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Debbi Moore Free Papers On Critical Thinking

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Critical Thinking Essay Research Paper CRITICAL THINKINGThe

Critical Thinking Essay Research Paper CRITICAL THINKINGThe

Critical Thinking Essay, Research Paper

The concepts of critical thinking and creative thinking are both gaining increasing importance in the world today. Critical thinking allows people to understand difficult concepts in a manner that is clearer and more defined. They can more readily understand those concepts if they employ critical thinking. In all portions of everyday life, a person is expected to make independent judgments. Those judgments are based on experience and knowledge. Without the ability to think critically, every situation that a person comes across would have to be considered in isolation from all other situations. When a person encounters a problem that is a new one, he or she may be able to use critical thinking to solve those problems.

One manner in which a person can develop critical thinking skills is through using them in all situations. By doing this, a person can discern when to use certain skills. One way of using critical thinking is to review material and analyze that material. There are many times when critical thinking is an important concept. It is important in the classroom. It is important in the boardroom. It is important for not only the student, but also the CEO. The mother or the teacher can apply critical thinking. Doctors employ critical thinking, as do nurses. Everyone employs critical thinking at one time or another whether or not this is even realized. This critical thinking needs to be channeled as well as focused.

While critical thinking is important in all occupations, it must begin in childhood. Teachers must help their students to develop critical thinking modalities. Critical thinking helps considerably in problem solving. Without critical thinking, one must rely on old and outdated information. All businesses, from the simplest to the most technologically advanced, need critical thinkers. Critical thinking also helps in decision-making. Both problem solving and decision-making abilities are vital to a prosperous business.

Persons who are critical thinkers can make a difference in the companies in which they are employed. Today’s corporations must first recognize that there is a real need for critical thinkers. It is important for both the top management down the line. Critical thinking must be taught and built in to the way the company or organization performs its business. In fact, companies and organizations must embrace the concept of critical thinking. Critical thinking can lead to success story after success story. This type of impact gives any company or organization credibility.

According to Supon, one of the fundamental purposes of teaching critical thinking is to enhance the abilities of students to become critical thinkers. Corporate leaders, educational researchers, employers, and parents have continually pushed teachers to assist their students in the development of critical thinking ability. Critical thinking is a skill that “involved not only knowledge of content by also concept formation and analysis, reasoning and drawing conclusions, recognizing and avoiding contradiction, and other essential cognitive activities” (Supon, 1998).

There are proposed reasons for the emphasis that is currently on critical thinking. Many factors can be related to this emphasis. They include the societal factors of economic shifts globally, the dissemination of massive amounts of information, and occupational mobility (Supon, 1998).

Unfortunately, educators face barriers that are numerous when they make an attempt at creating thinking classrooms. Those barriers include, “insecurities about their own abilities to think critically, fear on the part of students that they will be ridiculed by their peers when they share experiences, and teachers’ own attachment to the lecture method.” Supon notices that there are numerous ways in which to overcome those barriers (Supon, 1998).

A change in the teacher’s attitude toward teaching critical thinking must be achieved. According to Kirby and Goodpaster, “There is no Holy Grail of facilitating critical thinking and no one wa

y to instructional enlightenment.” When a teacher makes a commitment to allowing students employ in learning that is both meaningful and enthusiastic, he is contributing to efforts of critical thinking. The teacher must hone his skills by attending seminars and staff meetings, and reading educational journals concerning the ways to teach thinking. The pattern of routine thinking must be broken by alternative teaching methods that will serve to develop critical thinking. The teacher must be able to think critically in order to be able to teach the student to teach critically (Moore and Parker, 2000).

When the attitudes and methods of educators assist their students in the so-called “practical wisdom” that is necessary for the student in order to engage in learning, critical thinking occurs. (Moore and Parker, 2000).

When students recognize that there is a relationship between their own immediate concerns and a certain instructional theory, higher standards of thinking become developed. Critical thinking is part of higher thinking (Kirby and Goodpaster, 1999).

