Category: Critical thinking
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Four assumptions interfering with critical thinking that occur often are the assumption that others familiar with the problem or issue will share your enthusiasm for your ideas; that small imperfections in your idea will not affect people’s acceptance of it; the assumption that if your idea is clear to you, it will be clear to others; and the assumption that the people who stand to benefit most from your idea will accept it automatically without any persuasion on your part.
Others that are faced with the same problem as you might share the same amount of enthusiasm in your idea. They could have already given the situation some thought and have their own ideas about how to solve the problem. They may begin to defend their idea and turn the problem into an issue or deepen the existing issue.
Assuming that small imperfections will not affect people's acceptance can also affect peoples critical thinking. People who disagree with you ideas will use any mistake in your plan to discredit your idea. A way to prevent this is by using your ego in this situation. Detailed preparation will reduce if not eliminate the amount of flaws in your plan.
Assuming that if your idea is clear to you, it will be clear to others. This is not true. I have tried to express an idea that seems very clear to me, yet I can tell that I lost everyone by the confused look on everyone's face. It is the speakers job to ensure that his or her audience will understand the message. This requires preparation to identify the audience so the message will be clear to them while still accurately conveying the main idea.
The assumption that the people who stand to benefit most from your idea will accept it automatically without any persuasion on your part. Just because you go through great lengths to give your audience what they want does not mean that they will sign right up without wanting to know more about your idea. You must be prepared to sell your idea to the audience using.
Below is an essay on "Assumptions" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.
What are assumptions? How do you think assumptions might interfere with critical thinking? What might you do to avoid making assumptions in your thinking?
Assumptions in the text are to take something for granted, to expect that things will be a certain way because they have been that way in the past or because you want them to be that way. I feel that assumptions might interfere with my critical thinking because I might assume something because I expect it to go my way or it’s something that I’m use to instead of realizing it can go either way. When it comes to me I’m quick to assume when I’ve been through the same situation so right away I assume it’s going to go the same way. Just because it went a certain way before does not mean it will again. I need to think clearly and expect the unexpected at times. Some ways to avoid making assumptions in my thinking is by avoiding assumptions that were mention in the text. They are “The assumption that others familiar with the problem or issue will share your enthusiasm for your ideas”, The assumption that small imperfections in your ideas will not affect people’s acceptance of it”, The assumption that if your idea is clear to you, it will be clear to others”, and “The assumption that the people who stand to benefit most from your idea will accept it automatically without any persuasion on your part”. Reading about these made me realize that these are common ones that we go through a lot. I need to take into consideration how not to let assumptions interfere with critical thinking.
What are fallacies? How are fallacies used in written, oral, and visual arguments? What might you do to avoid fallacies in your thinking?
In the text it says fallacies is deception, guile, trickery, trick. It has other sayings as well but that’s mostly what it is. It is used in written, oral, and visual arguments by using different ways to change your way of thinking one way or the other. In other words it’s trying to persuade whoever.
Associate Level Material
Assumptions and Fallacies
Write a 150- to 200-word response to each of the following sets of questions:
• What are assumptions? How do you think assumptions might interfere with critical thinking? What might you do to avoid making assumptions in your thinking?
When you make an assumption to something, you’re assuming. It’s a way of thinking ahead and predicting the future, past, or present. I think assumptions out weigh the critical thinking in a sense. I know in my head, when I make assumptions I continue to think more about them. Although, sometimes helps with critically thinking. Assuming can also play a big role in critically thinking too. Ways that I can avoid making assumptions in my critically thinking are try and consider all options. I will also try to not let the past affect my thinking. A lot of times I assume things. When I do, sometimes, it turns out to be the wrong thing. So I definitely need to work harder on trying to not assume a lot of things. The past is usually what messes with my head. That is what I normally go by. I know I shouldn’t it’s just a habit. It’s something I need to break from.
• What are fallacies? How are fallacies used in written, oral, and visual arguments? What might you do to avoid fallacies in your thinking?
Fallacies are just things that people think to be true, but are actually not true. For example, most people think that winter is the cause of the earth moving away from the sun. This is a fallacy because the earth is actually closest to the sun in the winter, it has to do with the tilt of the earth's axis. Fallacies used in written, oral, and visual arguments are used in logic and rhetoric, a fallacy is usually an improper argumentation in reasoning often resulting in a misconception or presumption. The information should be reliable to avoid fallacies in your thinking. Make sure you do all the research on the information for which you intake. Be sure that it is reliable.
Assumptions and Fallacies
Critical and Creative Thinking
Axia College of University of Phoenix
What are assumptions?
Assumptions: To take something for granted, to expect that things will be a certain way because they have in the past or because you want them to be that way (Ch 10 p. 186). A natural occurrence in thinking that takes place in everyday life. Assumption will places you on unsteady ground and is leading. An assumption opens the door to flaws in one's action and judgment. Even though that in making everyday assumption, like the lights will work and the water will run out of the faucet, there is an equal chance that they may not work but very reasonable assumptions to make. I think that assumption are the same way, they may and may not be valid. It is a risk not worth taking.
How do you think assumptions might interfere with critical thinking?
