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Thoroughbred History Essay, Research Paper

Abstract Selective breeding of English ponies with the Arabian, Turk and Barb stallions produced the modern Thoroughbreds, known for their high speed and stamina. The Thoroughbred horse can run faster than any other animal in the world, for any reasonable distance. The near optimal levels are established firstly by outcrossing the English ponies, with the three specified classes, to obtain the most desirable traits. Once the characteristics that produce a top line Thoroughbred have been established, they can be maintained, or raised to a new plateau, through the practices of nicking and linebreeding and the concept of additive genes. The History of Thoroughbreds The Thoroughbred was first established through the selective breeding of English ponies with the Arabian, Turk and Barb stallions during the 16th century. The first three know stallions that were bred to the developing breed were the Godophin Barb (1689), the Darley Arabian (1706), and the Byerly Turk (1724). Perhaps the most important three Thoroughbreds who contributed a high proportion of their genes to the modern American Thoroughbreds of today were: Matchum (1748), the grandson of Godophin Barb, Herold (1758), the great grandson of Darley Arabian, and Eclipse (1764), the great, great grandson of Byerly Turk. Matchum passed on approximately 5-6 percent of his genes, Herold contributed 17-18 percent and Eclipse passed on about 11-12 percent. The developing Thoroughbreds were bred with the three specific types of stallions to increase the probability of the traits influencing speed and stamina. Some promiscuous mating of the Thoroughbreds also occurred with the horses of Germany, Normandy, Flanders and Spain, establishing more desirable traits in their offspring. (Jones, 1982) Phenotypes In order to understand the features of Thoroughbreds which highly contributed to their amazing speed and stamina, a description of their early ancestors is necessary. The English ponies are of very short nature, consisting of very short legs and small bodies. Their deficiency in size is most likely due to natural selection in the severe environment of early Northern and Western Europe. Size, speed, stamina and form were improved upon by the introduction of Oriental blood, that of the Barb, Turk and Arabian (Sanders 1893). The Barb horses are tall, speedy and possess long legs and short, light bodies. The Turks consist of heavier bodies and shorter legs for fair endurance. The Arabians, of great endurance, display beauty of form and grace of motion. Some of the heavier horses from Normandy, Flanders and Germany may have played a role in the early breeding of the English ponies in an effort to increase their size (Sanders 1893). It is also possible that the Andalusians contributed their height somewhat down the line. (Jones, 1982) Linebreeding improved upon other characteristics important for Thoroughbred speed and stamina. Larger lung capacity and larger nose and throat air passages are important for the intake of vast amounts of oxygen and expulsion of great quantities of carbon dioxide. A large heart and a high concentration of hemoglobin in red blood cells is also important for sending the hard working leg muscles the oxygen needed for cellular respiration. Another important trait is the strength of tendons, ligaments and bone structures. This decreases the amount of injuries and therefore increases the career expectancy. (Jones, 1982) Inheritance Factors and Genetic Concepts Before domestication, speed and stamina was naturally selected. For example, the main “defense mechanism” used by horses to preserve their gene line was to simply outrun their competitors. Thus the slower horses were bred out. The switch from natural selection to selective breeding changed the modes of inheritance, yet kept the same desirable characteristics for speed and stamina.