Student’s experiences can become legitimized through critical thinking. They are able to see that their experiences and their ideas are relevant. Working together as a group can achieve this goal. Class discussions are important to this concept. For this to work, however, the teacher must create an atmosphere that is non-judgmental in order for critical thinking to become fostered. “When teachers deliberately integrate the selected content, while embracing and combining students’ ideas and experiences, critical thinking capacities are being conditioned” (Moore and Parker, 2000). By the deliberate incorporation of such elements into their teaching modalities, educators encourage students in an awareness of their own behaviors, ideals, and values, which is both important and crucial to critical thinking (Kirby and Goodpaster, 1999).

Teachers must create trust in their classrooms in order to legitimize the experiences of students. Mutual respect appears to be the straightest route to trust. An educator may develop trust by demonstrating respect toward his students. In this way, he can proceed to developing critical thinking once trust has been established. Students who trust their teachers will be more open to the sharing of their experiences. Peer ridicule and fear become broken with trust. The students are able to recognize the fact that their ideas and their experiences have worth and are valid (Supon, 1998).

Students are able to build knowledge bases though the visualization of important facts and concepts. This means “creating mental pictures to aid in learning, thinking, and solving” (Supon, 1998). Problem solving is an important concept in critical thinking. When a student’s concepts are visual and organized, he is able to sharpen the ability to communicate that information and those ideas. Not only is this important in learning critical thinking, it is also able to garner enthusiasm and interest from the student (Supon, 1998).

Without critical thinking the purpose of the educational system would be amiss. Teachers would be doing a disservice to their students. Students would not be fulfilling their potentials. Businesses would soon flop. Neither a doctor nor a nurse would be ale to do his/her job. A company’s CEO would be out of business. A student would not be able to write a research paper. The list goes on and on.

Critical thinking is of crucial importance. It must be taught and it must be learned. Without paying attention to this manner of thought, great losses would occur. Critical thinking is an element that everyone in all walks of life needs in order to communicate successfully and to understand vital concepts, make decisions, and solve problems.

Kirby, Gary R. and Jeffery R. Goodpaster. Thinking. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1999

Moore, Brooke Noel and Richard Parker. Critical Thinking. Mountain View: Mayfield Publishing Company, 2000

Supon, Viola. “Penetrating the barriers to teaching higher thinking.” The Clearing House. 1998, May 15

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Critical Thinking - Josette - iTDi Blog

Advanced Skills Course Critical Thinking – Josette

“How do you feel about learning how to write during this program?”

This is the question I ask each new English teacher who enters our in-service teacher training program. For the next five months not only will I be their trainer, I will also be their writing teacher. Without fail, the most common answer I get from these teachers ranging from age 27 to 52 is:

“I’m nervous because I haven’t learned how to write. Not even in Korean. I don’t know how to organize my ideas.”

You can imagine how compounded this anxiety gets when they start thinking about how they will have to start teaching writing in the next few years. These worries are completely understandable. Not only do most of these teachers teach to a test that promotes memorization, they were also raised in this system. In Korea, the College Scholastic Aptitude Test (CSAT), or suneung (수능), is king. It is the culmination of countless hours of rote learning, and your score determines if you will enter a university worthy of embarrassment or praise. In a country that honors such a pedagogical system, most educators have a hard time finding room for engaging their students in critical thinking: the process of observing, analyzing or questioning, and finally of coming to your own conclusions. And from what the teachers’ answer to my question about writing tells me, they might not even know where to begin.

I think there is great value in expressing what one thinks, in writing or otherwise. When we are given the chance to question and explore, we get a little closer to understanding ourselves and the world. Through this understanding we are better equipped to make decisions that will contribute to our happiness and to the well being of others. When I hear about the school violence or teen suicides in Korea, I wonder how a system that suppresses creative thought and glorifies competition contributes to these horror stories. (See Curtis Porter’s post, School Violence in Korea. for more on this topic.) I also wonder what a little more space for critical and creative thinking might do for these students.

