MC), which has the same weightage as doctoral degrees in other healthcare profession. Nurses are required to complete and pass the 19 modules (Nus, 2009). Before graduation, registered nurses are require to
undergo one-year of internship in the acute hospital, where they are required to perform history taking from patients and manage patient illness competently with the supervision of the medical team. They have been assigned to their mentor whom is a medical physician to guide them, topping up with them at least three years of experience in that specialise field, to have a fuller understanding of patients’ condition and situation (Snb, 2012). Upon completion of internship, they need to go for an interview conducted by the panel of experts which includes two specialist consultants and the chief of nursing officer. Only after passing all these, can they be legally certified as APN. APN practising licenses are being renewed annually as the requirement set from Singapore Nursing Board, a licence beyond nursing licence.
Fifth cohort of APNs is already seen graduated from master’s program in 2010 since the introduction in 2003, adding on more disciplines for APNs to be specialised in, by the year 2013. Due to the great demands needed, Ministry of Health has targeted 200 APNs to be in place by 2014, though there are already 78 certified APNs and 15 APNs undergoing training as of February 2012 in Singapore (Boyle & Heale, 2012). Acting as a bridge between nurses and other healthcare professionals, including doctors, APNs helps to narrow the gap towards the vision set for Singapore’s healthcare delivery, by practicing in multi-disciplinary sectors (Singhealth Group, 2012). The delivery of the healthcare system has been changing rapidly, therefore the way of delivery care to patients also changes. Traditionally, when an individual fall sick, they would seek treatment from the physician. However, when an individual becomes unwell presently, they can see an APN in the clinic for treatment first rather than a physician. Seeing an APN for consultation is more cost effective than a physician’s, however not all patients can accept the reality that nurses are as efficient as physicians. And if patient’s condition deteriorate and became complicated, referral to the physician at the right time could save queuing and waiting time for patients, there after reducing the long consultation queues and sharing physicians’ burden (Kleinpell, 2009).
There are both intrinsic and extrinsic factors leading to rising costs of healthcare, therefore the need of having APN are important. With better health care service and awareness in today’s world, population expanded, resulting in longer lifespan, and therefore more senior citizens exist. According to Smeltzer, Bare, Hinkle & Cheever (2010), "In 2003, the 35.9 million adults who were older than 65 years of age constituted 12.4% of the US population. By the year 2030, 20% of the US population is expected to be older than 65 years of age." Judging at the population, the presence of high demand for health care exists, the ability to meet those high demands and decrease the health care cost is of utmost essential. The extrinsic factors that lead to rising costs of healthcare are the availability of new medical technology as well as the availability of advanced manufactured drugs. Advanced Practitioners can help to manage chronic stable-conditioned patients, as well as follow-up on patient care upon discharge in the primary setting, hence reducing healthcare costs. The role expansion of APN is believed to benefits the patients, nurses and their non- nursing colleagues, enhancing the image of nursing profession, hence is definitely more than the job scope of a registered nurse (Kleinpell, 2009; Milstead, 2013).
Nurse Practitioner in the United States plays the role of the primary care providers who practice in hospital and community settings. According to their practice specialty, they are expected to provide nursing and medical services to individuals, families and groups. In addition, they also diagnose and managed acute episodic and chronic illnesses, played an important role in emphasizing health promotion as well as disease prevention to the public. The other services that the nurse practitioner can provide are ordering and conducting investigation, interpreting abnormal laboratory results, as well as prescribing medications. The major part of nurse practitioners are teaching and counselling individuals, families, and group. Besides practicing autonomously and in collaboration with healthcare professionals, APNs also diagnose, treat, and manage patient’s health problems (Lundy & Janes, 2009). The nurse practitioners also serve as healthcare researchers, interdisciplinary consultants, and patient advocates, reducing the chance of chronic diseases from developing. In Singapore, scope of practice for APN is a combined role of both nurse practitioner and clinical nurse specialist. The APN are required to practice their specialty in the clinical areas, which includes planning and managing patients in collaboration, as well as consulting with other healthcare professionals. APN needs to document their assessment, diagnosis, management and monitors the patient’s treatment as well as follow-up care accordingly. They also exercise their competent clinical judgment to detect changes in patient’s condition and prevent complications in the clinical setting, refer patient and accept referrals from other health care professional to maintain continuity of care. Using communication, counselling, advocacy and interpersonal skills appropriately to initiate, develop, and discharge therapeutic relationship with the patient in the process of treating them, they demonstrate clinical leadership in the delivery of efficient advanced practice to the nurses in the clinical setting (Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 2013).