Four significant factors that are involved in the selective breeding of Thoroughbreds are: outcrossing, nicking, additive genes and linebreeding. Outcrossing was the crossing of horses in unrelated families. This brought about the breed of Thoroughbreds. The English ponies were bred with the Arabian, Turk and Barb stallions. The genetic principle of the outcrossing was to produce hybrids whose genes would act complimentary to each other and consist of more desirable traits. Outcrossing is no longer used because any further outcrosses would only pollute the Thoroughbred gene pool. (Kieffer 1976) Once the breed of Thoroughbreds was established the practice of nicking occurred within the species. Nicking involves the breeding of Thoroughbreds to produce offspring with more desirable traits. This is done by using strong and weak points of different Thoroughbreds to complement each other. The resulting progeny having better qualities than their parents. (Jones, 1982) Another practice that arose in the breeding of Thoroughbreds was the concept of mating the best of one generation with each other. This emphasizes the additive gene concept. The additive gene principle consists of breeding two of the top line Thoroughbreds together in order to produce the best possible offspring. The concept of the additive gene implies that there is a base gene, which for instance is the lowest level at which a Thoroughbred can run. This speed level is increased with every additive gene. When breeding the “best” with the “best” you are accumulating more and more additive genes, resulting in faster and faster Thoroughbreds. A horses racing capacity has two main factors: the amount of inherited racing genes and the ability of a breeder to accurately identify the individuals that are truly genetically superior. (Kieffer, 1976) Lastly, linebreeding is practiced in Thoroughbreds. Thorough linebreeding causes Thoroughbreds to become more and more homozygotic, resulting in preservation of their more desirable characteristics. Continuous breeding of these horses produces higher endurance levels that are passed down to the upcoming generations. (Jones, 1982) Using these principles, the more desirable traits of Thoroughbreds are obtained. This establishes a higher, yet not optimal, level of speed and stamina. Continuous breeding, using these concepts, will bring one closer and closer to the “perfect” race horse. However, a breeder must remember that environmental factors effect the capability of a racehorse. The goal of selective breeding, in the Thoroughbreds, is to reach an optimal level of speed and stamina, but in order to do so, one must chose the most desirable traits according to the environmental factors. Conclusion The development of the Thoroughbred is due to a variety of fathering horses and genetic procedures. The English pony, Arabian, Turk and Barb blood all contributed to the overabundance of genes determining speed and stamina. This was achieved due to knowledge of the additive gene concept and through the processes of outcrossing, nicking and linebreeding. While evolution of the Thoroughbred has been greatly influenced by genetics, we must keep in mind that genes provide only potential for greatness, but the optimal environmental factors (nutrition, care, training, climate, etc.) is necessary for full realization of that potential. Bibliography Jones, W.E. (1982) Genetics and Horse Breeding. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia. Osborne, Walker D. (1971) The Thoroughbred World. Leon Amiel Publisher, Israel. Sanders, J. H. (1873) Horse-Breeding. J. H. Harris Publishing Co. Chicago. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Genetics and Horse-Breeding. Royal Dublin Society, Ballsbridge, (1976)

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Thoroughbred History Essay Research Paper Abstract