This is the space our program tries to guide the teachers through. In writing class they analyze genres and different organizational patterns such as short stories, narratives or argumentative essays. Collaboratively, they discuss and debate topics that hit close to home: Should corporal punishment be banned from schools? Should English be removed from the CSAT? What would your dream school look like? The teachers explore grammatical or lexical structures that will help them express what they want to say. They go through the writing process. In the end, the majority of them are successful in organizing their ideas into a text I believe is quite powerful.

At the end of the five months, what they have to say about writing is along these lines:

“Not only have I learned how to write, I have learned how to think. It was a wonderful experience to think about myself as a teacher and as a person. I feel more confident about myself as a teacher and writer.”

There is no greater gift than knowing the pleasure and empowerment they got from exploring their thoughts. It gives me hope for their future and for the future of their students.

For many of these teachers, this writing experience becomes a faint memory, drowned in the test-focused system. However, some have managed to convince their principals to allow them to teach after hours writing classes. A rare few have even implemented writing skills in their curriculum. Perhaps writing itself does not always equal critical thinking, but it is a first step. I know these teachers are trying to give their students a voice. They recall the feelings they had about writing and they want their students to feel the same. I am excited to see where these seeds of thought will spread.

For more on the topic of critical thinking in Korean education, I recommend these links and articles:

Share this: Josette

Josette LeBlanc is an English language teacher and teacher trainer who currently teaches in Daegu, South Korea. She's curious about reflective practice, compassionate communication, and teacher development done both online and offline. She believes learning, whether it happens in or out of the classroom, is a process of discovery and transformation. Blog: Throwing Back Tokens Twitter & Instagram: @JosetteLB View all posts by Josette

7 thoughts on “Critical Thinking – Josette”

Debbie Tebovich says:

Dear Josette,
Thanks for sharing your clear ideas about what critical thinking is. Yet, I have some questions. If the Korean Educational system is focused on memorisation, and as far as I could read after your post, even physical punishment is somehow allowed in the class, I wonder how you manage to challenge the system.

Critical thinking open the doors to freedom, and new discoveries. How does your work fit into the system? I imagine your learners could feel even scared at times, when they were not brought up in freedom of thought, when mistakes are not allowed, this might be the root to this dreadful issue of violence and even teen suicide.

I also want to thank you for helping me learn a little more about reflection and writing. Sometimes my ideas come to me like falls, I get flooded with ideas, and I find it really challenging to find some kind of logical order to finally come up with my reflections, must admit it also happens when I plan my lessons. In a extreme desire to give my learners the best I can I realise they must feel overwhelmed at times. But I as I become aware of this, I feel I am moving forward to find a way to work it out.

Thanks Josette, you have helped me a lot.

Thank you, as always, for reading and leaving your thoughts and questions. A dialogue with you is always a gift.

Before I attempt to answer your question, I should clarify something. Corporal punishment is officially banned in the Korean school system. When the teachers write about this topic, they are in a sense reflecting on a time prior to it being banned and either agreeing or disagreeing with that policy. I’ve written a few posts on my blog about some things the teachers have reflected in essays or other forms of text: http://tokenteach.wordpress.com/2012/09/23/the-love-stick-that-motivates/ and http://tokenteach.wordpress.com/2012/09/26/the-difference-between-love-and-a-stick/

That being said, I have heard from some teachers around the peninsula that teachers are still using the “love stick” or other similar ways of “reinforcing” rules.

And how do we challenge the system? You empathize correctly when you imagine that the teachers must be scared at times. This is why I do my best to give the teachers a voice, a place to express their fears. I’ve come to learn that teachers are in desperate need of support in systems such as these. They often feel alone and unsupported. If I can give them a small place to share their feelings and ideas, I know I am doing a small part. I also realize that this in itself can be scary. When we air our true feelings, we also have to face what is. Sometimes it’s just easier to stay hidden. All I know is that in my experience with conflict and hardship, true healing comes when we can face the problem.