Demand of primary care for the ageing population had increased and the supply of physicians is a constrained, posing an increment to the healthcare costs, therefore the response to meet these needs shifted from physicians to nurses. The expanded roles of nurses, advanced practice nurse has brought positive outcomes to the healthcare industry. The availability of APN had helps to relieve the problems of not having enough primary care physicians in certain countries. Nurses are given the autonomy and empowerment in patients care, therefore we can change the traditional paternalistic practice approached to holistic care approached. However, physicians also played an important role in providing quality care to patients as their expert knowledge on medicine are valuables in providing treatment (Kleinpell, 2009).
Advanced Practitioners are highly recognized and accepted by the public in the US, as there are evidence showing that the APNs are actively delivering the safety and effectiveness of primary care, preventive services and chronic diseases in the country. Besides all these, APNs were also seen working intensively with the political system. According to Barker (2009), "a new group that holds great potential for nurse interaction is the Congressional Nursing Caucus in the U.S. House of Representatives, begun in 2003 by Representatives Lois Capps." Educations, briefings and meetings were held regularly by APNs, discussion pertaining to society issues was kept abreast, bringing to the attention of policy makers if situation arises. The development of nurses’ role had strongly protruded the professional image of nurses, using this benefit to attract more people to join nursing profession and able to retent nurses through the nursing development role. Nurses expanded role also takeover some role of the physician, likewise nurses also can operate anticoagulant clinic that used to be led by physicians only (Butts & Rich, 2011). Through this, the results of introducing nurse led clinic had eventually fulfilled the hospital "Patients Charter Standard" with regard to shorter waiting time, improved consultation period, and patient can have better understanding on their treatment. The nurse-led clinic are also situated in rural areas to meet to the public needs, through this, it also improve the care of the patient in rural area, by making healthcare accessible. Therefore the patients in the rural area can compliance to treatment and there is a continuity of care after they are discharge from the main hospital. The care rendered also meets the standard of care required from the APN, in the situation if there is any doubt in providing treatment to the patient, the APN can use videoconference and telehealth to communicate with other allied health and medical team ( Mcmurray & Clendon, 2011). Similarly in Singapore, APNs are given the autonomy and empowerment in clinical setting, they are able to collaborate care independently with the knowledge they had with the medical team during ward round, like provide consultation, history taking, physical examination, order investigations and treatments, which also improved patient outcomes (Tan, 2012). The APN are also being recognized and respected from other healthcare professionals, they have nurse-led clinic in the hospital setting and are given the rights to admit patient, and make appropriate referral to other allied health stuff in the hospital. Being used to be the leader of the hospital where they practice, APNs are able to influence clinical practice and care to their junior nurses with the enhanced role and knowledge gained, therefore improving patient outcome and the skills of the junior nurses in the ward. The presence of APN also improves the quality indicators through the therapeutic relationship that they established with the patient. Therefore it resulted in greater patient independence, promotion of health, patient’s adjustment to illness, increases patient satisfactory and it also reduces patient revisiting the emergency department, and it also reduced healthcare cost (Chew & Yee, 2013).
However, there are barriers to the development of nurse-led clinic and the role of Advanced Practitioner Nurse as there are doctors whom are unwilling to give up their role, such as decision-making and towards the training or even the recruitment of these nurses. There are also many new roles of nurses during the period of development, therefore at times where training and assessment may not be properly evaluated, are likely to increases the risks of professional isolation and result in reducing the overall success that was made in the past (Hamric, Spross & Hanson, 2008).
Nurses are essential in a healthcare setting, without them, physicians feel handicap, communication with patient and patients’ relatives would be lacking, resulting in patient not well taken care of in the hospital settings (MOH, 2011). The most basic nursing requires a nurse to fulfil two years of study as well as attachment to a public hospital, not to mention degrees and bachelors in nursing, which requires longer period of time to obtain (Rosdahl & Kowalski, 2008). Upon graduation, a nurse needs to register with SNB for practising certificate, and thereafter renew with SNB annually. This is to prevent illegal and uncertified nursing practice taking place in Singapore, protecting the citizens under the law (Nurses and midwives act, 2012). All these makes nursing a profession (Brooks & Dunn, 2009). However, the white paper had recently labelled nursing as low-skilled, putting all those upgrading trainings and nursing policies down the drain. This article has certainly spark disagreement once it’s published, resulting in newspaper reporting on that fateful article and many people speaking up for nurses (Yeong, 2013). Doctors, whom are considered highly-skilled profession, needs to take physician’s pledge and follow the code of medical ethics (Singapore medical council, 2012; American medical association, 2013). Nurses, whom are stated as "lowly-skilled" profession, happens to possess nurses’ pledge as well as code of ethics and a set of professional conduct to guide nursing practice (Singapore Nursing Board, 2013; Singapore Nursing Board, n.d.). So, is human life that worthless, to have a lowly skilled professionals, handling critically ill patient? Not to mention empathizing and dealing with difficult relatives as well as patients that requires knowledge and experience. Classifying nursing as a low skilled profession is perhaps, one of the ignorant matter that have surfaced so far, for nurses touch people’s heart and contributing to the health of public in many ways.