Thoroughbred History Essay Research Paper Abstract

Thoroughbred History Essay, Research Paper

Abstract Selective breeding of English ponies with the Arabian, Turk and Barb stallions produced the modern Thoroughbreds, known for their high speed and stamina. The Thoroughbred horse can run faster than any other animal in the world, for any reasonable distance. The near optimal levels are established firstly by outcrossing the English ponies, with the three specified classes, to obtain the most desirable traits. Once the characteristics that produce a top line Thoroughbred have been established, they can be maintained, or raised to a new plateau, through the practices of nicking and linebreeding and the concept of additive genes. The History of Thoroughbreds The Thoroughbred was first established through the selective breeding of English ponies with the Arabian, Turk and Barb stallions during the 16th century. The first three know stallions that were bred to the developing breed were the Godophin Barb (1689), the Darley Arabian (1706), and the Byerly Turk (1724). Perhaps the most important three Thoroughbreds who contributed a high proportion of their genes to the modern American Thoroughbreds of today were: Matchum (1748), the grandson of Godophin Barb, Herold (1758), the great grandson of Darley Arabian, and Eclipse (1764), the great, great grandson of Byerly Turk. Matchum passed on approximately 5-6 percent of his genes, Herold contributed 17-18 percent and Eclipse passed on about 11-12 percent. The developing Thoroughbreds were bred with the three specific types of stallions to increase the probability of the traits influencing speed and stamina. Some promiscuous mating of the Thoroughbreds also occurred with the horses of Germany, Normandy, Flanders and Spain, establishing more desirable traits in their offspring. (Jones, 1982) Phenotypes In order to understand the features of Thoroughbreds which highly contributed to their amazing speed and stamina, a description of their early ancestors is necessary. The English ponies are of very short nature, consisting of very short legs and small bodies. Their deficiency in size is most likely due to natural selection in the severe environment of early Northern and Western Europe. Size, speed, stamina and form were improved upon by the introduction of Oriental blood, that of the Barb, Turk and Arabian (Sanders 1893). The Barb horses are tall, speedy and possess long legs and short, light bodies. The Turks consist of heavier bodies and shorter legs for fair endurance. The Arabians, of great endurance, display beauty of form and grace of motion. Some of the heavier horses from Normandy, Flanders and Germany may have played a role in the early breeding of the English ponies in an effort to increase their size (Sanders 1893). It is also possible that the Andalusians contributed their height somewhat down the line. (Jones, 1982) Linebreeding improved upon other characteristics important for Thoroughbred speed and stamina. Larger lung capacity and larger nose and throat air passages are important for the intake of vast amounts of oxygen and expulsion of great quantities of carbon dioxide. A large heart and a high concentration of hemoglobin in red blood cells is also important for sending the hard working leg muscles the oxygen needed for cellular respiration. Another important trait is the strength of tendons, ligaments and bone structures. This decreases the amount of injuries and therefore increases the career expectancy. (Jones, 1982) Inheritance Factors and Genetic Concepts Before domestication, speed and stamina was naturally selected. For example, the main “defense mechanism” used by horses to preserve their gene line was to simply outrun their competitors. Thus the slower horses were bred out. The switch from natural selection to selective breeding changed the mode

s of inheritance, yet kept the same desirable characteristics for speed and stamina.

Four significant factors that are involved in the selective breeding of Thoroughbreds are: outcrossing, nicking, additive genes and linebreeding. Outcrossing was the crossing of horses in unrelated families. This brought about the breed of Thoroughbreds. The English ponies were bred with the Arabian, Turk and Barb stallions. The genetic principle of the outcrossing was to produce hybrids whose genes would act complimentary to each other and consist of more desirable traits. Outcrossing is no longer used because any further outcrosses would only pollute the Thoroughbred gene pool. (Kieffer 1976) Once the breed of Thoroughbreds was established the practice of nicking occurred within the species. Nicking involves the breeding of Thoroughbreds to produce offspring with more desirable traits. This is done by using strong and weak points of different Thoroughbreds to complement each other. The resulting progeny having better qualities than their parents. (Jones, 1982) Another practice that arose in the breeding of Thoroughbreds was the concept of mating the best of one generation with each other. This emphasizes the additive gene concept. The additive gene principle consists of breeding two of the top line Thoroughbreds together in order to produce the best possible offspring. The concept of the additive gene implies that there is a base gene, which for instance is the lowest level at which a Thoroughbred can run. This speed level is increased with every additive gene. When breeding the “best” with the “best” you are accumulating more and more additive genes, resulting in faster and faster Thoroughbreds. A horses racing capacity has two main factors: the amount of inherited racing genes and the ability of a breeder to accurately identify the individuals that are truly genetically superior. (Kieffer, 1976) Lastly, linebreeding is practiced in Thoroughbreds. Thorough linebreeding causes Thoroughbreds to become more and more homozygotic, resulting in preservation of their more desirable characteristics. Continuous breeding of these horses produces higher endurance levels that are passed down to the upcoming generations. (Jones, 1982) Using these principles, the more desirable traits of Thoroughbreds are obtained. This establishes a higher, yet not optimal, level of speed and stamina. Continuous breeding, using these concepts, will bring one closer and closer to the “perfect” race horse. However, a breeder must remember that environmental factors effect the capability of a racehorse. The goal of selective breeding, in the Thoroughbreds, is to reach an optimal level of speed and stamina, but in order to do so, one must chose the most desirable traits according to the environmental factors. Conclusion The development of the Thoroughbred is due to a variety of fathering horses and genetic procedures. The English pony, Arabian, Turk and Barb blood all contributed to the overabundance of genes determining speed and stamina. This was achieved due to knowledge of the additive gene concept and through the processes of outcrossing, nicking and linebreeding. While evolution of the Thoroughbred has been greatly influenced by genetics, we must keep in mind that genes provide only potential for greatness, but the optimal environmental factors (nutrition, care, training, climate, etc.) is necessary for full realization of that potential. Bibliography Jones, W.E. (1982) Genetics and Horse Breeding. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia. Osborne, Walker D. (1971) The Thoroughbred World. Leon Amiel Publisher, Israel. Sanders, J. H. (1873) Horse-Breeding. J. H. Harris Publishing Co. Chicago. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Genetics and Horse-Breeding. Royal Dublin Society, Ballsbridge, (1976)