In relation to writing, I really connected to what you had to say about finding logical order to planning lessons. It seems you are starting to find a way out of the fog. I am very happy to see you celebrating the small steps. I also feel the fog at times, and it is at those times that I realize I need to take out my poster paper and start writing my ideas. This is the only time my thoughts start making sense: when I can see them on paper.

Thank you for giving me the chance to go deeper into my thoughts Debbie! You have also helped me a lot!

Debbie Tebovich says:

Dear Josette,
Bravo! I also read your posts on “love stick” and the comments your visitors made. You are certainly a great role model for making steps towards a better world. I am sure these teachers value the power of love and respect in education, they are developing in a positive environment.
Thanks so much dear teacher.
Debbie

I truly appreciate your perspective Debbie. You brought a little more brightness to my day. Thank you for keeping the cycle of positivity and care alive. 🙂

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PPT - Teaching information literacy, critical thinking, and scientific communication skills to senior biol PowerPoint presentation

Teaching information literacy, critical thinking, and scientific communication skills to senior biol - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript and Presenter's Notes


Title: Teaching information literacy, critical thinking, and scientific communication skills to senior biol


1
Teaching information literacy, critical thinking,
and scientific communication skills to senior
biology majors through a sequenced writing
project on cancer biology
  • Jennifer R. Kowalski Jane M. Liu
  • TEACRS Program
  • Tufts University, Boston, MA

2
TEACRS Program
  • G.I.F.T.
  • 14-day workshop
  • Topics included
  • Syllabus, course design
  • Presentation skills
  • Engaging, motivating students
  • Teaching with technology (CRS, wikis, etc)
  • Inquiry-based learning
  • Effective writing assignments
  • Assessing, testing, grading learning outcomes
  • Teacher-student relationships
  • Tufts University (Established 2006)
  • 1 semester teaching requirement
  • Training activities
  • Workshops on mentoring, lab management, ethics,
    technology, etc.
  • Observations of other courses at local colleges
  • Graduate Institute for Teaching (Tufts)

3
Pine Manor College1 Campus diversity (U.S. News
and World Report 2007)
  • Founded in 1911 1977 became 4-year college
  • Currently serving women who normally may not have
    access to liberal arts education
  • Mission
  • preparing women for roles of inclusive
    leadership and social responsibility in their
    workplaces, families and communitiesin an
    environment that celebrates diversity and
    respects the common good.

4
Biology Department (20 majors)
  • 1994 Began offering B.A. Biology (no
    chem/biochem)
  • Student career interests community health,
    medicine, nursing

Underlined requires term paper Open to all
students
  • Bi490 Senior Seminar/Capstone
  • Instructors and topic vary each year
  • Term paper requirement

5
Codes, Mixed Messages and Cellular Chaos
  • Modeled somewhat on Harvard Univ. LS1A
  • Molecular and cellular biology of cancer - focus
    on DNA and RNA
  • 50 Mol. basis of cancer
  • 20 Diagnostics
  • 30 Treatments

6
Proto-oncoproteins promote cell proliferation
Bi490 Course Overview
  • Interactive lectures
  • In-class activities
  • Clickers
  • 2 Case studies
  • National Center for Case Study Teaching in
    Science
  • Prim. Lit. Days
  • Students unfamiliar/little experience
  • Field trip (Novartis)
  • Guest speaker
  • Assessments
  • Weekly quizzes (25)
  • Homework (15)
  • Sequenced writing assignment (50)

How does DNA replication happen?
(Think/Pair/Share)
  • True
  • False

7
Sequenced Writing Project
Learning Objectives
  • Investigate one particular type of cancer (from
    its genetic/molecular basis to diagnosis and
    treatment).
  • Synthesize information on these topics from both
    primary and secondary scientific literature
  • Effectively communicate this gathered knowledge
    to a general audience via multiple media types