In conclusion, the role of the APNs is still evolving, and they are practicing in a wide variety of settings. Only by showing support to our leaders by providing more efficiency care to our patients, nursing association or government promoting positive nurses’ image to the public, can the effort of nurses be recognised in enhancing quality care to the patients. The role and development of the Advanced Practitioners will continue to be monitor and the outcomes of practice will be evaluated for the effectiveness of APN. There is still a need to develop the roles of APN in Singapore as this is newly introduced in only 2003, the public still need to have more ideas on the role of APN so that they can meet the future patients and services need in the future.Place your order today
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As of 1 January 2016, the population of Singapore was estimated to be 5 664 322 people. This is an increase of 1.97 % (109 159 people) compared to population of 5 555 163 the year before. In 2015 the natural increase was positive, as the number of births exceeded the number of deaths by 26 387. Due to external migration, the population increased by 82 772. The sex ratio of the total population was 1.017 (1 017 males per 1 000 females) which is lower than global sex ratio. The global sex ratio in the world was approximately 1 016 males to 1 000 females as of 2015. See also map of the world by sex ratio of total population.
Below are the key figures for Singapore population in 2015:
During 2016 Singapore population is projected to increased by 111 304 people and reach 5 775 626 in the beginning of 2017. The natural increase is expected to be positive, as the number of births will exceed the number of deaths by 26 906. If external migration will remain on the previous year level, the population will be increased by 84 398 due to the migration reasons. It means that the number of people who move into Singapore (to which they are not native) in order to settle there as permanent residents (immigrants) will prevail over the number of people who leave the country to settle permanently in another country (emigrants).Population dynamics in 2016
According to our estimations, daily change rates of Singapore population in 2016 will be the following:
Singapore population density is 8 011.8 people per square kilometer as of July 2016. Density of population is calculated as permanently settled population of Singapore divided by total area of the country. Total area is the sum of land and water areas within international boundaries and coastlines of Singapore. The total area of Singapore is 707 km 2 according to the United Nations Statistics Division .Singapore age structure
As of the beginning of 2016 according to our estimates Singapore had the following population age distribution:
Note: The pyramid provided is not corresponding to data given above because the age groups have different number of years.
As we can see the Singapore population pyramid has a contracting type. This type of pyramid is more common for highly developed countries with low birth and death rates. Usually countries with such kind of population age distribution model have long life expectancy, high level of education and good health care.
Source: The estimation data for section "Singapore age structure" is based on the latest demographic and social statistics by United Nations Statistics Division .Age dependency ratio
Dependency ratio of population is a ratio of people who are generally not in the labor force (the dependents) to workforce of a country (the productive part of population). The dependent part includes the population under 15 years old and people aged 65 and over. The productive part of population accordingly consists of population between 15 and 64 years.
This ratio shows the pressure on productive population produced by the dependent part of population.
The total dependency ratio of population in Singapore is 29.9 %.
The value of 29.9 % is relatively low. It shows that the dependent part of population is less than a half of the working part. In other words the working population (labor force) in Singapore must provide goods for itself and cover expenditure on children and aged persons. And this part of population is less than 50% of working population. The value of less than 50% means that the pressure on productive population in Singapore is relatively low.Child dependency ratio
Child dependency ratio is a ratio of people below working age (under 15) to workforce of a country.
Child dependency ratio in Singapore is 17.9 %.Aged dependency ratio
Aged dependency ratio is a ratio of people above working age (65+) to workforce of a country.
Aged dependency ratio in Singapore is 12 %.
Source: The estimation data for section "Singapore age dependency ratio" is based on the latest demographic and social statistics by United Nations Statistics Division .Life expectancy
Life expectancy at birth is one of the most important demographic indicator. It shows the number of years a newborn infant would live assuming that birth and death rates will remain at the same level during the whole lifetime.
Total life expectancy (both sexes) at birth for Singapore is 82.1 years.
This is above the average life expectancy at birth of the global population which is about 71 years (according to Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations).
Male life expectancy at birth is 79.5 years.
Female life expectancy at birth is 85 years.
According to our estimates 4 728 030 persons or 96.81% of adult population (aged 15 years and above) in Singapore are able to read and write. Accordingly about 155 918 adults are illiterate.
Literacy rate for adult male population is 98.66% (2 322 868 persons). 31 621 are illiterate.
Literacy rate for adult female population is 95.09% (2 405 161 persons). 124 298 are illiterate.
Youth literacy rates are 99.9% and 99.9% for males and females accordingly. The overall youth literacy rate is 99.9%. Youth literacy rate definition covers the population between the ages of 15 to 24 years.
Source: The estimation data for section "Singapore population literacy" is based on the latest data published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics (retrieved March 13, 2016) .Singapore historical population (1951 - 2016)
The data is given as of 1st of January of an year.