Research Paper Abstracts

/ Research Paper Abstracts

Research Paper Abstracts

The journal abstract performs a number of important functions. It:

• serves as a short version of the paper, which provides the most important information;

• helps, therefore, the potential audience to decide whether to read the whole article or not;

• prepares the reader for reading a full text by giving an idea of what to expect;

• serves as a reference after the paper has been read.

Nowadays, abstracts are widely used in electronic storage and retrieval systems and by on-line information services. Their role in dissemination and circulation of written research products is further increasing in the information age.

The journal abstract has certain textual and linguistic characteristics. It:

• consists of a single paragraph;

• contains 4-10 full sentences;

• tends to avoid the first person and to use impersonal active constructions (e.g. "This research shows. ") or passive voice (e.g. "The data were analyzed. ");

• rarely uses negative sentences; !

• uses meta-text (e.g. "This paper investigates. ");

• avoids using acronyms, abbreviations, and symbols (unless they are defined in the abstract itself);

• does not cite by number or refer by number to anything from the text of the paper.

The most frequent tense used in abstracts is the present tense. It is used to state facts, describe methods, make comparisons, and give results. The past tense is preferred when reference is made to the author's own experiments, calculations, observations, etc.

Journal abstracts are often divided into informative and indicative abstracts. The informative abstract includes main findings and various specifics such as measurements or quantities. This type of abstract often accompanies research reports and looks itself like a report in miniature.

Indicative abstracts indicate the subject of a paper. They provide a brief description without going into a detailed account. The abstracts of this type often accompany lengthy texts or theoretical papers. The combination of both types of journal abstracts, however, also exists.

The structure for the English journal abstract, as suggested by Mauro B. dos Santos (1996), includes the following moves:

Move 1 situates the research (e.g. by stating current knowledge in the field or a research problem).

Move 2 presents the research (e.g. by indicating its main purpose or main features).

Move 3 describes its methodology.

Move 4 summarizes the results.

Move 5 discusses the research (by drawing conclusions and/or giving recommendations».

(From: Santos,The textualorganization/research paper abstracts in applied linguistics)

However, the rhetorical structure of journal abstracts may vary depending upon a research subject, field of investigation, and type of a paper.

Indicative versus informative abstracts

A) Recently, there has been an increase of interest in the studies focusing on national food and its possible influence upon academic abilities of natives of this or that culture. It has already been shown that there is a causal relationship between consumption of the most popular foods within a culture and the level of high school grades. However, little is yet known about the impact of lard upon academic performance of Ukrainian students, even though the energizing role of this national product has already been recognized in the literature. This paper presents a breakthrough study of the influence of lard upon academic achievements of Ukrainian youth and provides interesting theoretical and applied implications.