The purpose of this semester-long activity is to
further prepare you for a future as an active,
scientifically-educated citizen and a leader in
your community.
8
Sequenced Writing Project
  • 1-2. Blog Post and Comments (5 each of writing
    assignment final grade)
  • 1. Post a critical summary of a popular
    press article (i.e. New York Times) and the
    primary scientific article it describes
  • 2. Comment on common thread in two of your
    classmates posts
  • 3. Short Research Paper (3 pages 15)
  • Find and explain general epidemiological
    information on your assigned cancer.
  • 4. Critical summary of 2 websites (5 paragraphs
    10)
  • Find, compare/contrast, evaluate websites
    on your cancer (general info)
  • 5. Comparative analysis of 2 scientific articles
    (5 paragraphs 15)
  • Find, compare/contrast primary articles on a
    molecular aspect of your cancer
  • 6. Short Research Paper (5 pages 20)
  • Find synthesize additional information on
    the molecular biology of your cancer
  • 7. Poster Presentation (20)
  • Present information on your cancer (A3-A6)
    at the Bi490 Cancer Health Fair

9
Sequenced Writing Project Timeline
S.B.
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
10
Overall Results/Outcomes
  • All students completed the sequence!
  • We thought learning objectives were largely met
  • Read and understand primary secondary
    scientific literature
  • Synthesize information from multiple sources
  • Communicate scientific information to a general
    audience

11
A1-2 Blog Post Comments
6. Short Paper (Molecular biology)
3.Short Paper (Gen.epidemiology)
5.Critical Analysis (Primary Papers)
4.Critical Analysis (Websites)
2.Blog Comment
7.Cancer Fair
8.Final Paper
1.Blog Post
S.B.
Topic Finalized
6.Ann. Biblio.
6. Peer Rev.
7. Poster Due
  • Students not as excited about blogs as we
    expected
  • Due to lack of regular computer access?
  • Fear of putting misinformation on web
  • Difficulty with A2 because of misinformation in
    posts
  • Our assessment
  • Reading primary paper very
    difficult for most
  • Read draft of A1 prior to post

12
A3-4 Epidemiology General Info
  • A3 Lack of synthesis - often only 1
    source/paragraph
  • In-text citation problems
  • A4 Difficulty with compare/contrast
  • Writing issues lack of thesis statements, topic
    sentences

13
A5-A6 Molecular Biology(Comparative Analysis
Short Research Paper)
6. Short Paper (Molecular biology)
3.Short Paper (Gen.epidemiology)
5.Critical Analysis (Primary Papers)
2.Blog Comment
4.Critical Analysis (Websites)
7.Cancer Fair
8.Final Paper
1.Blog Post
S.B.
Topic Finalized
6.Ann. Biblio.
6. Peer Rev.
7. Poster Due
  • Still difficulty with molecular biology and
    primary literature
  • A5 Comparative analysis, A4 writing issues
    persisted
  • A6 Most showed minimal synthesis
  • Omit comparative analysis as learning
    objective
  • More checkpoints for A6 and additional
    secondary sources

14
A7 Poster Presentation(Cancer Health Fair)
  • Allowed students to see pieces of sequence fit,
    and feel ownership
  • Poster
  • Unanticipated lack of Powerpoint experience
  • Presentation
  • Judged by outside scientists other bio/non-bio
    PMC faculty
  • 50 of A7 grade was judges average score
  • Rated Posters/Presentations Above Average -
    Exceeded Expectations
  • Earlier Powerpoint assignment to learn
    program.