Assumption can effect critical thinking by leading you to think one thing and blocking you from the truth or facts. They will stop you from fully investigating the facts and the possibilities that something else be factual. It will stop you from making sure that your ideas are explained in detail so that their understood. Assumption can also hinder you in evaluating and refining your ideas. You should always make a special effort to identify assumptions you may not have detected previously. The reason is not only that unexpected outcomes can cause you embarrassment but also, and more importantly, that what you take for granted you will not examine critically. Assumptions obstruct the evaluation process (Ch. 10 p. 185-186). It is the small assumption that are made that goes unnoticed. Critically evaluation is a process that is not to be missed and in doing so will eliminate any unnecessary evaluation that could mislead information.
What might you do to avoid making assumptions in your thinking?
The best approach to take in avoiding assumptions while thinking is to challenge my thoughts. Always think of what if's to every situation. I think that to every approach there is another approach. I have to keep in mind to ask myself questions that will aid in avoiding assumption along the way. Some example questions are, will others familiar with the problem or issue share in my enthusiasm in the issue. Small imperfections in ideas will not affect people's acceptance of it. This idea should be clear to others now that it is clear to me. Will everyone should accept this idea especially those who will gain from it (p. 186). What will also be helpful in the critical thinking process to avoid assumptions is to stay open minded and not always think from one perspective only but think from outside in. Critics every thought so that flaws and assumptions can be detected.
What are fallacies?
Fallacies are dirty tricks of those who want to gain an advantage. They are stratagems for gaining influence, advantage, and power (p.50). It is a deceptive or misleading argument, a sophism. In logic esp. a flaw, material or formal, which vitiates a syllogism. Also sophistical reasoning, sophistry. A delusive notion, an error, esp. one founded on false reasoning. Also, a condition of being deceived, error. Sophistical nature, unsoundness (of arguments); erroneousness, delusion. To be a human thinker is often to be a "self-deceived" thinker hence a "fallacious" thinker. However, to think of ourselves as believing what is false (or as defending and justifying prejudices, stereotypes, and misconceptions) is a painful thought. The human mind has developed ways to protect itself from pain (p.6). Fallacies are defense mechanisms that deny or distort reality. Fallacies
The disciplined process in which you analyze, reflect and apply prior knowledge (making connections and using schema) to get the best answer possible. your explanation of the … ways in which aspects of structure/style/language contribute to the meaning/effect/impact of the chosen text(s) There is also a sequential, convergent nature to critical thinking. Each stage or step of the thought process must be analyzed and found to be correct before moving on to the next step and the next step. And so on toward a purposeful end. This is a structured process. For example: "If A then B, if B then C, if C then D." If each step is reasoned and correct then also: "if A then D follows." This patterned process is different than creative thinking or intuitive thinking. (MORE)
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Former school teacher and perpetual student
Learning how to think critically helps a writer know when their writing is good or bad and helps them to edit what they have written honestly and properly.
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Assumptions interfere with our critical thinking by causing a mind set about the situation or subject we have heard or experienced. It is an intellectual act by which one conc … ludes that something is true in light of something else's being true, or seeming to be true. Assumptions interfere with conclusions to the issues or situations. All too often something that is openly apparent to one may not be openly apparent to another and therefore creating assumption that does not represent clarity. (MORE)
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Last month I was introduced to the term “tailgate meeting.” This meeting doesn’t require beer nor do you have to convene in the parking lot. Instead a tailgate meeting is the post meeting reflection. As catchy as the tailgate meeting sounds, I like the visual of bookends better.
A meeting cannot stand-alone. There are those who prepare before the meeting and those that reflect on the meeting after the fact. Both of the components are important.
Preparing is essential, even if you aren’t leading the meeting. Anyone attending a meeting can prepare for a meeting using the Critical Thinking RED Model .
Recognize assumptions. You should review what the meeting is about and take a few moments to review an agenda when you can. Acknowledge what your assumptions are before walking into the meeting. Recognizing what assumptions you have walking into the meeting may make it easier to try and set them aside.
Evaluate arguments. Prior to the meeting, make a few notes about the points you want to bring up. Remember you use multiple resources to support your points. Preparing these notes before the meeting will allow you to best support your point but may also allow you to remain objective. Remain objective and don’t allow your emotions to form these points.
Draw conclusions. You should form an objective for the meeting.
The meeting is the meat of this equation. Incorporating the RED Model & critical thinking techniques into a meeting is a longer conversation to have but remember:
After the meeting you should take a few minutes to reflect. Again, you can use the RED Model to do so.
Recognize assumptions. Reflect on the meeting overall. Did the meeting remain objective? Do you stick to the purpose? Were people sharing opinions or was everyone able to rely on facts?
Evaluate arguments. Reflect on what was being said. Were you persuaded? Did the meeting suffer from groupthink? Did everyone agree with the boss out of “respect.” Did people get emotional? Who became emotional? Why do you think they became emotional?
Draw conclusions. Reflect on the decisions made or the game plan. How did you weigh the data? Did you hold all data to the same criteria? Did you bring in multiple resources?
The benefit of having a bookend meeting – that is a meeting designated with time to prepare and time to productively reflect – is that you get the most out of the meeting. Preparing for the meeting allows you to actively participate, understand what your personal objectives for attending are and allows you to think about how to meet them. Reflecting after the meeting gives you an idea of how effective the meeting was. This will better prepare you for future meetings but will also give you a sense of what additional legwork needs to be done before the next meeting and to accomplish your goals.
Editor’s Note: This is a guest post by Elizabeth Pauker-Silva
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