Analyze the rhetorical structure of the abstract below.

move?' A crucial event in the historical evolution of scientific English was the birth of the scientific journal. This event and its early rhetorical consequences have been well described in recent research. In contrast, few details are known concerning subsequent developments in scientific writing from the eighteenth century onward. move? In this paper, the changing language and rhetoric of medical research reporting over the last 250 years are characterized and the underlying causes of these changes investigated. move? Research articles from the Edinburgh Medical Journal, the oldest continuing medical journal in English, constitute the corpus in this study. Sampling took place at seven intervals between 1735 and 1985, with two types of data analysis being performed—rhetorical text analysis focusing on the broad genre characteristics of articles; and linguistic analysis of these articles registrar features using Biber's system of text analysis.

move? ' Results indicate that the linguistic rhetorical evolution of medical research writing can be accounted for on the basis of the changing epistemological norms of medical knowledge, the growth of a professional medical community, and the periodic redefinition of medicine vis-a-vis the non-medical sciences.

Structural Functionalism Research Paper Starter

Structural Functionalism Research Paper Starter

Structural functionalism was a sociological theory developed in the 1930s by Talcott Parsons. Its basis stems from the work of Max Weber and Emile Durkheim. The theory was popular in relation to describing social systems like family and government institutions, in that the systems contain members who each held a function within the system; the overall purpose of each member was to keep the system in balance to allow for its continuance. Parsons focused on qualitative data analysis rather than quantitative analysis like the theory of positivism, which it replaced. Structural functionalism was discredited due to its qualitative methodology and its focus on the general rather than the specific, although some social scientists still use it today.

Keywords Conflict; Dimorphic; Hegemony; Parsons, Talcott; Positivism; Qualitative Data; Quantitative Data; Sociobiology; Structural Functionalism

Structural Functionalism Overview

Developed in the 1930s, structural functionalism is a sociological theory that dominated social interpretive approaches until the 1970s. Talcott Parsons, born in Colorado in 1902, presented the theory in the United States based on the work of Max Weber (economist and social historian in Germany) and Emile Durkheim (a social theorist in France). Parsons studied both Weber and Durkheim and translated their work into English a few years after becoming a professor at Harvard in 1927. Parsons is the author of The Structure of Social Action and The Social System, both well known texts within the social science field.

Structural functionalism posits that within every social structure or system — politics, family, organizations — each member of the system has a specific function. Those functions can be small or substantial, are dynamic in nature (i.e. they can change), and work toward the same purpose: to keep the system operational within its environment. According to Parsons, change is evident within any society or system; however, for the system to survive, it must adapt to that change in order to maintain its equilibrium. As part of this maintenance, Parsons identified four imperatives for societies to survive, which he called the AGIL model:

• Adaptation: acquiring and mobilizing sufficient resources so that the system can survive.

• Goal Attainment: setting and implementing goals

• Integration: maintaining solidarity or coordination among the subunits of the system.

• Latency: creating, preserving, and transmitting the system's distinctive culture and values.

A good example of structural functionalism is an ant colony. Ants live within a social system that is structured yet adaptable, with each ant holding a position within that system. While the positions of the ants may be different (worker, queen), their goals are the same: to maintain the colony's status as a functioning unit so it can survive. The queen ant gives birth to a tribe of worker ants who find sustenance and share it with the rest of the system. While not considered as complex as an institutionalized form of government, an ant colony is a system which differentiates between its members, adapts to new environments, and includes members and activities that years ago may not have been acceptable. It does this to function effectively and to promote its survival.

Divergence from Earlier Theories

What made structural functionalism notable is its strong divergence from earlier theories. Social positivism, prominent in the early 20th century, focused on empirical studies of social interaction. Often referred to as logical positivism or empiricism, the theory was concerned solely with concrete facts and quantitative data analysis. Parsons believed that ideas like motivation and goals should also be a theorist's focus, as human interaction can not always be as clear cut as "the inductive model of scientific knowledge that positivism presented" (Smelser, 1990).