15
A8 Final Paper
  • Better final product than with traditional single
    term paper
  • At least partially met all 3 learning objectives
  • Investigate ?
  • Synthesize 1/2
  • Communicate ?
  • Students did not appreciate sequenced assignments
    as process
  • mistakes/comments from previous assignments not
    addressed
  • Citation issues still a problem
  • Implement writing standards/sequence across
    curriculum. Students turn in previous A3-A6 with
    final A8

16
Revised Bi490 Sequenced Writing
Original Sequence
Revised Sequence
  • A1 Blog Post (w/rough draft)
  • A2 Blog Comments
  • A3 Short Paper I (General Epidem.)
  • Secondary sources, including website
  • A4 Critical Molec. Bio. Summary
  • 2 primary articles on common gene/protein
  • A5 Short Paper II (Molec.Biology)
  • Builds on A4 critical summary
  • New sources 1 peer-reviewed, 1 non-peer-reviewed
    secondary source
  • Annotated outline
  • 2 drafts (2nd for peer review)
  • A6 Poster Presentation
  • earlier ppt assignment
  • A7 Final Paper
  • Original A3-A5 turned in with final A8
  • A1 Blog Post
  • A2 Blog Comments
  • A3 Short Paper I
  • (Gen. Epidem.)
  • A4 Critical Analysis
  • (2 Websites)
  • A5 Critical Analysis
  • (2 Primary Papers)
  • A6 Short Paper II
  • (Molecular Biology)
  • A7 Poster Presentation
  • A8 Final Paper

17
Acknowledgements
  • Bi490 Students
  • Dr. Susan Bear
  • PMC Biology Department
  • Sarah Woolf
  • Judy Maas
  • Dr. Claire Moore
  • TEACRS program
  • NIH/NIGMS IRACDA

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Critical Thinking Essay Research Paper CRITICAL THINKINGThe

Critical Thinking Essay Research Paper CRITICAL THINKINGThe

Critical Thinking Essay, Research Paper

The concepts of critical thinking and creative thinking are both gaining increasing importance in the world today. Critical thinking allows people to understand difficult concepts in a manner that is clearer and more defined. They can more readily understand those concepts if they employ critical thinking. In all portions of everyday life, a person is expected to make independent judgments. Those judgments are based on experience and knowledge. Without the ability to think critically, every situation that a person comes across would have to be considered in isolation from all other situations. When a person encounters a problem that is a new one, he or she may be able to use critical thinking to solve those problems.

One manner in which a person can develop critical thinking skills is through using them in all situations. By doing this, a person can discern when to use certain skills. One way of using critical thinking is to review material and analyze that material. There are many times when critical thinking is an important concept. It is important in the classroom. It is important in the boardroom. It is important for not only the student, but also the CEO. The mother or the teacher can apply critical thinking. Doctors employ critical thinking, as do nurses. Everyone employs critical thinking at one time or another whether or not this is even realized. This critical thinking needs to be channeled as well as focused.

While critical thinking is important in all occupations, it must begin in childhood. Teachers must help their students to develop critical thinking modalities. Critical thinking helps considerably in problem solving. Without critical thinking, one must rely on old and outdated information. All businesses, from the simplest to the most technologically advanced, need critical thinkers. Critical thinking also helps in decision-making. Both problem solving and decision-making abilities are vital to a prosperous business.

Persons who are critical thinkers can make a difference in the companies in which they are employed. Today’s corporations must first recognize that there is a real need for critical thinkers. It is important for both the top management down the line. Critical thinking must be taught and built in to the way the company or organization performs its business. In fact, companies and organizations must embrace the concept of critical thinking. Critical thinking can lead to success story after success story. This type of impact gives any company or organization credibility.

According to Supon, one of the fundamental purposes of teaching critical thinking is to enhance the abilities of students to become critical thinkers. Corporate leaders, educational researchers, employers, and parents have continually pushed teachers to assist their students in the development of critical thinking ability. Critical thinking is a skill that “involved not only knowledge of content by also concept formation and analysis, reasoning and drawing conclusions, recognizing and avoiding contradiction, and other essential cognitive activities” (Supon, 1998).