As such, Parsons promoted the analytical over the concrete to interpret the roles of the members within different social systems. To further this view, Parsons posited that every action people take is done so within a social context of the system in which they are have been socialized. In addition, each action is taken in an attempt to get along, rather than as a random set of actions or a system of actions to further an individual's gain within the system. For Parsons, work toward the "ends" is always done to maintain the order and balance of the system. The system must be flexible and adaptive, but it cannot allow for deviance. And, while established mechanisms (the legal system) are supposed to keep deviance in check, social order is maintained through the socialization process: the members are taught that deviance is wrong because it harms the survival of the system.

Critics attacked structural functionalism in the late 1960s because the theory was unable to explain phenomena such as social change, disagreement with social and political aims, and the influential underpinnings of the wealthy. Furthermore, feminists were critical of Parsonianism because while the theory supplies an explanation for male privilege, it avoids discussion of the historical contributions of women. As a result of these criticisms, structural functionalism lost its credibility in the 1970s. However, some scientists revert to the theory as it offers a valid explanation of consensus, which supports the concept of social order. It is also considered a useful model of description as a result of its collection of quantitative data.

Applications Political Science

Parsons used structural functionalist methodology to interpret many areas of society. When he delved into the realm of political science, controversy ensued. Boskoff (1959) states that, "The development of political sociology reflects the social scientist's dislike of artificially neat disciplines and their consequent production of isolated bodies of fact and generalization" (71). It could have been that Parsons did not like the all-inclusive packages of other theories and wanted to expand the political arena to that of his own liking. In his theoretical expansion into politics, he used four levels of analysis, moving from the broad to the restricted.

Structural Functionalism

First, Parsons identified a general theory of social systems within the two-party voting system. He believed that because the ability to vote cut across social and cultural boundaries, there was overwhelming support for the social system of politics as a whole. Second, as political campaigns are functional within a society, an over-all political organization is prominent. Third, in addition to the function of an organized political system, having the flexibility to vote for either side — a two-party system model — is also the crux of Parsons' political theory. Boskoff (1959) notes that

Here the mechanism of cross pressures derived from two or more solidary groups, reference groups, causes (1) an increase in voting interest among those politically indifferent; and (2) shifts in voting choices. Cross-pressures operate principally on those persons involved in social change and subject to the processes of social mobility and thus prevent the development of rigid voting patterns in the face of important changes in the over-all society (p. 71).

Finally, Parsons held fast to the specific voting system of the United States. Focusing on society as a whole, Parsons believed that the people of the country would participate in the voting process simply as a function of membership within the group. Boskoff criticizes this point by suggesting that, in fact, everyone does not vote and when they do, only certain segments of society — those within specific ethnic, economic, and cultural divisions — are the ones who step up to the plate (Boskoff, 1959, p. 71-72).

Also, it is important to point out that Parsons' theory relies entirely on the proposition that the voting process is the most relevant demonstration of a two-party political system. Boskoff (1959) disagrees and identifies several other indicators that need analysis within this context.

[A] proper functional analysis of our two-party system should also focus on such phenomena as the nature of municipal, county, and state elections; the rural-urban imbalance in state legislatures; the realities of intraparty structure and function, including the selection of candidates, patronage systems on all levels, and ideological factions; the considerable range of one party controls; the extraparty role of pressure groups and lobbyists; the significance of appointed administrators, particularly on regulatory commissions; the effectiveness of specific policies and programs developed and administered by both parties in such fields as agricultural problems, labor-management relations, financial controls, civil rights, and crime control; and finally, the repercussions of two-party maneuvering on foreign policy in a shaky two power world (p. 73).

To defend Parsons' limited perspective, it is necessary to note that his theoretical interpretation was focused on the voting of one presidential election because that was the data to which he had access. He took that information and, as many theorists do, put his own framework to work to identify a possible explanation for human behavior. Interestingly, Parsons' data concluded that an election campaign itself "does not convince most voters. Instead, it tends to increase interest in the election and to encourage identification with" parties rather than candidates (Boskoff, 1959, p. 71-72).

Sociology Class: The Family Structure

Mathieu Deflem (2007) teaches his upper-level sociology course as a continuum of sociological theory taught at the introductory levels. He notes that while several theorists are discussed throughout his seminar, Talcott Parsons is one that receives a great deal of attention, as Parsons' work was the crux of sociological theory for decades; in addition, it links twentieth-century sociology between the classical perspective of the early 1900s to the contemporary one utilized today, fitting well in the middle of the two.

One of the ideas behind using film to depict Parsons' theoretical perspective is that structural functionalism (and theories in general) earn the consideration of criticism simply because they exist. A large criticism of Parsonian theory is that it is too abstract. As Deflem's students are seeing the teacher after already learning (probably in sociology 101) about this abstractness and its effect in the downfall of structural functionalism, Deflem spends time concentrating on the benefit of abstract ideas before presenting films.

I … find it particularly useful in the teaching of Parsons' theories to communicate to students the notion that the development of abstract theoretical ideas does not imply that such theorizing cannot be applied to the study of empirical phenomena. The exact opposite is true (Deflem, 2007, p. 4).

The teacher moves from the abstract to the specific and considers the family system that is a prominent focus within Parsons' theory.

A consideration worth noting is that Parson's theory — that everything.

(The entire section is 4969 words.)

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Реферат на тему Thoroughbred History Essay Research Paper Abstract

Thoroughbred History Essay, Research Paper

Abstract Selective breeding of English ponies with the Arabian, Turk and Barb stallions produced the modern Thoroughbreds, known for their high speed and stamina. The Thoroughbred horse can run faster than any other animal in the world, for any reasonable distance. The near optimal levels are established firstly by outcrossing the English ponies, with the three specified classes, to obtain the most desirable traits. Once the characteristics that produce a top line Thoroughbred have been established, they can be maintained, or raised to a new plateau, through the practices of nicking and linebreeding and the concept of additive genes. The History of Thoroughbreds The Thoroughbred was first established through the selective breeding of English ponies with the Arabian, Turk and Barb stallions during the 16th century. The first three know stallions that were bred to the developing breed were the Godophin Barb (1689), the Darley Arabian (1706), and the Byerly Turk (1724). Perhaps the most important three Thoroughbreds who contributed a high proportion of their genes to the modern American Thoroughbreds of today were: Matchum (1748), the grandson of Godophin Barb, Herold (1758), the great grandson of Darley Arabian, and Eclipse (1764), the great, great grandson of Byerly Turk. Matchum passed on approximately 5-6 percent of his genes, Herold contributed 17-18 percent and Eclipse passed on about 11-12 percent. The developing Thoroughbreds were bred with the three specific types of stallions to increase the probability of the traits influencing speed and stamina. Some promiscuous mating of the Thoroughbreds also occurred with the horses of Germany, Normandy, Flanders and Spain, establishing more desirable traits in their offspring. (Jones, 1982) Phenotypes In order to understand the features of Thoroughbreds which highly contributed to their amazing speed and stamina, a description of their early ancestors is necessary. The English ponies are of very short nature, consisting of very short legs and small bodies. Their deficiency in size is most likely due to natural selection in the severe environment of early Northern and Western Europe. Size, speed, stamina and form were improved upon by the introduction of Oriental blood, that of the Barb, Turk and Arabian (Sanders 1893). The Barb horses are tall, speedy and possess long legs and short, light bodies. The Turks consist of heavier bodies and shorter legs for fair endurance. The Arabians, of great endurance, display beauty of form and grace of motion. Some of the heavier horses from Normandy, Flanders and Germany may have played a role in the early breeding of the English ponies in an effort to increase their size (Sanders 1893). It is also possible that the Andalusians contributed their height somewhat down the line. (Jones, 1982) Linebreeding improved upon other characteristics important for Thoroughbred speed and stamina. Larger lung capacity and larger nose and throat air passages are important for the intake of vast amounts of oxygen and expulsion of great quantities of carbon dioxide. A large heart and a high concentration of hemoglobin in red blood cells is also important for sending the hard working leg muscles the oxygen needed for cellular respiration. Another important trait is the strength of tendons, ligaments and bone structures. This decreases the amount of injuries and therefore increases the career expectancy. (Jones, 1982) Inheritance Factors and Genetic Concepts Before domestication, speed and stamina was naturally selected. For example, the main “defense mechanism” used by horses to preserve their gene line was to simply outrun their competitors. Thus the slower horses were bred out. The switch from natural selection to selective breeding changed the modes of inheritance, yet kept the same desirable characteristics for speed and stamina.