There are proposed reasons for the emphasis that is currently on critical thinking. Many factors can be related to this emphasis. They include the societal factors of economic shifts globally, the dissemination of massive amounts of information, and occupational mobility (Supon, 1998).

Unfortunately, educators face barriers that are numerous when they make an attempt at creating thinking classrooms. Those barriers include, “insecurities about their own abilities to think critically, fear on the part of students that they will be ridiculed by their peers when they share experiences, and teachers’ own attachment to the lecture method.” Supon notices that there are numerous ways in which to overcome those barriers (Supon, 1998).

A change in the teacher’s attitude toward teaching critical thinking must be achieved. According to Kirby and Goodpaster, “There is no Holy Grail of facilitating critical thinking and no one way to instructional enlightenment.” When a teacher makes a commitment to allowing students employ in learning that is both meaningful and enthusiastic, he is contributing to efforts of critical thinking. The teacher must hone his skills by attending seminars and staff meetings, and reading educational journals concerning the ways to teach thinking. The pattern of routine thinking must be broken by alternative teaching methods that will serve to develop critical thinking. The teacher must be able to think critically in order to be able to teach the student to teach critically (Moore and Parker, 2000).

When the attitudes and methods of educators assist their students in the so-called “practical wisdom” that is necessary for the student in order to engage in learning, critical thinking occurs. (Moore and Parker, 2000).

When students recognize that there is a relationship between their own immediate concerns and a certain instructional theory, higher standards of thinking become developed. Critical thinking is part of higher thinking (Kirby and Goodpaster, 1999).

Student’s experiences can become legitimized through critical thinking. They are able to see that their experiences and their ideas are relevant. Working together as a group can achieve this goal. Class discussions are important to this concept. For this to work, however, the teacher must create an atmosphere that is non-judgmental in order for critical thinking to become fostered. “When teachers deliberately integrate the selected content, while embracing and combining students’ ideas and experiences, critical thinking capacities are being conditioned” (Moore and Parker, 2000). By the deliberate incorporation of such elements into their teaching modalities, educators encourage students in an awareness of their own behaviors, ideals, and values, which is both important and crucial to critical thinking (Kirby and Goodpaster, 1999).

Teachers must create trust in their classrooms in order to legitimize the experiences of students. Mutual respect appears to be the straightest route to trust. An educator may develop trust by demonstrating respect toward his students. In this way, he can proceed to developing critical thinking once trust has been established. Students who trust their teachers will be more open to the sharing of their experiences. Peer ridicule and fear become broken with trust. The students are able to recognize the fact that their ideas and their experiences have worth and are valid (Supon, 1998).

Students are able to build knowledge bases though the visualization of important facts and concepts. This means “creating mental pictures to aid in learning, thinking, and solving” (Supon, 1998). Problem solving is an important concept in critical thinking. When a student’s concepts are visual and organized, he is able to sharpen the ability to communicate that information and those ideas. Not only is this important in learning critical thinking, it is also able to garner enthusiasm and interest from the student (Supon, 1998).

Without critical thinking the purpose of the educational system would be amiss. Teachers would be doing a disservice to their students. Students would not be fulfilling their potentials. Businesses would soon flop. Neither a doctor nor a nurse would be ale to do his/her job. A company’s CEO would be out of business. A student would not be able to write a research paper. The list goes on and on.

Critical thinking is of crucial importance. It must be taught and it must be learned. Without paying attention to this manner of thought, great losses would occur. Critical thinking is an element that everyone in all walks of life needs in order to communicate successfully and to understand vital concepts, make decisions, and solve problems.

Kirby, Gary R. and Jeffery R. Goodpaster. Thinking. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1999

Moore, Brooke Noel and Richard Parker. Critical Thinking. Mountain View: Mayfield Publishing Company, 2000

Supon, Viola. “Penetrating the barriers to teaching higher thinking.” The Clearing House. 1998, May 15