Four significant factors that are involved in the selective breeding of Thoroughbreds are: outcrossing, nicking, additive genes and linebreeding. Outcrossing was the crossing of horses in unrelated families. This brought about the breed of Thoroughbreds. The English ponies were bred with the Arabian, Turk and Barb stallions. The genetic principle of the outcrossing was to produce hybrids whose genes would act complimentary to each other and consist of more desirable traits. Outcrossing is no longer used because any further outcrosses would only pollute the Thoroughbred gene pool. (Kieffer 1976) Once the breed of Thoroughbreds was established the practice of nicking occurred within the species. Nicking involves the breeding of Thoroughbreds to produce offspring with more desirable traits. This is done by using strong and weak points of different Thoroughbreds to complement each other. The resulting progeny having better qualities than their parents. (Jones, 1982) Another practice that arose in the breeding of Thoroughbreds was the concept of mating the best of one generation with each other. This emphasizes the additive gene concept. The additive gene principle consists of breeding two of the top line Thoroughbreds together in order to produce the best possible offspring. The concept of the additive gene implies that there is a base gene, which for instance is the lowest level at which a Thoroughbred can run. This speed level is increased with every additive gene. When breeding the “best” with the “best” you are accumulating more and more additive genes, resulting in faster and faster Thoroughbreds. A horses racing capacity has two main factors: the amount of inherited racing genes and the ability of a breeder to accurately identify the individuals that are truly genetically superior. (Kieffer, 1976) Lastly, linebreeding is practiced in Thoroughbreds. Thorough linebreeding causes Thoroughbreds to become more and more homozygotic, resulting in preservation of their more desirable characteristics. Continuous breeding of these horses produces higher endurance levels that are passed down to the upcoming generations. (Jones, 1982) Using these principles, the more desirable traits of Thoroughbreds are obtained. This establishes a higher, yet not optimal, level of speed and stamina. Continuous breeding, using these concepts, will bring one closer and closer to the “perfect” race horse. However, a breeder must remember that environmental factors effect the capability of a racehorse. The goal of selective breeding, in the Thoroughbreds, is to reach an optimal level of speed and stamina, but in order to do so, one must chose the most desirable traits according to the environmental factors. Conclusion The development of the Thoroughbred is due to a variety of fathering horses and genetic procedures. The English pony, Arabian, Turk and Barb blood all contributed to the overabundance of genes determining speed and stamina. This was achieved due to knowledge of the additive gene concept and through the processes of outcrossing, nicking and linebreeding. While evolution of the Thoroughbred has been greatly influenced by genetics, we must keep in mind that genes provide only potential for greatness, but the optimal environmental factors (nutrition, care, training, climate, etc.) is necessary for full realization of that potential. Bibliography Jones, W.E. (1982) Genetics and Horse Breeding. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia. Osborne, Walker D. (1971) The Thoroughbred World. Leon Amiel Publisher, Israel. Sanders, J. H. (1873) Horse-Breeding. J. H. Harris Publishing Co. Chicago. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Genetics and Horse-Breeding. Royal Dublin Society, Ballsbridge, (1976)

Research method ch02 structure of thesis

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Research method ch02 structure of thesis

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